Absolutism in Eastern Europe: c. 1600-1740
I. Overview of Eastern Europe ( —HOP RAP“ )
A. Three aging empires-Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire and Polish Kingdom-gave manner to new imperiums of Russia, Austria and Prussia
1. Holy Roman Empire ( HRE ) : spiritual divisions due to the Reformation and spiritual wars in 16th and 17th centuries split Germany among Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist princes
2. Ottoman Empire: could non keep ownerships in eastern Europe and the Balkans in the face of Austrian and Russian enlargement
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a. Ottoman Empire was built on enlargement
· The Sultan had absolute power in the imperium
· After 1560 the diminution in western enlargement resulted in the gradual decomposition of the imperium
b. Suleiman the Magnificent ( d. 1566 ) was possibly the most powerful swayer in the universe during the sixteenth century
· About conquered Austria in 1529, captured Belgrade ( Serbia ) , about 1/2 of eastern Europe including all Balkan districts, most of Hungary, and portion of southern Russia.
c. Highly talented Christian kids from the conquered states were incorporated into the Ottoman Empire‘s bureaucratism
d. —Janissary corps“ : those Christian slaves who were non selected for the Ottoman bureaucratism served loyally alternatively in the Turkish ground forces
e. Ottoman Empire was reasonably tolerant sing faith in its conquered states
3. Poland: liberum veto ? vote in Polish parliament had to be consentaneous for alterations to be made ; therefore, small could be done to consistently beef up the land
· By 1800, Poland ceased to be as a autonomous province ; carved up by Russia, Austria and Prussia
3.3: Absolutism in Eastern Europe
B. Eastern European tyranny differed from Gallic tyranny
1. Eastern tyranny was based on a powerful aristocracy, weak in-between category, and an laden peasantry composed of helot.
2. In France, the nobility‘s power had been limited, the middle-class was comparatively strong, and provincials were by and large free from serfhood.
· Louis XIV built Gallic tyranny upon the foundations of a well-developed medieval monarchy and a strong royal bureaucratism.
C. Threat of war with European and Asiatic encroachers were of import motives for eastern European monarchs‘ thrust to consolidate power.
1. Resulted in decreased political power of the aristocracy.
· However, Lords gained much greater power over the peasantry.
2. Three of import methods of deriving absolute power:
a. Kings imposed and collected lasting revenue enhancements without the consent of their topics.
B. States maintained lasting standing ground forcess.
c. States conducted dealingss with other provinces as they pleased.
3. Absolutism in eastern Europe reached its tallness with Peter the Great of Russia.
· Absolutism in Prussia was stronger than in Austria.
II. Serfdom in eastern Europe
A. After 1300, Godheads in eastern Europe revived serfhood to battle increasing economic challenges.
1. Areas most affected included Bohemia, Silesia, Hungary, eastern Germany, Poland, Lithuania, and Russia.
2. Drop in population in the fourteenth century ( particularly from the —Black Death“ ) created enormous labour deficits and difficult times for Lords.
3. Godheads demanded that their male monarchs and princes issue Torahs curtailing or extinguishing peasants‘ right of traveling freely
a. By 1500 Prussian districts had Torahs necessitating blowout provincials to be hunted down and returned to their Godheads
B. Laws were passed that froze provincials in their societal category.
4. Godheads confiscated peasant lands and imposed heavier labour duties.
5. The legal system was monopolized by the local Godhead.
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