Hum 111 and Psy 201 Week 8 Dqs

After watching President Kennedy’s inaugural address and supposing that I opposed President Kennedy’s ideas, the steps that I would take to evaluate his arguments can be found in this week’s chapter on p. 219 and are as follows: • Step 1: After fully listening to President Kennedy’s argument, I would identify any hidden premises that might have been included in the argument. If any part of the argument was complex, I would make sure to break down all parts of the argument that were expressed in order to better evaluate it.  Step 2: I would examine each part of the argument for any errors affecting the truth; I would ask pointed questions about the argument, taking nothing for granted. I would identify any instances of either/or thinking, avoiding the issue, over generalizing, oversimplifying, double standard, shifting the burden of proof, or irrational appeal. • Step 3: write me an essay uk I would then examine his argument for any validity of errors; in other words, I would consider any reasoning of President Kennedy’s thinking that would link his conclusions to premises. Following, I would then determine whether President Kennedy’s conclusions were legitimate or illegitimate.  Step 4: If one or more errors were found in President Kennedy’s argument, I would request the President to revise his argument to eliminate them. I would argue that the changes that needed to be made should depend and be based off of the errors that were already found in his argument. University of Phoenix. (2009). The Art of Thinking. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, HUM_111 website. • Double Standard: Basically, a double standard occurs when someone is judged by an action differently than those judged by the same action because of who they are or what position they may hold.

Double standard is a form of a prejudice where someone’s race, color, job status, religion, or relationship is judged based off of the action they took. • Irrational Appeal: An irrational appeal is defined almost exactly as it is stated: an appeal that is “irrational”. People who are guilty of this error affecting the truth make their appeals solely based of off traditional thinking or, make their appeals because they want to follow the same trend that everyone else seems to follow.

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Irrational appeal can also be the case because someone of authority is making the appeal, therefore not wanting to question the conclusion of the experts. • Illegitimate Conclusion: Illegitimate conclusions are those that do not follow logically from the premises preceding it. A perfect example of this error affecting validity would be to say that because some politicians are corrupt, all politicians must be corrupt as well; hence, an illegitimate conclusion. When it comes to evaluating an argument to find errors and to ensure the argument’s validity, it is necessary to take the proper steps as discussed on p. 19 in Ch. 12 of The Art of Thinking. The first step in evaluating an argument is to fully express the argument on the position the argument is taking, identify any hidden premises, and express all parts of any complexities of the argument. The second step is to examine each part of the argument for possible errors affecting the truth (oversimplifying, shifting burden of proof, etc. ). The third step in evaluating an argument is considering the reasoning that links the conclusion to the premises. Then determine whether the conclusion is legitimate or illegitimate.

The fourth and final step in evaluating an argument is only necessary if one or more errors are found within the argument. If one or more errors are found within the argument, the argument must be revised to eliminate them. When Complex matters are brought into discussion, especially when concerned about cause and effect matters, oversimplifying can distort the argument that is being presented. Oversimplifying can be identified simply by measuring the amount of truth within the statement. Taking the time in finding the most important aspects of possible issues being ignored in the tatements made in the argument is also a way to identify oversimplifications. When the ignored aspects are identified, even before the argument is stated in some cases, deciding the best expression of the matter that does not distort the reality of the matter is the best way to prevent and overcome (correct) oversimplification. Simplifying instructions and conclusions are especially helpful when it comes to explaining complex matters. Only when simplifying goes  to the point that the information is distorted from reality and misdirects the readers or listeners that oversimplifying becomes a problem.

Personally, I have been guilty of oversimplifying on many occasions, and most of the time it was because I wanted to avoid the most important issues that I ended up oversimplifying my argument and conclusion, so I could hurry up and get the argument over with. Psy 201 According to module 34 of Psychology and Your Life, the major classifications of psychological disorders are anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, dissociative disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, personality disorders, childhood disorders, and other disorders.

Schizophrenia accounts for the largest percentage of mental disorders within treatment facilities. People with schizophrenia are also the least likely to be able to recover from their psychological difficulties. Schizophrenia is a class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs. The different types of schizophrenia are disorganized (hebephrenic) schizophrenia, paranoid schizophrenia, catatonic schizophrenia, undifferentiated schizophrenia, and residual schizophrenia.

There are many different ways to approach treatment for schizophrenia; however, depending on the perspective of the disorder depends on the type of treatment that will be administered. From a biological perspective, drugs that block dopamine action in brain pathways is said to be highly effective in reducing the symptoms of schizophrenia. For the most part, it is the functions of the brain that produce the voices and hallucinations that people with schizophrenia experience, and therefore medication is about the only way to control those voices and hallucinations.

Since no permanent cure is available to treat schizophrenia, medication can only limit the episodes to a degree, but the individual still has to live with this personality disorder. • Abnormality as a deviation from the ideal: “Concentrates on the psychological consequences of the behavior for the individual”*. If the individual’s behavior has a sense of personal discomfort, anxiety, or guilt – even if the behavior is harmful to others in some way, this behavior is considered to be abnormal.  Abnormality as a legal concept: As far as the judicial system is concerned, the distinction between normal and abnormal behavior is defined by the term insanity. The definition of insanity does however vary by state – to – state, one jurisdiction to another. Some states define insanity as not understanding the difference between what is right and what is wrong, while other states require substantial proof proving that the individual is incapable of understanding the criminality of their behavior or not having control over their own behavior.

Psychoanalytic, behavioral, and cognitive are all different types of perspectives of abnormality. The psychoanalytic perspective attests that abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts. The behavioral perspective suggests that it is behavior itself that is solely responsible for its own abnormality. The cognitive perspective is different from any other perspective, which typically falls under traditional standards of belief suggesting that abnormal behavior is the result of something external in behavior.

The cognitive perspective assumes that a person’s thoughts and beliefs (cognitions) are the result of their abnormal behavior. Anxiety disorders are internal/bodily disturbances in which there is no external cause for the distress. Somatoform disorders take on a physical form of distress, but in which there is no medical reasoning for the distress itself, other than it is a disorder. Mood disorders are purely psychological in nature, in which the individual goes from one extreme mood to the other, in most cases. Examples: • Anxiety Disorders:

Experiencing long-term, persistent and uncontrollable worry is an example of a generalized anxiety disorder. Being scared of creepy, crawly things or reptiles is called Herpetophobia. Being scared of the word yellow or the color yellow is called Xanthophobia. A phobia is a form and example of an anxiety disorder. • Somatoform Disorders: If someone goes to the hospital saying that they cannot move their legs but, after x-rays and many other test, it is determined that there is no biological reasoning behind the reason why, and determining the symptoms completely psychological; this is considered to be a conversion disorder.

People who are in constant fear of their health, and a preoccupation with their health show symptoms of hypochondriasis. It is almost as if the person seems like they are lying about the illness, but what most people do not understand is that they are only misunderstanding their own thoughts and fears. • Mood Disorders: Overwhelming thoughts of suicide or feeling useless to the world, lack of emotional energy, and not wanting socialize are all sign of the mood disorder known as major depression. People who alternate between manic mania episodes and manic depressive episodes show symptoms of bipolar disorder.



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