Under research methodological analysis, all the relevant findings of this research undertaking will be included and presented in this chapter. A well-designed research methodological analysis is really of import as it will hold impact on truth of the research consequence. The contents of chapter 3 included research design, population, sample and sampling process, informations aggregation methods, variables and measuring and informations analysis techniques.
The chief intent of this research is to analyze the relationship between the three factors ( attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control ) and consumer purchase purpose towards organic nutrient merchandises in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A quantitative research design is preferred as its chief aim is to tauten up and modify cognition foremost gained in a basically qualitative manner which is consistent with the research ( Bryman, 1984 ) . In add-on, it possesses advantages of accent on fixed measurings, hypothesis testing and a less drawn-out signifier of fieldwork engagement is needed.
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Deductive attack was used in this research by employment of study scheme for the intent of proving. Survey scheme is preferred as it is cheap, yet allows huge sum of informations to be collected from a ample mark population ( Saunders, Lewis, & A ; Thornhill, 2009 ) . This research adopted a cross-sectional study design since it is interested in depicting the features of a population at one point of clip. The unit of analysis for the survey will be each single client. Self-administered questionnaires incorporating close-ended and graduated tables to matrix inquiries will be used as a primary informations aggregation method.
Data Collection Methods
Primary informations is mentioning to informations that being collected for the first clip by researches on the interested variables for the specific intent of survey ( Sekaran, 2003 ) . The advantages of utilizing primary informations are that the information collected will be first-hand, and can non be found elsewhere unlike secondary informations. In mention to the research ‘s inquiries and hypotheses, primary information was collected by the manner of administering self-administered questionnaires.
Secondary informations is informations which have been collected and analyzed by person else ( Zikmund, Babin, Carr, & A ; Griffin, 2009 ) . This research has referred to many secondary informations beginnings such as diaries articles, books, and paperss from web site. Most of the diary articles were found in on-line subscribed databases such as Emerald, ScienceDirect and so on. The chief advantage of secondary informations is it can assist to heighten the decisions derived from primary informations ( Nicholson & A ; Bennett, 2008 ) . The clip spent on roll uping secondary informations will besides well less compare to primary informations ( Sorensen, Sabroe, & A ; Olsen, 1996 ) .
This research aims to analyze the factors impacting consumers purchase purpose towards organic nutrient merchandises in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The mark population for this research survey is Klang Valley occupants including bing purchasers and possible purchasers of organic nutrient merchandises.
Sampling Frame and Sampling Location
A sampling frame is a list that consists of a set of elements which enable research worker to choose a sample from the mark population. Due to researcher barely has direct entree to the full involvement population, a research worker must trust on a sampling frame to stand for all of the elements of the population ( Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & A ; Liao, 2004 ) . The sampling frame for this research is all Klang Valley occupants. However, a list that consists of cardinal inside informations of Klang Valley ‘s occupants such as name, reference or phone Numberss is unable to obtain.
Klang Valley is defined as an country that covers 10 municipalities, runing from the highest population to the lowest, included Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Klang, Kajang, Subang Jaya, Petaling Jaya, Selayang, Shah Alam, Ampang Jaya, Putrajaya and Sepang ( Greater Kuala Lumpur/Klang Valley, 2010 ) . The mark topographic points to transport out the questionnaire study were supermarkets and hypermarkets in Klang Valley as they allowed research workers to entree to immense Numberss of clients that fall into their mark population.
For this peculiar survey, respondents are being divided into age below 20 old ages, between 20-30 old ages, 31-56 old ages, and 57 old ages and above to denote younger, middle-age, and retiree age group. The respondents were referred to the shoppers of supermarket and hypermarkets located in Klang Valley as most of the organic nutrient merchandises are selling at these topographic points and they might be the bing or possible purchasers. Therefore, they are able to supply valuable information sing this survey on factors impacting purchase purpose of organic nutrient merchandises.
Non-probability sampling technique is chosen due to the high trouble in obtaining the sampling frame for the whole population of Klang Valley ( Saunders, Lewis, & A ; Thornhill, 2009 ) . Non-probability sampling technique is used when the opportunity of all members being selected from the population is non equal ( Lunsford & A ; Lunsford, 1995 ) . Convenience sampling is preferred in this survey because this technique is fast, least troublesome and least expensive comparison to other trying techniques. By utilizing this technique, mark respondents for the research are selected based on their convenient handiness to the research workers. Therefore, it is comparative easier to other trying technique ( Saunders, Lewis, & A ; Thornhill, 2009 ) .
Data generated will be more accurate as the sampling size is acquiring bigger ( Malhotra & A ; Peterson, 2006 ) . However, the nature of the research will hold an impact on the sample size. Harmonizing to the regulations of pollex by Roscoe ( 1975 ) , sample size between 30 and 500 respondents are appropriate for most researches. Based on the sample size tabular array ( Krejcie & A ; Morgan, 1970 ) , as the population additions, the sample size will besides increases and remains comparatively changeless at 384 when it reached population of 1 million. Population in Klang Valley was estimated to be 6.8 million in 2012 ( Lim, 2010 ) . Hence, 400 will be the appropriate sample size for this population size as it passed the 384 benchmark and is within the scope of 30 to 500.
Self-administered questionnaires is designed and being used in this survey. The advantages of utilizing self-administered questionnaires are it requires a minimal investing of professional clip such as engagement of many skilled interviewers, and it is comparatively cheap ( L’insalata, Warren, Cohen, Altchek, & A ; Peterson, 1997 ) . It besides will ensue in lower opportunity of colored responses compared to interviews. Anonymity besides generate a higher complete confidence of confidentiality and therefore promote more response with higher truth ( van Ooijen, Ivens, Johansen, & A ; Skov, 1997 ) .
Close-ended and graduated tables to matrix inquiries are used alternatively of open-ended inquiries in order to ease respondents and to avoid inquiries jumping. The questionnaire consists of a entire figure of 36 inquiries, 31 out of the 36 inquiries are in five-point Likert graduated table format. The questionnaire incorporating three subdivisions, whereby Section A is to garner information about the respondent ‘s demographic inside informations, Section B records the sentiments of respondents sing the independent variables and Section C relates to respondents ‘ sentiment towards the dependant variable.
A pilot trial was conducted prior to the existent informations aggregation in order to entree the cogency of inquiries and the dependability of the informations collected. Harmonizing to Johanson and Brooks ( 2010 ) , 30 responses is a sensible minimal figure for a pilot survey. Therefore, a pilot trial was conducted by acquiring 30 responses from the mark respondents in three yearss clip. After normality trial was run, the information was analyzed utilizing dependability trial. The questionnaires were being refined after the pilot trial to minimise ambiguity and avoid any misunderstandings by respondents when replying the inquiries.
Table 3.1: Trial of Normality
ZRE_1 Standardized Residual
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction
* . This is a lower edge of the true significance.
Beginning: Developed for the research
Data is assumed to be usually distributed if p-value is greater than 0.05 ( Smith & A ; Wells, 2006 ) . As shown in Table 3.1, the p-value of both of the trials is greater than 0.05, which are 0.200 for Kolmogorov-Smirnov trial and 0.851 for Shapiro-Wilk trial. Therefore, the informations can presume to be usually distributed.
Table 3.2: Consequence of Reliability Test
Cronbach ‘s Alpha
Number of Items
Attitude towards Organic Food Products Subjective Norm
Perceived Behavioral Control ( PBC )
Beginning: Developed for the research
Harmonizing to Cronbach ( 1951 ) , the alpha value of each concept should be greater than 0.7 to run into the general demand of dependability trial. The Cronbach ‘s Alpha mark for attitude, subjective norm, PBC and purchase purpose are 0.705, 0.893, 0.762 and 0.783 severally. These consequences show that the inquiries on measuring the variables were considered good reliable.
The existent research fieldwork was carried out during the terminal of May 2012. It began with administering questionnaires to aim respondents in supermarkets and hypermarkets in Klang Valley. Respondents are selected based on their convenient handiness to the researches. If the several respondent rejected to make full up the questionnaire, another new respondent will be approached. This procedure maintain on reiterating until a entire figure of 400 transcripts of questionnaires were being collected. Finally, the informations aggregation procedure is completed within 2 hebdomads clip.
Measurement that used to mensurate demographic features which inclusive of age, income degree and instruction degree are ordinal graduated tables, whereas race and gender are measured utilizing nominal graduated tables.
The dependant variable, purchase purpose is measured by 8 points from Magistris and Gracia ( 2008b ) , Ahmad and Juhdi ( 2010 ) and Olivova ( 2011 ) . Independent variables of this research are attitude toward organic nutrient merchandises, subjective norm and PBC. For attitude, it is assessed by 13 points from Magistris and Gracia ( 2008b ) , Kulikovski and Agolli ( 2010 ) , Michaelidou and Hassan, Sudiyanti ( 2009 ) , and Ahmad and Juhdi ( 2010 ) . There are entire of 8 points adopted from surveies of Magistris and Gracia ( 2008a ) , Voon et al. , ( 2011 ) , Olivova ( 2011 ) and Sudiyanti ( 2009 ) that used to mensurate the subjective norm. PBC is evaluated by 8 points from Magistris and Gracia ( 2008a ) , Voon et al. , ( 2011 ) and Olivova ( 2011 ) .
For both dependent and independent variables, respondents are required to bespeak their grade of understanding on a five-point Likert graduated table which runing from 1-5 ( 1-strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neutral, 4-agree, 5-strongly agree ) .
Any questionnaires that contain uncomplete or inappropriate responses must be eliminated. For illustration, some inquiries in the questionnaire non answered by the respondent or the respondent merely merely take the same reply for all the inquiries.
“ The procedure by which verbal informations are converted into variables and classs of variables utilizing Numberss, so that the informations can be entered into computing machines for analysis ” ( Bourque, 2004 ) . It can do the informations come ining procedure easier and rapidly and at the same clip cut down mistakes. For illustration, ‘1 ‘ represent ‘male ‘ and ‘2’represent ‘female ‘ .
All the responses from respondents that collected through the distributed questionnaires are entered into informations treating package harmonizing to the codifications assigned earlier.
Data checking will be carried out to observe all the mistakes from the input informations. Normally, the mistakes are human mistakes for illustration incorrect entry of informations.
Data cleansing is the last measure in informations processing and it can observe and take all the mistakes from the information. Researchers able to obtain better quality of informations after perform this measure. For illustration, outliers can be removed after successfully detected.
The Statistical Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) 16.0 was applies to this present research to analyse and analyze the information collected.
Measures such as mean, manner and standard divergence are different signifiers of descriptive analysis usage to “ depict the sample informations matrix in such a manner as to portray the “ typical ” respondent and to uncover the general forms of responses ” ( Bush & A ; Burns, 2006 ) . In other words, research worker can utilize this method to depict and construe the feature of respondent. It described the informations presented in the signifier of saloon chart, histogram, pie chart and others.
Normality trial can be used to find whether the input informations is usually distributed or non. The distribution of informations can be considered non normal if p-value is less than 0.05. If the p-value is greater than 0.05, the informations assumed to be usually distributed ( Smith & A ; Wells, 2006 ) . In this research, Kolmogorov-Smirnov is used due to it can be used to prove for larger sample sizes ( Seier, n.d. ) .
The dependability trials use to reflect the internal consistence of measurement points ( Chen M. F. , 2009 ) . The Cronbach ‘s Alpha by and large should be greater than 0.7 to run into the general demand of dependability trial ( Cronbach, 1951 ) . Alpha between 0.8 and 0.95 reflect really good dependability while value from 0.7 to 0.8 reflects good dependability ( Zikmund, Babin, Carr, & A ; Griffin, 2009 ) . Alpha in the scope from 0.5 to 0.7 is still at the minimal acceptable degree ( Nunnally, 1967 ) .
220.127.116.11 Independent Sample T-test
It is used when researcher want to compare a sample average value of some variables with known value of some criterion variable ( Greenfield, Wojtys, & A ; Kuhn, 1997 ) . It helps to find whether agencies of two groups are different or non. Independent Sample T-test was employed to analyse differences in purchase purpose of organic nutrients between genders. If p & lt ; 0.05 which associated to 95 % confident interval, it shows that difference exists between the groups ( Greenfield, Wojtys, & A ; Kuhn, 1997 ) .
18.104.22.168 One Way ANOVA
If there are more than 2 independent sample group, One Way ANOVA can be used to find whether at that place have important difference in average values ( Greenfield, Wojtys, & A ; Kuhn, 1997 ) such as income and instruction degree in this survey. If p & lt ; 0.05 ( 95 % assurance interval ) mean that F statistic is important and therefore at least one of the group means is different. The ratio would be closer to 1.0 if there is no difference among the groups ( Greenfield, Wojtys, & A ; Kuhn, 1997 ) .
22.214.171.124 Pearson Correlation
Multicollinearity is a state of affairs that exists when two or more forecaster variables correlated with each other ( Alma, Kurt, & A ; Ugur, 2009 ) . This job occurred and can be detected when the value of correlativity coefficient more than 0.9 ( El-Fallah & A ; El-Sallam, 2011 ) .
Pearson correlativity trials used to analyze the single relationship between independent variables and dependent variables ( Ahmad & A ; Juhdi, 2010 ) . It determined strength of the relationship between the 3 independent variables and purchase purpose. Furthermore, it besides had benefit of giving indicant for the way and magnitude of the relationship ( Pallant, 2010 ) . Normally it is between -1 and +1. +1 mean that the variables are absolutely additive related by increasing relationship whereas -1 means that the variables are absolutely additive related by diminishing relationship. If the variables are non additive related, it is represent by 0 ( Rodger & A ; Petch, 1999 ) . Harmonizing to Chan ( 2003 ) , a‰? 0.8 agencies that the variables have strong strength of relationship and there is hapless additive relationship if it is a‰¤ 0.3.
126.96.36.199 Multiple Linear Regression ( MLR )
MLR can find which factors can impact the purpose to buy organic nutrient merchandises harmonizing to their degree of importance ( Ahmad & A ; Juhdi, 2010 ) . The theoretical account of MLR is Y=a+bX1+cX2+dX3 ( where Y= purchase purpose ; X1= attitude toward organic nutrient merchandises, X2= subjective norm, X3= perceived behavioural control ; a= changeless, B, degree Celsius and d= incline of arrested development line for 3 independent variables ) .
In drumhead, aim population in this research consists of bing and possible purchasers of organic nutrient merchandises. Both primary and secondary informations aggregation method are used to roll up relevant and utile information. 30 questionnaires are distributed to the mark respondents in pilot trial while another 400 sets questionnaires were collected utilizing convenient techniques. The collected informations will be analyzed utilizing dependability trial, normalcy trial, descriptive trial and illative trials. All findings are presented under Chapter 4 and item accounts will besides be elaborated consequently.