Modern civilisation creates an environment to run into human aspirations which result in changeless betterments of our life style, but it besides increase hazards to human and ecological wellness. This state of affairs motivated throughout the universe to analyse the environmental factors that can impact our wellness, ecology and to cipher the degrees of hazard. Climate alteration, H2O pollution, air pollution etc. which are after consequence of industrialised civilisation. To acquire a vivid scenario H2O pollution of a river & A ; its affect on the environment every bit good as homo, the Ecological Health Risk of the Buriganga River of Dhaka, Bangladesh has been identified as the survey job. The jobs related to Buriganga can be categorized as natural, climate change-related, external to the state, and human made ( Alam 1995 ) .
This paper is about, analysing the chief cause of pollution through MFA and how it is impacting the Buriganga River in capital metropolis of Bangladesh, Dhaka and the environment.
In Bangladesh development activities and use of the river create a great menace to the bing natural environmental system, peculiarly for Buriganga River which flow besides Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh, due to the pollution of the river H2O. A survey was carried out to detect the ecological wellness jeopardies and their hazard to human wellness of the Buriganga River. The samples were analyzed to find H2O quality and environmental wellness hazards. The survey show that the H2O is high in biological O demand ( BOD ) , chemical O demand ( COD ) , phosphate ( PO4-3 ) , ammonia ( NH3 ) , different types of organic affairs and foods and low in DO which revealed immense environmental wellness hazards and possible ecological break of this river.
In Dhaka surface H2O pollution occurs due to assorted factors such as human sewerage coupled with municipal refuse and industrial wastewaters that wholly destroy the microbic systems of decomposition. About 6,000 big, medium & A ; little industries are runing in Dhaka. Among these industries, maximal industry discharge wastewaters straight to this river or nearby canal or waterbed without any respect to environment.
About The Buriganga River
Dhaka was established as a provincial capital of the Mughal swayer on the north-eastern bank of the Buriganga River during 1608-10. This river has tremendous significance to the occupants of Dhaka. Not merely it surround the metropolis, but besides it provides of import services to the occupants including H2O supply, pilotage, diversion, sanitation, fish production, touristry, biodiversity & A ; inundation control.
Now, this river highly contaminated and it is close to biological decease for several grounds. The enormous addition in population ( 12 million ) of Dhaka City over the last three decennaries has created tremendous environmental jobs. Human sewerage coupled with municipal refuse, the disposal of solid waste and drainage jobs are the chief ground. Furthermore, there are several industrial locations within Dhaka metropolis particularly the tanneries of the Hazaribagh ( i.e. country for tannery or leather mills ) which pose discharge wastewaters straight to the river without any respect to environment.
Fluid mechanicss of Buriganga River
Hudraulically, the river connected with the Balu, the Dhalewswari, the Kaliganga & A ; the Turag. Upstream terminal of the Buriganga at 11km down from the Mirpur span and downstream terminal at Hariharpara. Entire length of this river about 17 Km & A ; mean width about 0.6 Km. Average flow during wet season ( May to Oct ) is about 700 cumec & A ; during dry season ( Nov to April ) is about 140 cumec. A standardization theoretical account done by Rahman & A ; Rana ( 1994 ) . The chief standardization parametric quantity is Maning ‘s roughness coefficient of the river. A scope of roughness coefficient from 0.03 to 0.04 was used to graduate the theoretical account. This was done by test & A ; error method. Model compute discharge & A ; speed besides.
Pollutants of Buriganga River
Dhaka City is really dumbly populated and merely a little fraction of the entire effluent being treated. The untreated wastes, both domestic and industrial, clinical, pathological being released into the Buriganga and this inclination increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. In fact, the river has become a dumping land of all sorts of solid, liquid and chemical waste. These activities on the Buriganga have caused narrowing of the river and break of its normal flow of H2O. The H2O of the river has become so contaminated that its aquatic life has about been extinguished. A sail on Bangladesh ‘s historic Buriganga River used to be a must for sing very important persons ; but now they are confronted with disgusting odors and decomposing fish ensuing from monolithic pollution. Up to 40,000 dozenss of tannery waste flows into the river daily along with sewerage. About 12 sq. km country of Hazaribag and next country are full of violative olfactory properties of assorted toxic Chemicals: H Sulphide ( H2S ) , ammonia, toxicant Cl and several Ns based gases. Harmonizing to an experiment, ”an norm of 1 m3 H2O incorporating more than 300 different chemical compounds is being discharged daily from tannery industries. ” The sourness, alkalinity and hints of chemical of this liquid waste change the pH degree in H2O. Long term Cr taint may do malignant neoplastic disease.
Material flow analysis on Buriganga River
One of the applications of MFA is on waste direction, it is a perfect tool to supply support on determinations doing refering waste direction. As we have mentioned above, there are different sort of wastes that comes from different countries of the metropolis.
One of the biggest pollutant it the Hazaribagh tannery composite and other industries, chiefly the gum and pigment industries in the same general location, have affected H2O and air quality in a big ill drained country locked behind a nine metres high inundation control embankment constructed in 1989-1990 in south-west Dhaka City. Up until the clip of embankment building, the contaminations were washed to the Buriganga River by one-year implosion therapy. At present, the bing sewerage outfalls, the sewerage lift operations dwelling of 16 pumps and local residential drains are non equal to decently and expeditiously take all the waste merchandises generated by the mills and population of the country. This is partially a care job but an environmental job has been created by the discharging of effluent with overly high solids content and a unsafe degree of Cr among other heavy metals and toxic stuffs.
The 2nd biggest input of pollutant is Wastes signifier families which arise from the colony of peoples along the river bank, utilizing it as a disposal in their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities. And the commercial waste is besides one of the inputs of pollutants in to the river.
Material flow of Buriganga River.
Let ‘s see the dissolved O ( DO ) which is the premier index of H2O quality due to pollutant tonss in footings of BOD in this stuff flow. The chief bing pollution discharges in to the Buriganga River are four. This routes and several pollutant tonss are shown in the tabular array below.
Pollutant discharge paths along Briganga River
Pollutant tonss ( BOD tons/day )
City drains along the river
Pagla sewerage intervention works out autumn
Economic and Sustainability of Buriganga River
Environmental debasement can be restricting future economic growing and economic growing can play an of import function incorporating markrt & A ; non-market benefits into determination devising in resource usage. Buriganga has tremendous significance for the endurance and economic growing of Dhaka City. By destructing the transporting capacity of this river, heavy costs are likely to be imposed on current and future coevalss. Failure to protect Buriganga River from pollution means that a failure to policy shapers who undervaluing the benefits of environmental protection, Restoration plans and economic growing. Public sector investing in developing states such as Bangladesh needs redirection to react to emerging environmental jobs such as H2O and air pollution and planetary heating. It argues a better environmental protection and an improved river direction can be achieved which overall will supply for a more sustainable development.
Discussion and decision
Environmental debasement is widely observed but the cardinal issue is to make something for the ecological Restoration of the environment. Early execution of efficient direction patterns will salvage the Buriganga River. It has been seen that this river has considerable pollution assimilation capacity which provides considerable chance for bettering H2O quality. For this some stairss are necessary. Some of them are:
– Set up either a intervention works at Hazaribag or switching of tannery industries to Savar.
– A immense measure of polyethylene dumped into this river would be taking.
– Sir Salimullah Medical College & A ; Hospital authorization to halt dumping of hospital waste into this river.
– The people who built illegal construction on the river Bankss would hold to pay destruction charge.
Bangladesh authorities enacted a jurisprudence in 1995 doing it compulsory for all industrial units to utilize outflowing intervention workss in a command to salvage river Waterss from pollution, but industry proprietors frequently flout the regulation. They defy such orders by utilizing their political links or by corrupting people. But the Environmentalists are hopeful. They ever make run on “ Save Buriganga, Save Lives. ” This may be a positive measure to salvage Buriganga.