A surface-to-surface missile ( besides, ground-to-ground missile, SSM or GTGM ) is a guided missile launched from a hand-held, vehicle mounted, dawdler mounted or fixed installing or from a ship. They are frequently powered by a projectile motor or sometimes fired by an explosive charge, since the launching platform is typically stationary or traveling easy. They normally have fives and/or wings for lift and stableness, although hyper-velocity or short-ranged missiles may use organic structure lift or wing a ballistic flight. The Fieseler Fi 103 ( besides known as the “ V1 ” ) was the first surface-to-surface missile.
Contemporary surface-to-surface missiles are normally guided. An unguided surface-to-surface missile is normally referred to as a projectile ( for illustration, an RPG-7 or M72 LAW is an anti-tank projectile whereas a BGM-71 TOW or AT-2 Swatter is an anti-tank guided missile ) .
Surface-to-surface missiles are normally broken down into a figure of classs:
Ballistic missiles travel in a high flight, motor Burnss out partway through flight
Tactical ballistic missile: Scope between about 150 kilometers and 300 kilometer
Battlefield scope ballistic missile ( BRBM ) : Scope less than 200 kilometers
Theatre ballistic missile ( TBM ) : Scope between 300 kilometers and 3500 kilometer
Short-range ballistic missile ( SRBM ) : Scope 1000 kilometer or less
Medium-range ballistic missile ( MRBM ) : Scope between 1000 kilometer and 3500 kilometer
Intermediate-range ballistic missile ( IRBM ) or Long-range ballistic missile ( LRBM ) : Scope between 3500 kilometer and 5500 kilometer
Intercontinental ballistic missile ( ICBM ) : Scope greater than 5500 kilometer
Submarine-launched ballistic missile ( SLBM ) : Launched from ballistic missile pigboats ( SSBNs ) , all current designs have intercontinental scope.
Cruise missiles travel low to the land, motor Burnss during full flight, typical scope 2,500 kilometer ( 1,500 myocardial infarction )
Anti-tank guided missiles travel low to the land, may or may non fire motor throughout flight, typical scope 5 kilometer ( 3 myocardial infarction )
Anti-ship missiles travel low over the land and sea, frequently pop up or jink before striking ship, typical scope 130 kilometer ( 80 myocardial infarction )
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR EMP
Accomplishment Of Surprise. For Max Damage.
Choice Of Tgt. Suitability And Criticality.
Accurate Tgt Loc. Tgt Acqn Imp.
Chemical reaction Time. Reqd For Prep Of Msls.
Meanss Of Engagement. Tgts Which Can Not Be Engaged By AF.
Choice Of Warhead. As Per Tgt Characteristics.
AD Cov. Since Msls Vulnerable.
Mov. Restd To Min.
Type OF MUNITIONS
He Single Warhead.
He Pre-Fragmented Variable Mass Warhead.
Dual Purpose A Tk & A ; Anti Pers Bomblets Warhead.
Minelet Sub Munition.
Blast Cum Earth Shock Warhead
Rly Marshalling Yards.
Comn Centres, Civ & A ; Mil.
Mil Manufacturing Facilities.
Hy Industry In Sp Of Mil.
Airports & A ; Air Assets
Conc & A ; Assy As.
Lgs Instlns, Incl Fol & A ; Amn.
Tac Comncen & A ; Comd Posts.
Rdrs, Mw Towers, Satl Aes Etc
Imp Brs In Depth, Comn Arteries.
Ashwin: New Surface-to-Surface Missile In The Offing?
Development of a new surface-to-surface missile that could be perchance named as ‘Ashvin ‘ .
The endo-atmospheric interceptor missile AAD, the missile used to prosecute the nearing ‘enemy ‘ missile at a tallness of around 15 kilometer from the surface of the Earth could be used as a surface-to-surface missile in the yearss in front.
The AAD, which is 7.5 meitnerium long and has a solid projectile propellor with siliconised C jet vanes, has a scope of over 150 kilometers and could accomplish a maximal speed of 1400 m/s.
The individual phase liquid-fuelled Prithvi I with maximal warhead mounting capableness of 1000 kilogram has a scope of 150 kilometer. It has an truth of 10- 50 meters, while the AAD is precise to 0.5 meitneriums.
Prithvi II ( Dhanush ) is the Air Force version of 250 kilometer scope and capacity to transport a warhead of 500kg, while Prithvi III is the naval version of 350 kilometers range with a warhead of 500 kilograms.
A ballistic missile is a missile that follows a sub-orbital ballistic flightpath with the aim of presenting one or more payloads ( frequently atomic ) to a preset mark. The missile is merely guided during the comparatively brief initial powered stage of flight and its class is later governed by the Torahs of orbital mechanics and ballistic trajectories. To day of the month, ballistic missiles have been propelled during powered flight by chemical projectile engines of assorted types.
A ballistic missile flight consists of three parts: the powered flight part, the free-flight part which constitutes most of the flight clip, and the re-entry stage where the missile re-enters the Earth ‘s ambiance.
Ballistic missiles can be launched from fixed sites or nomadic launchers, including vehicles ( transporter erector launchers, TELs ) , aircraft, ships and pigboats. The powered flight part can last from a few 10s of seconds to several proceedingss and can dwell of multiple projectile phases.
When in infinite and no more push is provided, the missile enters free-flight. In order to cover big distances, ballistic missiles are normally launched into a high sub-orbital space travel ; for intercontinental missiles the highest height ( culmination ) reached during free-flight is about 1200 kilometer.
The re-entry phase begins at an height where atmospheric retarding force plays a important portion in missile flight, and lasts until missile impact.
Quasi ballistic missiles
A quasi ballistic missile ( besides called a semi ballistic missile ) is a class of missile that has a low flight and/or is mostly ballistic but can execute manoeuvres in flight or do unexpected alterations in way and scope.
The Russian Iskander-M sails at hypersonic velocity of 2100 – 2600 m/s [ Mach 6 – 7 ] at a tallness of 50 kilometer. The Iskander-M weighs 4615 kilogram carries a payload of [ 710 – 800 kilogram ] has a scope of 480 Km and achieves a CEP of 5 – 7 metres. During flight it can steer at different heights and flights to hedge anti-ballistic missile.
SENSOR FUZED WEAPONS
The Sensor Fuzed Weapon ( SFW ) is the first and merely combat-proven, clean battleground arm of its sort in U.S. Air Force stock list. The SFW is designed to accurately observe and get the better of a broad scope of traveling and stationary combat vehicles with minimum indirect harm, while non go forthing a individual flop. The SFW contains 40 smart Skeeta„?s that are each equipped with dual-mode passive infrared ( IR ) and active optical maser detectors. Each Skeeta„? is designed with built in self-destruct characteristics and a clip out inactivation manner to render any undischarged munition ( UXO ) harmless within proceedingss of bringing, go forthing a clean battleground.
usage of advanced, computer-driven engineerings to plan a weaponry that utilizes optical masers every bit good as heat and height detectors to aim a heat beginning. For illustration, combat vehicle engines. Once deployed, the smart Skeeta„? and its two-color infrared ( IR ) sensor hunt for marks that match a defined set of IR demands, while the optical maser detector profiles those marks for improved purpose. When a valid mark is detected, the Skeeta„? fires an Explosively Formed Penetrator ( EFP ) to efficaciously punch hardened steel. If a mark is non detected, the Skeeta„? will self-destroy before making the land. This occurs with a dependability evaluation of over 99 % .
Facts About SFW
No Hazardous UXO. Each smart Skeeta„? contains double self-destruct and ego neutralisation characteristics to guarantee no risky UXO is left behind.
99 % Reliability. SFW has been strictly tested and battle proven demoing a dependability evaluation of good over 99 per centum.
Reduced Number of Warheads. A individual SFW, utilizing merely 40 smart Skeeta„?s, can carry through military missions that have historically required legion bequest bunch bombs that disperse 100s, perchance 1000s, of indiscriminate bomblets that result in risky undischarged munition ( UXO ) .
Low Collateral Damage on Battlefield. Each smart Skeeta„? payload contains merely 2.2 pounds of explosive stuff and a 1.0 pound Cu home base to use a focussed charge toward the mark.
Advanced Detectors. Unlike bequest bunch bomblets, each SFW smart Skeeta„? uses detectors, both infrared and optical maser, every bit good as sophisticated algorithms to observe and prosecute the mark below it.
Cluster weaponries or bunch bombs are air-dropped or ground-launched explosive arms that eject smaller submunitions: a bunch of bomblets. The most common types are designed to kill enemy forces and destroy vehicles. Other submunition-based arms designed to destruct tracks, electric power transmittal lines, disperse chemical or biological arms, or to disperse land mines have besides been produced. Some submunition-based arms can scatter non-munitions such as cusps.
Because bunch bombs release many little bomblets over a broad country they pose hazards to civilians both during onslaughts and afterwards. During onslaughts the arms are prone to indiscriminate effects, particularly in populated countries. Unexploded bomblets can kill or maim civilians long after a struggle has ended. Undischarged submunitions are dearly-won to turn up and take.
Cluster weaponries are prohibited for those states that ratify the Convention on Cluster Munitions, adopted in Dublin, Ireland in May 2008. The Convention entered into force and became adhering international jurisprudence on 1 August 2010.
The Pentagon has notified the US Congress of its offer to sell India CBU-105 Sensor Fuzed Weapons. [ 3 ]
Type: Freefall bomb
Weight: 927 lbs ( 420 kilogram )
Name: CBU-97 Sensor Fused Weapon ( SFW )
Length: 92 inches ( 234 centimeter )
Diameter: 15.6 inches ( 40 centimeter )
Dispenser: SW-65 tactical dispenser
Bomblets: 10 A- BLU-108/B
Warhead: Armour Piercing
Unit of measurement Cost: $ 360,000 – baseline
Most anti-armor weaponries contain molded charge payloads to pierce the armour of armored combat vehicles and armored contending vehicles. In some instances, counsel is used to increase the likeliness of successfully hitting a vehicle. Modern guided submunitions, such as those found in the U.S. CBU-97 can utilize either a molded charge payload or an explosively formed penetrator. Unguided shaped-charge submunitions are designed to be effectual against intrenchments that incorporate overhead screen. To simplify supply and increase battleground effectivity by leting a individual type of unit of ammunition to be used against about any mark, submunitions that incorporate both atomization and shaped-charge effects are produced.
Types of bunch bombs
A basic bunch bomb consists of a hollow shell and so two to more than 2,000 submunitions contained within it. Some types are dispensers that are designed to be retained by the aircraft after let go ofing their weaponries. The submunitions themselves may be fitted with little parachute retarders or streamers to decelerate their descent ( leting the aircraft to get away the blast country in low-level onslaughts ) .
Convention on Cluster Munitions
Taking affect on August 1, 2010, the “ Convention on Cluster Munitions ” [ 59 ] bans the stockpiling, usage and transportation of virtually all bing bunch bombs and provides for the uncluttering up of undischarged weaponries. It has been adopted by 108 states, of which 38 have ratified it, but many of the universe ‘s major military powers including the United States, Russia and China are non signers to the pact.
CBU-97 Sensor Fuzed Weapon
The CBU-97 Sensor Fuzed Weapon is a United States Air Force 1,000-pound-class ( 450 kilogram ) non-guided ( freefall ) Cluster Bomb Unit ( CBU ) . It was developed and produced by Textron Defense Systems.
The CBU-97 consists of an SUU-66/B tactical weaponry dispenser that contains 10 BLU-108 submunitions. Each submunition contains four hockey-puck-shaped sensor-fused missiles called Skeets. These detect marks, such as armored combat vehicles, armored forces bearers, trucks and other support vehicles, and fire an explosively formed penetrator.
The arm is deployed by US Air Force tactical aircraft from heights of 200 pess ( 60 m ) Above Ground Level ( AGL ) to 20,000 pess ( 6100 m ) Mean Sea Level ( MSL ) at velocities of 250 to 650 knots ( 460 to 1,200 kilometers per hour ) . [ 1 ]
The CBU-97 was first deployed during Operation Allied Force when the United States and NATO entered the Kosovo War, but were non used. Sensor-fused arms were foremost fired in combat during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
When the CBU-97 is used in concurrence with the Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser counsel tail kit, it is designated as CBU-105.
Anti-tank guided missile
An anti-tank guided missile ( ATGM ) or anti-tank guided arm ( ATGW ) is a guided missile chiefly designed to hit and destruct heavily-armored armored combat vehicles and other armoured combat vehicles.
ATGMs scope in size from shoulder-launched arms which can be transported by a individual soldier, to larger tripod-mounted arms which require a squad or squad to transport and fire, to vehicle and aircraft mounted missile systems.
The debut of smaller, man-portable ATGMs with larger payloads to the modern battleground has given infantry the ability to get the better of light and medium armoured armored combat vehicles at great scopes, though chief conflict armored combat vehicles utilizing composite and reactive armours have proven to resistant to smaller ATGMs. Earlier infantry anti-tank arms such as anti-tank rifles, anti-tank projectiles and magnetic anti-tank mines had limited armor-penetration abilities and/or required a soldier to near the mark closely.
First-generation manually command guided MCLOS missiles to go operational and to see combat was the Gallic Nord SS.10 in the early 1950s which require input from an operator utilizing a control stick or similar device to maneuver the missile to the mark. The disadvantage is that the operator must maintain the sights cross hairs on the mark and so maneuver the missile into the cross hairs-ie the line-of-sight. To make this the operator must be good trained ( passing 100s of hours on a simulator ) and must stay stationary and in position of the mark during the flight clip of the missile. Because of this, the operator is vulnerable while steering the missile.
Second-generation semi-automatically bid guided SACLOS missiles require the operator to merely maintain the sights on the mark until impact. Automatic counsel bids are sent to the missile through wires or wireless, or the missile relies on optical maser marker or a Television camera position from the olfactory organ of the missile. Examples are the Russian 9M133 Kornet and the American Hellfire I missiles. Again the operator must stay stationary during the missile ‘s flight.
Third-generation counsel systems rely on a optical maser, electro-optical imager, ( IIR ) searcher or a W set radio detection and ranging searcher in the olfactory organ of the missile. Once the mark is identified the missile needs no farther counsel during flight ; it is “ fire-and-forget ” , and the operator is free to withdraw. However, fire-and-forget missiles are more capable to electronic countermeasures than MCLOS and SACLOS missiles. Examples include the Russian Vikhr, German PARS 3 LR, Israeli Spike and the Indian Nag. But due to the ads of the industries of assorted antitank missiles in the yesteryear and today there is some confusion and difference as to whether the newer antitank missiles are 3rd coevals or what some are claiming are 4th coevals antitank missiles.
Most modern ATGMs have shaped-charge high explosive ( HEAT ) payloads, designed specifically for perforating armour. Tandem-charge missiles attempt to get the better of ERA protected armour. The little initial charge sets off the ERA while the follow up chief charge efforts to perforate the chief armour. Top-attack arms such as the Indian Nag and the Swedish Bill are designed to concentrate the detonation down through an armoured combat vehicle ‘s dilutant turret-roof or upper-hull armour.
All ATGMs are based on optical maser, radio detection and ranging, bid, predicted flight way or heat guided systems. Therefore RPGs and projectile launchers are non considered Anti Tank Guided Missiles.
Countermeasures against ATGMs include spaced, perforated, and composite armor, explosive reactive armor ( ERA ) , jammers like the Russian Shtora, and active protection systems ( APS ) like the Israeli Trophy and the Russian Arena. Traditionally, before “ fire-and-forget ” ATGMs were used, the most effectual countermeasure was to open fire at the location where the missile was fired from: either the operator would be forced to take screen or he would be killed.
A closeup of the Indian Nag Missile caput, with the Imaging Infrared ( IIR ) Seeker