The two verse forms, “ To Lucasta, traveling to the Wars ” by Richard Lovelace and “ Dulce et Decorum Est ” by Wilfred Owen are both devoted to the topic of war. Lovelace ‘s verse form was written in the seventeenth century and every bit good as about all the poesy of the period has romantic enunciation. The war is shown as something genuinely worthwhile, glossed and honest for a adult male. The supporter is go forthing his beloved for the battleground and his tone is hapless and solemn. He calls the war his new kept woman and asks his darling adult female non to be covetous as love to her is impossible for him without award. In this manner the overall temper of the verse form is idealistic and heroic. The supporter refers to war as a thrilling escapade and even fondness. The tone of the Owen ‘s verse form written under the impact of the World War I is of another sort. It has no hint of glorification and devotedness. On the contrary, Owen ‘s purpose was to chase away that image of war, to demo it as something horrifying and dehumanizing by agencies of graphic word picture of all the ghastly atrociousnesss, to reflect disenchantment and disgust of war. That ‘s why the writer sets the scene of ghastly battlefield and starkly depict a adult male diing from poisoning with gas. The tone is sorrowful and passionate and makes the reader feel empathy with the warriors. The manner can be besides described with profound deepness of emotion.
The harmonizing tempers of both verse forms are expressed be agencies of signifier ; that is to state by beat and construction foremost of all.
The signifier of “ To Lucasta ” is presented by three stanzas incorporating four lines each. It is short and easy to read, and visible radiation and energetic beat is achieved by jumping from iambic tetrameter to iambic trimeter. The construction reflects kineticss of the secret plan, for illustration by the line “ A blade, a Equus caballus, a shield ” which itself reminds the beat of a March or a Equus caballus ‘s jogging. At the same clip, the verse form “ Dulce et Decorum Est ” is much longer and consists of four stanzas with eight, six, two and twelve lines, severally. Different rime forms can be traced here ( ABAB, CDCD, BCBC and others ) , but on the whole they correspond to the strategies of old Gallic lay. As for the metre, it reminds Iambic Pentameter. Though, the conventional beat is broken by the writer ‘s punctuation ( exclaiming points and commas every bit good as periods and elans ) . Due to this device the verse form comes closer to prose and sounds colloquial. It was likely used to avoid song music temper and to give as much contrast as possible to the heroic verse form of other writers like Richard Lovelace. If in Lovelace ‘s instance the verse form is to animate the reader, in Owen ‘s work the beat is like a war, like decease itself – hard, faltering, hopeless, fumbling, and full of suffer. The reader suffers while get the better ofing all those dashs and points inside lines. In this manner, the two verse forms are on the opposite sides by their inner and outer sense.
As for the signifier, there are a figure of poetic devices which serve to make full the verse forms with the necessary enunciation. As Lovelace ‘s verse form is easier and lighter by tone, there are non so many devices, but still the nonliteral linguistic communication is romantic and facile. The imagination is delicate and beautiful. The artlessness and purity of the supporter ‘s darling adult female is described by the words “ the nunnery of thy chaste chest and quiet head ” ; the lover ‘s attitude is shown by the words “ Sweet ” and “ Dear ” ; the haste and aspiration of the hero is underlined by the metaphors of “ winging ” and “ chasing ” . There is no topographic point for sorrow or fright ; on the contrary, it seems that the hero relishes his luck, his duty and the overall thought of warfare.
The linguistic communication of Owen is non apparent either, but, as it has been underlined above, the armory of poetic devices is non the same as that one used by Lovelace. It is missing its idealistic enthusiasm.
Many of the metaphors and names utilized by Owen are non common and look like the writer ‘s lucky invention. For illustration, the scene of a adult male submerging in the toxic condition gas is described by the information which can be received by different senses: green dim visible radiation is compared with the surrounding Waterss of a deep sea ; the sounds are “ guttering ” and “ choking ” – stuttering and gurgling, similar to a candle flickering or a trough with H2O run outing through it. These similes strengthen the feeling of disgust and horror, as the air is full of monsters and fright. Powerful and sturdy poetic devices in their rich assortment help the writer to picture the loathsome and barbarous experience of decease in war.
Not merely the lexical devices are working, but phonic devices are effectual as good: the attending of the reader is described and chained by initial rhyme. For case, the line “ And watch the white eyes wrestling in his face ” with sound [ tungsten ] repeated reminds deafening ululation and bawling of sinister air current or some insatiate animal. At the same clip they assist the writer in the temper of mourning and keening for the perished. Confronting images are carrying in the reader ‘s head. Eloquent are the similes used by Owen: the face of a agony soldier is compared with “ a Satan ‘s sick of wickedness ” ; the blood coming from “ froth-corrupted lungs ” is described as “ obscene s malignant neoplastic disease ” , “ bitter as the rechewed food of vile, incurable sores on guiltless linguas. ” The images are so deep that they are non easy to bury ; they are redolent and exciting and make an alarming projection on the memory. Blunt and grisly inside informations are realistically demoing all the depredations ; they drastically support the sentiments and take the reader from off from their ‘zone of comfort ‘ . Poignant grotesque is used to implement the flooring consequence of lay waste toing results of war.
In the terminal Owen uses the inversion of celebrated Latin phrase “ Dulce et Decorum est Pro patria mori. ” It is used with sarcasm as all the secret plan of the verse form contradicts with its decorous inspiration and “ high gusto ” . In this manner the “ old prevarication ” of Horace ‘s direction is shown as luxuriant travesty. This is how hideous and inexorable imagination of Owen ‘s poesy is created doing a profound compelling and dramatic impact on readers ‘ heads and to the full showing the writer ‘s anti-war protest. And if in “ To Lucasta ” the writer entreaties to conceive of “ Dear ” and “ Sweet ” miss, in the “ Dulce et Decorum Est ” the writer entreaties to person equal ( “ my friend ” ) , which can be generalized and extended to the extent of his coevalss every bit good as future coevalss.