During the inter-war years, Europeans in Germany and Italy supported radical ideologies because these ideas made the future for their nations look more prosperous and powerful. (Essay writing help for college students here) Although the people wanted peace, they were told that in order to gain their rightful place as leaders in the world they had to use imperialism to get there. Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, and the Spartacists??™ sold the idea of collectivism in order gain popularity with their people. While the Spartacists??™ wanted peace with no violence and collectivism for all, Hitler and Mussolini wanted only collectivism within their nation and thought violence was necessary to achieve their goals. For Germany, Hitler thought it would be in their best interest to make the Germanic people the superior race while the Spartacist believed equality for all would work in favour for Germany. Mussolini believed Italy would reign supreme as long as they followed a Fascism lifestyle and brought themselves back to being a nation of power. The ideologies at this time worked in the favour of those who sold them because the people of Germany and Italy were looking for change and the people were also afraid of the consequences if they decided to rebel against these new ideas. For those that opposed war and wanted equality they had the Spartacists and there communist ideas. For those who wanted to be in a more powerful nation and become a part of the state as a whole they followed the ideas of Hitler??™s Socialist party or Mussolini??™s Fascist party.
One of the main ideas for these parties was collectivism. This was a main focal point in all of the sources written by these new radical groups. They wanted to make the people feel united by taking away their individualism, they would become a nation or at least that is what they wanted the people to believe. Mussolini went as far as saying that ???this will be the century of collectivism???1 addressing that individualism was now a part of the past. Hitler also agreed that collectivism was the best way to bring change into a nation. In order for Germany to become a more, dominate nation Hitler had to convince its people that he was bringing everyone together and he did so by using propaganda. He said, ???The task of propaganda does not lie in the scientific training of individuals, but in directing the masses???.2 Both leaders needed the support of everyone to make sure that no real threat of rebellions formed against them therefore overpowering their ideas. The Spartacist idea of collectivism was to secure peace and equality throughout all class levels eventually eliminating separate entities of individualistic dominance, this is what was ruling Germany and the world. They required ???the solidarity of the proletarians of the world???3 to ensure that peace would hold and equality would survive.
Each group held their own opinion of how their nation was going to survive. The Spartacists knew that in order to do this, they needed people to live so that they could restore working order and that meant no more war or bloodshed. After the first war they said ???This must be the last war!..we owe that to humanity.???4 The Spartacists wanted industrialization to continue
peacefully without the interruption of war and the consequences it had on the people involved. Europeans having just come out of a war supported a time of peace. For Mussolini however, he felt it was necessary to have a war every so often to keep the order of the state in balance with its people. He was willing to take serious action against anyone who opposed the movement in Italy.5 Hitler decided that Germany needed to survive by keeping its Germanic race alive and dominate. He used anti-semantic propaganda to make the Jewish people look like they were the ones to blame for all the awful things that were happening to the Germans, and that they were ???racially poisoning individuals (the Germanic people).???6 So in order to survive and keep the superior Germanic people alive and pure blooded, Hitler proposed that the Jewish people should no longer exist.
However, not all of Hitler??™s ideas were full racism; he did feel it was necessary to expand Germany??™s borders to give his people more ???living space???7. He convinced the people of Germany he would do this honourably by fighting for the land and not having it handed over as a gift. The same ideas worked in favour of Mussolini, as he wanted to prove to Italy that they could once again be as powerful as Rome once was. Mussolini called the ???expansion of the nation…essential???8 and this made the people of Italy feel like they could finally believe in someone that was willing to prepare Italy for any means of war and survival. On the other end of the spectrum the Spartacist were hoping to achieve the opposite and wanted to see Socialism take on an Internationalist perspective. They wanted everyone to unite and ???stretch out their hands to each other under the banner of socialism for the purpose of making peace???.9 This idea worked for the people who had strong feelings about never returning to war again as well as those who were tired of living in a Germany ruled by separation of class.
Europeans during this period were feeling let down by previous governments and rulers. Therefore, when these new ideologies appeared with the promise of a better future many Europeans could not refuse the opportunity. Whether it was the idea of becoming a class less country that supported peace and equality or becoming a powerful, independent and militarised nation, the change is what the Europeans felt was necessary. These radical ideologies were accepted because the people behind the ideas truly wanted to change Europe for what they thought was a more thriving future. By making Europeans feel like they were part of a large movement and that, they were no longer alone in their fight to change the government the Spartacists, Mussolini, and Hitler won the approval of the people. They used their ideas to shift the views of the people to make their goals more achievable and succeeded in doing so.
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Hitler, Adolf. ???Mein Kampf??? in Sources of European History since 1900, edited by Nancy Blaine 154-158.U.S.A: Pre-Press PMG, 2011
Mussolini, Benito. ???Fascist Doctrines??? in Sources of European History since 1900, edited by Nancy Blaine 138-140.U.S.A: Pre-Press PMG, 2011
The Spartacists. ???Spartacist Manifesto??? in Sources of European History since 1900, edited by Nancy Blaine 141-142.U.S.A: Pre-Press PMG, 2011