The grade of development in Mauritius perpetually shapes the environmental province of the state. The cardinal portion here is that we should cognize the definition of the environment and what constitutes the environment. Environment can be defined as everything which is around us. Biosphere can be used to specify the really construct of environment. Biosphere is the zone of life on Earth, intending it is the place of all life beings.
There are other definitions of the environment, some may be found in Acts or even in environmental conventions. Harmonizing to subdivision 3 of the Environment Protection Act 2002 of Mauritius, the environment includes land, air, H2O, or any one of, or any combination of, these media, all life beings and any built-up environment.
The Convention on Civil Liability For Environmental Damage defines environment as the followers ; Natural resources both abiotic and biotic, such as air, H2O, dirt, zoology and vegetation and the interaction between the same factors, Property which forms portion of the cultural heritage and the characteristic facets of landscape.
Biotic comprises of all life beings, such as workss, animate beings, bacteriums and so on. Abiotic factors are all inanimate factors impacting populating beings such as lakes, comeuppances, snow, etc. Man-made environment tantrums in the definition, such as edifices, objects and man-made landscapes which is portion of adult male ‘s cultural heritage. Hence, a wide definition of the environment would include H2O, air, dirt, vegetations and zoologies and besides semisynthetic environment.
All the elements of the environment are defenseless. The resources are brittle. If there is to be a alteration in either of the factors, that is abiotic or biotic, the ecosystem could be altered. For illustration, worlds can modify environments in the class of farming. Such a alteration in the environment would convey either a positive or negative impact on the human being, but most of the clip it is a negative impact that we are prone to. Pollution being the chief alteration factor of the environment. Pollution is the taint of a healthy environment by man-mad waste, illustration heavy waste disposal. Pollution has an consequence on the environmental factors that is dirt, H2O, air, vegetations and zoologies.
“ Pollution means the debut by adult male, straight or indirectly, of substances or energy into the environment, ensuing in hurtful effects of such a nature as to jeopardize human wellness, injury life resources and ecosystems, and impair or interfere with comfortss and other legitimate utilizations of the environment. ”
The force per unit areas on environmental resources are being exacerbated by factors such as population growing, economic development and poorness. Thus this requires a proper and equal direction of these resources or else this may give birth to serious environmental jobs. The Minister of Environment and Sustainable Development, A Mr Devanand Virahsawmy, A said that environmental protection is an indispensable constituent of the state ‘s economic development policy. Consequently the Environment Protection Act 2002 has been set up for there to be good environmental administration and therefore enabling a model that supports sustainable development. Development must travel along with a clean environment.
There are possible countries of debasement is Mauritius and they are Land resources, Water resources, Air quality ; Biodiversity and Coastal zone. These countries of debasement will be examined with regard to the amendss that they doing to the environment.
2.1 Land Resources
Land is the solid dry portion of the Earth ‘s surface. Land is critical for the endurance of world ; it is the beginning of foods for workss, harvests, woods, animate beings and besides people. Plants, harvests, woods, animate beings all contribute to the endurance of world. Land resources in Mauritius comprises of mountains, land for agribusiness, bare land, etc.
2.1.2 State of land in Mauritius
Mauritius is a little dumbly populated developing island with around 649 people per square kilometer. Our island has a limited high quality country of land which is appropriate for valuable development. Land includes dirt, which is aboriginal for agribusiness ; landscape which is necessary for human home ground. The preservation of tellurian biodiversity, C storage and other ecosystem services are being carried out by land. Therefore land necessitates a proper usage and a good protection system from all kinds of pollution.
Land usage is an indispensable index of the force per unit area on the land resources. Out of 186,500 hectare available, 35 % is being used for agribusiness, entire forest country declined by 17.2 % and accordingly increasing built-up countries by 27.7 % . This shows that portion of forest country have been cleared up. There have been new development, enlargement of residential country, commercial and industrial units ; all these brought a diminution in land for agribusiness and forest countries. Sometime some development procedure seems to be harming the environment due to inefficient ordinances. Land resources are finite, delicate and non-renewable ; hence this requires an equal land usage planning.
2.1.3 Problems impacting Land Resources
The Ministry of Environment had carried out a survey sing jobs with respect to the usage of land. The survey showed the undermentioned jobs inadequate development of coastal countries. The rapid coastal development of lodging and commercialism on the seashore, countries like Grand Baie, does non fit be aftering counsel. Local governments have non been able to supply environmental and community services at the same gait of development. Finally negative effects took over and these include ; Beach eroding and restricted public entree to the beach, pollution of coastal Waterss with sewerage and solid wastes and debasement of biodiversity, e.g. coral ecosystems which require alimentary H2O to boom.
Loss of environmentally sensitive countries caused great injury to the environment. An illustration of such an country is wetland. Wetlands are of import ecosystems. With increasing land force per unit area, such critical countries have been developed for economical promotion ; the wetlands have been backfilled for other uses. Around 40 wetlands can be found all round the island. This has lead to a alteration in the ecological system.
The ineluctable propinquity of fouling industry and residential lodging settlements ; This job is due to hapless planning of land usage and today we can happen residential zones near to fouling industrial zones. This creates jobs such as air pollution, H2O pollution.
Developments are concentrated in Port-louis and Plaine Wilhems. Most of import companies, offices, and caput quarters are found in these countries. The Government tried to bring on decentralization, still most companies, concern are found in these territories. Such a state of affairs gave birth to traffic congestions and this delays traveling and hapless air quality due to heavy air pollution in these countries.
Fertiliser imports have increased, demoing an addition in usage of fertilisers. Such usage of inorganic fertilisers causes a debasement of the land resources ; this adversely affects the dirt birthrate. Such uncontrolled land utilizations could adversely impact our production degree in the hereafter and this may besides do high dirt eroding for the same rain strength.
The present force per unit area on land resources can cut down the quality of our land resources if it continues at the present rate. Such state of affairss must be decently managed, like holding an ample land planning system. There are current control mechanisms which can be used to guarantee a sustainable development. These are development licenses, Environmental Impact Assessment, edifice and land transition licenses.
Harmonizing to subdivision 3 of the EPA 2002, air includes ambient or localized air within a edifice, a vehicle, or within any enclosure or a construction. Air contains a figure of gases, and depending on their concentrations they will do the air cleaner or more contaminated.
2.2.2 State of the air and air pollution
Human activities have introduced a figure of pollutants in the atmosphere thereby making multiple effects. Air is a topographic point of theodolite where the gases remain temporarily and the impact of these gases are seen when they return to the dirt, workss, Marine Waterss, lakes and rivers. Populating animals and objects are besides straight affected by air pollution. Indeed it is the rapid industrial development that has added to the debasement of the air quality in Mauritius.
“ Air pollution has been defined as the debut by adult male, straight or indirectly, of substances or energy into the air, ensuing in hurtful effects of such a nature as to jeopardize human wellness, injury life resources and ecosystems and material belongings, and impair or interfere with comfortss and other legitimate utilizations of the environment. ”
There are assorted beginnings of pollution and they can be grouped as follows, stationary beginnings such as power Stationss and industries ( e.g. rock oppressing workss ) , nomadic beginnings such as motor vehicles and unfastened combustion of waste stuffs and sugar-cane Fieldss.
Sugar mills, fabric mills have contributed to the degree of pollution over the state. However since the closing of most large sugar and fabrics mills, pollution emitted from this sector has decreased. In fact, the conveyance sector ‘s air pollution coevals is a large job for our state ; the figure of vehicles has increased. Mauritius still relies on leaded gasoline and Diesel. The usage of these resources generates a batch of pollutants adversely impacting our environment every bit good as the local dwellers. Odour pollution from domestic fowl, tuna canning and farm animal raising creates a nuisance in residential countries.
Air pollution has a negative impact on human wellness ; increases the hazard of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. If the working population is affected, this will straight impact the Mauritanian economic system as efficiency does down the ladder. Consequences of such an consequence could be decreased productiveness, increasing medical costs, doing nuisance to residential countries. Air pollution does non save our ecosystem, doing acidification. This adversely shapes the dirt, land and H2O quality and becomes a spouse to planetary heating and clime alteration.
Below is a tabular array with the list of pollutants related to vehicular pollution and their effects.
Type of Pollutants
Oxides of N ( NOx )
Additions susceptibleness to respiratory infection
Increase airways opposition in asthmatics
Decreases pneumonic maps.
Ozone ( O3 )
Irritation of the eyes and nose
Damage the liner of the air passages
Carbon monoxide ( CO )
Hinders oxygen conveyance from blood tissues
Sulphur Dioxide ( SO2 )
Disability and even decease
Particulate Matter ( PM )
and Unburnt Hydrocarbons
( HC )
Degrade aesthetic and material use through dirtying
Lead ( Pb )
Problems in the synthesis of hemoglobin
Affect kidneys, GI piece of land and articulations,
Affect generative and nervous systems
Beginning: Fact Sheet on Transport and Environment
The ozone bed and planetary heating is besides of great concern for the Mauritanian Government. Mauritius has signed and ratified the Vienna Convention, the Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone bed, 1987. Mauritius does non bring forth ozone consuming substances but use these substances a batch in aerosols, in iceboxs, etc. The different nursery gases are Carbon dioxide, Chlorofluorocarbon ( CFC ) , Methane, Ozone, Nitrogen oxides, etc.
These gases have an impact on the ozone bed doing its depletion and lead to planetary heating. Harmonizing to Environment Statistics the chief nursery gas is carbon dioxide. The most common ozone depleting substances are the CFCs Depletion of ozone bed increases the hazard of skin malignant neoplastic disease by addition of direct extremist violet beams and this may besides do harm to eyes. The marine ecosystems might besides be disrupted. It has been estimated that the sea degree shall lift by 50 centimeters by 2100.
2.3 Water Resources in Mauritius
Water is critical to life and screens over 70 % of the Earth surface. Out of this, 97.5 % sums to salt H2O and fresh H2O comprises of merely 2.5 % . This 2.5 % barely satisfies our universe population as about a big measure of this fresh H2O is frozen in glacial ice caps and in high mountains. Harmonizing to the Central Water Authority Act 1971, H2O resources mean the surface and land H2O, of whatever nature within Mauritius. The increasing economic activity and human populations stresses much on the demand for fresh H2O which is limited.
2.3.2 Water resources and pollution
Mauritius is a tropical island, so climatic conditions usually regulate the H2O resources in island. Underground H2O is being used chiefly for agricultural and domestic intents. However with this type of activity, pumping H2O from boreholes, many springs have dried up. Increasing economic activity, increasing population, industrialization has increased the demand for H2O resources. In Mauritius it is the Central Water Authority which is responsible for the supply of H2O over the whole island.
Water pollution is diminishing the limited sum of fresh H2O that we possess and this besides brings H2O borne diseases. Water pollution is the debut of substances which are harmful and are in a sufficient measure to measurably degrade H2O quality. There are different beginnings of H2O pollution, viz. industrial wastewaters, domestic wastewaters, agricultural overflow.
Most industrial mills were throwing their waste H2O in canals, watercourses therefore H2O pollution. This waste H2O, that is industrial wastewaters, contains chemical merchandises which are used to dye apparels in these mills. The presence of the chemical merchandises destroys the organisms nowadays in the H2O and usually ends up in our laguna. This might be unsafe for us besides, if we are in contact with the contaminated H2O, ensuing in H2O borne diseases.
The intensive usage of fertilisers is held responsible for the high concentration of nitrates in river Waterss or other H2O organic structures. This affects our rivers when barely any weedkiller residue or fertiliser will be left in the surface dirt after a month by overflow into watercourses and rivers.
The Government has provided specific sites where solid wastes can be disposed ; one of these sites is the Mare Chicose landfill. This creates air pollution ; neighboring small towns have complained about the bad odor. A survey has shown that the natural groundwater situated at Mare Chicose landfill is being polluted. This shortens our fresh H2O modesty that we have and may do tonss of jobs in the hereafter.
Pollution affects H2O resources accordingly impacting human wellness. Cholera is merely one of many water-related unwellnesss. Other diseases like malaria, which is transmitted by mosquitoes ; bilharzia, which is associated with H2O snail life in standing H2O where worlds walk, or guinea worm disease, transmitted by imbibing H2O, are all associated with insecure disposal of body waste, hapless hygiene and H2O supplies that are unequal in quality and measure.
One of the factors impacting H2O resources is pollution but misdirection of H2O resources can be drastic, particularly in instances of drouth. We can normally happen broken H2O grapevines, particularly in rural countries. It be noted that a batch of H2O is lost due to this misdirection.
2.4.1Definition Biological diverseness refers to the assortment of life on Earth. The Convention on Biological Diversity defines biological diverseness as the variableness among populating being from all beginnings including, inter alia, tellurian, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological composites of which they are portion ; this includes diverseness within species, between species and of ecosystems. Biodiversity is a cherished familial library maintained by natural ecosystems. This biodiversity is cardinal to life ; indispensable for human endurance. Biodiversity helps in modulating the environment we live in ; this has made earth a unambiguously habitable topographic point for worlds.
The vegetation and zoologies constitute the biodiversity. The different animate being species over the island constitute the zoology and the different works species over a peculiar country signifier the vegetation. Like we have animate beings and workss in woods, we besides have animate beings and works that live in the sea. Finally biodiversity can be classified into two classs ; tellurian biodiversity and marine diverseness.
2.4.2 The tellurian biodiversity and comparative jobs
Mauritius has a alone vegetation and zoology that has evolved since the island was formed. However since adult male colonised the island, most of the native zoology and vegetations have disappeared and the remaining is invariably under menace. Forests are being cleared away for agribusiness. The protection of the zoology and vegetations can non be done in isolation. The home ground in which the vegetation and fauna prosper should besides be protected. Deforestation, air and H2O pollution, and other activities related to development hold adversely affected the natural home ground of the vegetations and zoologies.
There are besides other factors that are adversely impacting the natural home grounds of the flaura and zoology. Alien workss such as goyave de chine, prevent the regeneration of the native species. These alien workss invade the home ground of the native workss and therefore vie with them. The alien workss develop more quickly than the native workss which finally cause the seedlings of the native species to die. Thus the native species are on a changeless menace to extinction.
Since the colonisation period boulder clay now, there are assorted animate beings that were introduced in the island either by chance or on intent. Some have caused a batch of injury to the alone vegetations and zoologies of the island and some are go oning to harm the vegetations and zoologies. Rats were by chance introduced in the island when the Dutch tried to colonize the island. They caused a batch of injury to the nature as the rats preyed on the eggs or immature ‘s of birds and jeopardizing their being. The mongoose, that was purportedly introduced to extinguish rats, is now doing injury. It preys on poulet or wild birds.
At a certain point in clip, monkeys were introduced to populate the Mauritanian woods. These monkeys prey on wild birds, eat their eggs. They besides destroy fruits, flowers of our native woods. Hogs were besides introduced in the island. They uprooted many workss and destroyed them.
So apart from human activities there are other factors, as listed above, which seems to be doing injury to the vegetations and zoologies of the island. Therefore the protection of the vegetations and zoologies is of great importance as they somehow preserve ecological balance. We have already lost so much since colonisation, illustration coal black tree. There are some species which are economically profitable. For illustration, the Coffea species known to be caffeine-free can be planted for the production of caffeine-free java.
2.5 The Marine Environment
The marine environment comprises of the coastal and maritime zone. Coastal zones include coral reefs, reef lagunas, beaches, wetlands, estuaries, watercourses or canals, backwoodss and all islets within the territorial Waterss of Mauritius. Mauritius has one of the most attractive seashores in the universe. However factors such as increasing development, particularly the tourer industry, discharge of wastewaters into rivers, sand remotion and unsafe fishing activities have degraded our coastal country.
2.5.2 Marine pollution
Mauritius is surrounded by about 150 km2 of about uninterrupted coral reefs. Coral reefs are the most biodiverse systems on Earth and they play an of import function in the protection of the marine ecosystem. However due to rapid development of the island, the coastal zone is under menace.
The Ministry of Environment of Mauritius had carried out studies to find the degree of debasement that have affected our coastal zone. Sing lagoon H2O quality possible countries of debasement have been observed. Boats release their oil into the sea near or where sand preies are found. Where industrial zones are located ; these industries throw their wastewaters into the sea. Let go ofing waste H2O into the sea has damaged the Marine environment.
Beach eroding is of great concern. Extensive sand excavation has destroyed the natural home grounds of the Marine vegetation and zoology. Sand excavation has besides been associated to loss of beaches, illustration at Poste la Fayette. Fortunately sand excavation has been banned and this safeguards our marine environment. Beach eroding occurs chiefly due to hapless planning guidelines.
The marine biodiversity is threatened and human activities have added up to the debasement of the marine environment. Wetlands are of import ecosystems. With increasing land force per unit area, such critical countries have been developed for economical promotion. The filling of wetlands for human colonies has increased the hazard of sea H2O pollution.
There were irresponsible people who mangroves ; this had a drastic consequence on the coastal zone. A Rhizophora mangle usually holds the sand steadfastly and prevents dirt eroding. The lessening of Rhizophora mangles along the seashore resulted in sand eroding.
The marine environment must be adequately managed in order to continue our Marine environment. The marine environment is of great economic and ecological importance to our state.