The green edifice is portion of the construct sustainable buildings. The demand of this type of edifices has increased in the last decennaries and it is expected to go on upward. LEED ( Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ) recorded that the populace sector green edifice has increased 10 per centum while the commercial sector has increased 5 per centum of the one-year building market demand. ( Yudelson, Jerry, 2008 ) .
In order to accomplish the end of this survey, there are assorted stairss of hunts and probes used from different beginnings of information. The undermentioned subdivisions of the survey is reexamine the literature on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ( LEED ) and green edifices, this literature reappraisal was based on the printed publications, newspaper articles, books, and abstracts electronic online. The focal point of the literature reappraisal is to observe the recognized definition of green edifices and the relevant standard that used in the design and building.
2.2 Specifying a Green Building
An of import construct in nearing this thesis is specifying a green edifice, California ‘s Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery defines green edifices which is known as a sustainable edifice, as construction that designed, built, renovated, operated, or reused in a manner that is the efficient usage of resources, it designed to run into the aims such as protecting resident wellness, bettering workers and applied scientist ‘s productiveness, utilizing resources like H2O and energy more expeditiously eventually cut downing the impact of environment. ( California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery, CalRecycle ) . Jerry Yudelson, in his book The Green Building Revolution, describes a green edifice as a high-performance building that reduces its impact of the environment and human wellness. ( Yudelson, Jerry, 2008 ) . The US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009 ) defines the green edifices as constructions public presentation by utilizing treating which that is environmentally appropriate and efficiency through the usage of resources throughout a edifice ‘s life-cycle from locating to plan, building, operation, care and redevelopment. This pattern complements the classical edifice design concerns of economic system, lastingness, and comfort. Green edifice is besides known as a sustainable or high-performance edifice.
Green edifices are the building that all of its stuffs and incorporate systems are designed to cut down the impact of the environing environment on the occupants. There are many grounds for utilizing this sort of building ; the Green Building Index indicates some of these grounds as:
Green edifices are designed to salvage energy and resources, recycle stuffs and minimise the emanation of toxic substances throughout its life rhythm.
Green edifices harmonize with the local clime, traditions, civilization and the surrounding environment.
Green edifices are able to prolong and better the quality of human life whilst keeping the capacity of the ecosystem at local and planetary degrees.
Green edifices make efficient usage of resources ; have important operational nest eggs and additions workplace productiveness.
Constructing green sends the right message about a company or organisation – that it is good run, responsible, and committed to the hereafter. ( Green Building Index,2010 )
2.2 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ( LEED )
2.2.1 A brief history of LEED
The United States Green Building Council ( USGBC ) was founded in 1993 for the intent of supplying the sustainability to the building of edifices. ( USGBC ) realized that a precedence for the sustainable building industry should be defined as “ Green Building ” . They start to research on the manner to mensurate and rate the green edifices. Less than a twelvemonth after preparation, the ( USGBC ) members made their constitution of a commission to concentrate on this subject. The first LEED undertaking plan was launched at the ( USGBC ) in August 1998 and was called LEED Version 1.0, while the LEED green edifice evaluation system Version 2.0 was released in March 2000. ( Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Services, 2012 )
The LEED laminitis realized that their clients should understand the advantages of green edifices in footings of, life-cycle cost, productiveness and the ability of the market to accept these edifices. ( Emerald Architecture instance surveies in Green Building McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. , 2008 ) . This achieve through the execution of tools and standards, it will be discussed in the following parts.
2.2.2 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ( LEED ) standards
The Green Building evaluation system ( LEED ) is a standard standard its purposes to develop high-performance edifices, ( American Council for Green Building USGBC, 2004 ) , has been found this system in order to:
Develop a common criterion for measurement.
Promote integrated edifice design.
Recognize environmental leading in the edifices sector.
Encourage competition in the field of “ green edifices ” .
Raise consumer consciousness of the benefits of high public presentation edifices.
Change edifice ‘s market.
Rating systems was developed by the USGBC for different types of edifices, Figure 1, shows each type with their ain standard.
LEED Rating System for Different Types of Buildings
Each evaluation system can be taking depend on the building type, these include:
New Construction: this type is appropriate for edifices which are non under the class of educational, retail, or health care, its utilizations high rise ( 7+stories ) residential edifices.
Existing Buildings: this type is appropriate for bing edifices under development or betterment without physique. There is merely one evaluation system in this class, LEED for Operations and Maintenance.
Commercial Insides: this type is appropriate for insides dedicated to other undertakings of retail.
Core and Shell Construction: this type is appropriate for edifices that are under building or through redevelopment on its outside shell and nucleus mechanical, electrical, and plumbing units. There is merely one evaluation system in this class, LEED for Core and Shell.
Schools: this type is required for edifices made up of nucleus and auxiliary acquisition infinites and non-academic edifices on school campuses. There is merely one evaluation system in this class, LEED for Schools Rating System.
Retail and Commercial Interior Construction: this type is appropriate for commercial interior infinites and that are undergoing a complete interior fit-out of at least 60 % of the attesting gross floor country. There are two evaluation systems in this class: LEED for Commercial Interiors LEED for Retail: Commercial Insides.
Health Care: this type is required for edifices that serve persons who seek medical intervention, besides appropriate for edifices with other sorts of medically-related utilizations, such as unaccredited outpatient installations, medical, dental and veterinary offices and clinics. These are considered LEED for Healthcare.
Homes: this type is appropriate for residential edifices.
( LEED Rating System Selection Guidance, USGBC, 2009 )
LEED uses a point based-rating system. Points are given for each standard that has been met. The chief thought of LEED system is to supply a comprehensive model for measuring the public presentation of edifices in order to accomplish sustainability ends. These points start from 26 points up to a sum of 69 points. ( American Council for Green Building USGBC, 2004 ) , has been clarified these standards in the undermentioned tabular array:
Degrees of certifications of rating system LEED
26 to 32
33 to 38
39 to 51
more than 69 points
Table 1: Degrees of certifications of rating system LEED
These points are distributed on sustainable development schemes for the sustainable sites, H2O efficiency, energy and atmosphere, stuffs and resources and indoor environmental quality of edifices. These estimations are prepared in the signifier of classs ; each class has a peculiar figure of points. The undermentioned subdivision shows an analysis of these classs:
Sustainable sites / 14 points – this class require design a program for deposit and eroding, and must be followed by site choice certain conditions, such as deficiency of presence on the protected home grounds or in public Parkss. Points are awarded on:
urban renovation and Fieldss construction.
provide inducements for transit option ;
cut downing perverting building sites ;
cut downing the impact of building ;
execution program and a system for storm H2O direction ;
cut down light pollution ;
landscape and exterior design, which limits the heat island.
Reduce pollution from building activity, avoid development of inappropriate sites and cut down the environmental impacts of the location on the edifice at the site. Sustainable can besides be in mention to alternate transit, impacts from light pollution and heat island consequence.
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Sustainable ( Green ) Building – Green Building Basics, California Integrated Waste Management Board, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.calrecycle.ca.gov/GreenBuilding/Basics.htm ( accessed 19-2-2013 ) ( accessed 19-2-2013 ) .
Definition of Green Building, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.epa.gov/greenbuilding/pubs/about.htm.
Green Building Index, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greenbuildingindex.org/ ( accessed 20-2-2013 ) .
History of LEED, Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Services hypertext transfer protocol: //sites.google.com/site/businessrecovery, ( accessed 21-2-2013 ) .
USGBC- United States Green Building Council ( 2006 ) [ Online ] Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.usgbc.org/ ( accessed 21-2-2013 ) .
Yudelson, Jerry, “ Green Buildings Today, ” Chapter 1, The Green Building Revolution, Island Press, 2008
Diaries and Reports
Emerald Architecture instance surveies in Green Building, Green Source Magazine, Chapter 1, A Green Building Primer, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. , 2008.
LEED Rating System Selection Guidance, U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. ( USGBC ) , 2009.