2nd Generation (1956-1963).
This generation using the transistors for replacing vacuum tubes, the transistors first invented in 1947 at Bell Labs. Transistors weren’t used significantly in computers until the end of the 1950s.In any case they were better than the vacuum tubes, making computers smaller, faster, cheaper and less heavy on electricity use. More reliable and more energy-efficient, than first-generation predecessors, the language evolved from cryptic binary language to symbolic languages. They still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
3rd Generation (1964-1971).
Third generation of computers developed by the integrated circuits, a single integrated circuit has many transistors, resistors and capacitors along with the associated circuitry. By this phase, transistors were now being miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors. This generation massive increased the speed and efficiency of these computers. These were the first computers where users interacted using keyboards and monitors who interfaced with an operating system, a significant leap up from the punch cards and printouts. As a result of these advances third generation computers became cheaper and smaller than their predecessors