Lead storage batteries

August 1, 2017 Engineering

1. Lead

Lead was likely one of the first metals to be produced by adult male, being known since 3500 B.C. , in understanding with archeological finds done in Egypt. The oldest lead piece is in the British Museum and day of the months from 3800 A.D..


Lead is a metal. Its symbol is Pb and atomic figure is 82. It is soft, ductile hapless metal and besides considered to be one of the heavy metals.


Lead was likely one of the first metals to be produced by adult male, being known since 3500 B.C. , in understanding with archeological finds done in Egypt. The oldest lead piece is in the British Museum and day of the months from 3800 A.D..

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The mode in which prehistoric people extracted lead from its minerals is non well-known. However, there are traces of really fundamental furnaces, done of rock, where these people heated up the lead minerals with balefires ( that burned wood and coal ) to pull out the component. There is besides grounds that the Chinese already produced metallic lead about 3000 B.C. , and that Phoenicians had geographic expeditions near to sedimentations in Spain, in 2000 A.C.. In the fifth century B.C. the Romans made an extended geographic expedition of lead sedimentations in the whole Iberian Peninsula.

In the period 700 A.D. to 1000 A.D. the German mines of lead and Ag, in the Rhine vale and in the Hartz mountains, were really of import, merely as those of Saxony, Silesia and Bohemia in the thirteenth century.

In the seventeenth century, the lead metalworkss flourished in Great-Britain, specially those located in Wales and Derbyshire. [ 1 ]

1.2 Characteristic

Lead has a blue white coloring material when newly cut but tarnishes to a dull greyish coloring material when exposed to air.It has a glistening chrome Ag luster when melted into a liquid.

1.3 OccurrenceLead is non really abundant, its comparative rates being smaller than those of other metals as the aluminum, Fe, Mg, Ti, Ni, etc.. However, it is more abundant than Co, Sn, Cd or gold.

The more of import lead minerals are galena ( PbS ) , anglesite ( PbSO4 ) and cerussite ( PbCO3 ) , severally with 86 % , 68 % and 77 % of lead. Other minerals that contain lead are linarite, pyromorphite, mimetite, vanadinite, crocoisoite and wulfenite.

The chief sedimentations of lead minerals are located in the USA, Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, Australia, Zambia, South Africa, Germany, Spain, Sweden, Italy and Serbia. [ 1 ]

1.4 Uses

  1. It is used in edifice building, lead acid batteries, slugs and shootings, weights, and is portion of solder, pewter, fusible metals and radiation shields.
  2. It is used as a coloring component in ceramic glazes notably in the colorss ruddy and xanthous.
  3. It is often used in polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) plastic, which coats electrical cords.
  4. Lead is used as electrode in the procedure of electrolysis

1.5 Biological Action

By and large, lead compounds are noxious for the animate beings. The consequence of the soaking up of the component in workss does non look serious. However, this accumulate lead will be absorbed by the animate beings in instance of consumption. That is why lead compounds are non used in pesticides or insect powders.

Lead and its sulfide are incapable of soaking up, and are considered practically innocuous. However, the soluble salts, such as the chloride, the nitrate, the ethanoate, etc. are really toxicant. The chief poisoning cause with lead is the exposure to bluess and dusts of its compounds. The poisoning symptoms are enteric mal-function, strong abdominal strivings, diarrhoea, appetite loss, sickness, purging and spasms

1.6 Properties of Lead:

?Density of Lead =11.3437gm/cm3

? Melting Point=327.35OC

?Boiling Point=1515oC

?Bulk Modulus =0.44?106Mbar ? Heat conductivity=0.081cal/cm-s-OC

?Specific Heat =0.03046 cal/g-k

? Heat of merger =6.26cal/gm

?Electrical electric resistance =20.648µ?-cm

?Tensile strength =2000psi

?Young ‘s Modulus = 2.56?106psi

?Crystalline Form is Face-centred cubic,

?Electronic constellation = 6s26p2

With Lattice changeless 0.4939nm

?Lead exhibit the oxidization province of +2 matching to loss of the two P negatrons, in most of its common compounds. In this oxidization Lead is by and large Basic the oxidization province of +4 besides occurs and in this oxidization province Lead is more acidic.

1.7 Forms of Lead

Forms of Lead exist in both organic and inorganic signifiers.

Inorganic lead

The lead found in old pigment, dirt, and assorted merchandises described below is inorganic lead. Leaded gasolene fumes contributed to ambient inorganic lead taint. For this ground, the focal point of this papers is on inorganic lead.

Organic Lead

Leaded gasolene contained organic lead before it was burned ; nevertheless, since the riddance of lead from gasolene in the U.S. starting in 1976, exposure to organic lead is by and large limited to an occupational context. However, organic lead can be more toxic than inorganic lead because the organic structure more readily absorbs it. Potential exposures to organic lead should be taken really earnestly. [ 2a ]

2. Battery

2.1 Introduction

Much energy is stored by nature in chemical compounds ( combinations of elements ) . Coal, wood, and oil have enormous shops of energy which are released as heat when these compounds are burned. Oxygen and H have so much energy that they explode when they combine. The lineman is interested in these – substances merely because he can acquire some of this energy as voltage. [ 3 ]

Let go ofing electrical energy from chemical energy is surprisingly simple. If two dissimilar metals i.e. Cu and Zn, for illustration – are placed in certain chemical solutions, an emf consequences. This is the rule employed in all cells and batteries – a battery is merely two or more cells connected together.

2.2 History

The name “ battery ” was coined by Benjamin Franklin for an agreement of multiple Leyden jars ( an early type of capacitance ) after a battery of cannon. Strictly, a battery is a aggregation of two or more cells, but in popular usage battery frequently refers to a individual electrical cell.

An early signifier of electrochemical battery called the Baghdad battery may hold been used in antiquity. However, the modern development of batteries started with the Voltaic heap, invented by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800. [ 4 ]

2.3 Definition

A battery is a device for change overing chemical energy into electrical energy. Batteries can dwell of a individual Gur cell or a series of galvanic cells joined to each other. ( In a Gur cell, electrical energy is produced as the consequence of a chemical reaction between two different metals immersed in a solution, normally a liquid. ) Batteries can be found everyplace in the universe around us, from the elephantine batteries that provide electrical energy in ballistic capsule to the illumination batteries that power wirelesss and penlights.

The right usage of the term battery is reserved for groups of two or more galvanic cells. The lead storage battery found in cars, for illustration, contains six Gur cells. However, in common use, a individual cell is frequently referred to as a battery. For illustration, the common dry cell battery found in torchs is truly a individual Gur cell.

A rechargeable battery ( Storage battery ) is a group of one or more secondary cells. Rechargeable batteries use electrochemical reactions that are electrically reversible.

A group of reversible of rechargeable secondary cells moving as a unit is called secondary battery. Storage battery: -A Gur battery that shops electric charge.

2.4 Types of batteries:

Batteries are divided into two general groups:

Primary batteries:

A primary battery is one designed to be used merely one time. When the battery has run down ( produced all the energy it can ) , it is discarded.

Secondary batteries ( or cells ) :

Secondary batteries, on the other manus, can be recharged and reused. Primary batteries are designed to be used until the electromotive force is excessively low to run a given device and so discarded. Secondary batteries have many particular design characteristics, every bit good as peculiar stuffs for the electrodes that permit them to be reconstituted ( recycled ) . After partial or complete discharge, they can be recharged by DC electromotive force and current to their original province. While this original province is normally non restored wholly, the loss per rhythm in commercial batteries is merely a little fraction of 1 per centum even under varied conditions.

2.5 Uses of Rechargeable Batteries:

They are used for applications such as:

?Automobile starting motors

?Portable consumer devices

?Light vehicles

?Uninterruptible power Supplies

?Emerging Application in intercrossed electric vehicles and electric vehicles are driving the engineering to better cost, cut down weight, and increase life-time


3.1 Discovery of Lead Storage Batteries:

Gaston Plante ( 1834-1889 ) discovered the lead -acid battery

Observation of Gaston Plante:

When he had allowed the current to go through for some clip and so disconnected the battery, the Lead home bases acted like a battery on their ain.

The home base that had been connected to the positive pole of the battery is called Anode and was at a higher potency than the home base that had been connected to the negative pole of the battery, called Cathode. Now current flowed in the opposite way. The Lead home base observed to roll up a bed of a white substance, Lead sulfate, as this happened. When the current eventually stopped the rhythm could be repeated by reconnecting the power beginning. [ 7 ]

3.2 Working of lead storage battery

Inside a lead storage battery is a series of home bases. One-half of the home bases are made of lead dioxide and the other half are made of a squashy signifier of lead. The home bases are bathed in a solution of sulfuric acid which serves as an electrolyte ( a chemical solution that conducts electricity ) . Two stations extend to the exterior of the battery through sealed gaps in the battery wall. One of the stations — -the negative station — -is connected to the lead home bases, and the other — -the positive station — -to the lead dioxide plates.

Sulphuric acid, chemically, is composed of two H atoms, a sulfur atom and four O atoms. Inside the battery, the sulfuric acid molecules are in solution with H2O and so are dissociated. This means that the sulfur atom with the four O atoms attached to it are in the H2O, separated from the H atoms. The sulfur with the four O atoms is called a sulfate ion and has a dual negative charge. The free H atom is called a H ion and has a positive charge. ( An ion is merely an atom or a molecule with a positive or negative charge. )

The battery performs its map through a series of chemical reactions affecting these ions. In the status described in the introductory paragraph, the battery is charged and has the capacity to provide an electric current through overseas telegrams connected to the two stations. As the battery supplies electric current, the sulfuric acid reacts by giving up its sulfate ions to the lead and lead dioxide plates. This forms lead sulfate that deposits on the home bases. While this procedure occurs, the sulfuric acid concentration is diminishing, and the battery is dispatching.

Supplying an electric current to the battery instead than pulling it out — -such as what happens in an car when the engine is running — -reverses the chemical reaction and the battery recharges. When recharging, the lead and lead dioxide home bases give up sulphate ions to the electrolyte solution. This restores the sum of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte solution and restores the lead and lead dioxide home bases to their charged status.

[ A ] Fig1.1 Working of Lead storage battery

3.3 Chemical Chemical reaction:

During discharging:

At Anode:

Pb ( s ) + SO42- ( aq ) a PbSO4 ( s ) + 2e-

At Cathode:

PbO2 ( s ) + SO42- ( aq ) + 4H+ ( aq ) +2e- a PbSO4 ( s ) + 2H2O

Overall Chemical reaction: Pb ( s ) +PbO2 ( s ) + 4H+ ( aq ) + 2SO42- ( aq ) a2PbSO4 ( s ) + 2H2O

[ 9 ] During Recharging:

At Anode:

PbSO4 ( s ) + 2e- a Pb ( s ) + SO42- ( aq )

At Cathode:

PbSO4 ( s ) + 2H2O a PbO2 ( s ) + SO42- ( aq ) + 4H+ ( aq ) +2e-

Overall Chemical reaction: 2PbSO4 ( s ) + 2H2O a Pb ( s ) +PbO2 ( s ) + 4H+ ( aq ) + 2SO42- ( aq )

3.4 Defects of Lead Storage batteries:

The followers is a short sum-up of the chief public presentation defects, or “bottlenecks” of bing lead acid batteries.

  1. Life: Lead acid batteries suffer from a limited utile life due chiefly to two factors:
    1. Corrosion of the positive grid B ) Sulfation on the negative grid.
  2. The corrosion failure manner is chiefly due to the fact that the positive battery home bases are required to execute their map as “electron collectors” in an incredibly harsh, acidic environment.But most of batteries are often required to run in high-temperature conditions, which have the consequence of speed uping corrosion. To extenuate the effects of corrosion, battery makers have focused their research attempts on developing corrosion-resistant lead metals and grid fabrication procedures. Although betterments have been attained in this mode, corrosion remains one of the most common failure manners of lead acid batteries.
  3. Sulphation failures result from a lead acid battery being kept in a dismissed province for a period of clip. In this state of affairs, the lead sulfate formed in the normal chemical discharge reaction, re-crystallizes and hardens. This non-conductive lead sulfate blocks the conductive way required for reloading. Once they are in this crystalline province, the sulfate crystals are really hard to change over back to the charged lead and lead oxide required to bring forth the battery ‘s energy-producing chemical reaction. Even a well-maintained battery will, over clip, lose some of its capacity due to the continued growing of big sulfate crystals that are non wholly reabsorbed during the bear downing rhythm. The sulfate crystals are besides larger in volume than the original paste, so they can really automatically deform the home base or grid by forcing the material apart. Sulfation is a common job in recreational vehicle applications where extended off-season storage leads to dead batteries that will non accept a recharge.
  4. Cycle Life: Cycle life is a term that refers to the figure of deep discharges that a battery can digest without significantly decreasing its utile life. As users have become more familiar with rechargeable batteries in cell phones and laptop computing machines, they have become comfy with conveying these batteries down to an about wholly dismissed province and conveying them back to full capacity with a recharge of merely a few hours. In contrast, conventional lead acid batteries, because of built-in design and use restrictions, are merely capable of managing discharges down to 20 to 30 per centum of full capacity. The figure and frequence of these deep discharges can take to a drastic decrease in the battery ‘s overall life span. A automobilist who forgets to turn his or her headlamps off and has to hold the battery recharged because it ‘s wholly dead most frequently ne’er realizes that the battery has suffered a deep-discharge “injury” that will significantly shorten its utile life span. Many new merchandises that have historically used lead acid batteries are now being necessitating a important addition in rhythm life. A noteworthy illustration is the intercrossed electric vehicle, which requires high-rate discharges at mid to low state-of-charge conditions. Such conditions are a incubus for interior decorators of conventional lead acid batteries, as their merchandises merely do non possess sufficient overall length of service under such conditions. This has left auto companies no alternate but to travel with much more expensive options such as Nickel-Metal Hydride, and even to get down experimentation with Lithium Ion engineering.
  5. Vibration: Having worked for old ages at CAT, the prime maker of heavy equipment, Kurt Kelley was peculiarly sensitive to developing a design that could minimise the inauspicious effects of quiver and rugged usage. Conventional lead grids generate a great sum of “back and forth” force when subjected to quiver and jarring. Although stairss ( such as anchor-bonding ) have been taken by battery makers to cut down these effects, the root cause is the mass of the heavy lead grids. Batteries subjected to uninterrupted, terrible quiver literally tear themselves to pieces, internally, over clip.
  6. Recharge Time: Typically a lead-acid battery merchandise will necessitate a recharge clip significantly longer than the advanced stuffs seen in portable merchandises. A complete charging of a lead-acid battery, such as found in electric vehicles, can take from 8 to 16 hours. In the instance of Uninterrupted Power Supplies ( UPS ) , a rapid charge rate is indispensable to choice public presentation, every bit good as cut downing the related capital outgos for back up equipment while bear downing takes topographic point on initial batteries put into service.
  7. Size and Weight: Although lead-acid batteries are the cheapest energy storage merchandises in the universe to industry, the extended usage of lead gives them an exceptionally big footmark and weight. Again, like other public presentation facets of this industry ‘s merchandises, this limits their signifier factors and overall use in new merchandise designs. In add-on, a traditional lead battery home base ( there are over 100 of these in a typical automotive lead acid get downing battery ) on norm merely utilizes 30 % to 40 % of its surface country over the life of the battery. This creates even more inefficiencies of power-to-weight ratios.

3.5 Alteration:

For better end product

  1. An Sn or Pb/Sn alloy heat-treated at 170° C. or higher for a given period of clip is applied to the surface of a aggregator to do a lead storage battery which is improved in footings of its chargeability upon left over dismissed.
  2. In conformity with a new method of projecting electrode grids for electric lead storage batteries in a cast, premature hardening of the thaw is prevented before the terminal of the mold filling period by an extra warming pulsation applied to the thaw during the mold filling procedure, every bit good as by the usage of a good heat carry oning mold stuff. The chilling down to the unmolding temperature is besides accelerated. Because of the short dwell clip of the lead within the cast, there at the same time consequences a short machine cycling period. The separate pulsation warming of the thaw is sooner carried out by an initiation warming setup, the jumping field of the inductance located within the cast walls bring forthing heat through eddy current production within the molten molded organic structure.

3.6 New expression:

Time for dispatching a battery

Mr Peukert foremost devised a expression that showed numerically how dispatching at higher rates really removes more power from the battery than a simple computation would demo it to make. For case discharging at 10 As does non take twice every bit much power as discharging at 5 As. It removes somewhat more. Therefore a 100 amp hr battery ( at the 20hr evaluation ) could supply 5 As for 20 hours, but it could non supply 10 As for 10 hours. The available clip would really be somewhat less.

“ Mr Peukert foremost devised a expression for… . ” . This is because he is by and large regarded as being the adult male who foremost discovered the phenomenon. This is wrong. The consequence had been known for many old ages beforehand and was foremost noted by a certain Mr Schroder several old ages before Peukert devised his expression. Mr Peukert merely quantified it in a manner that had ne’er been done earlier. However the consequence is now known as Peukert ‘s consequence, the expression for ciphering it is known as Peukert ‘s equation, and the of import figure, alone to each battery type that is put into the equation in order to execute the computation, is known as Peukert ‘s advocate. Note that Peukert ‘s advocate alterations as the battery ages.

So Peukert ‘s equation is: T = C/ ( I/ ( C/R ) ) n * ( R/C )

Where: I = the discharge current

T = the clip

C = capacity of the battery

n = Peukert ‘s advocate for that peculiar battery type

R = the battery hr evaluation, i.e. 100 hr evaluation, 20 hr evaluation, 10 hr evaluation etc.


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