Abstract – The Sun energy or solar energy is a portion of widely recognized renewable energy beginnings and it can be utilized for the benefit of mankind.A The solar energy is clean, renewable andA environmental friendly. In Malaysia, solar energy potency has non been utilized widely till late and this application has been turning quickly particularly in urban country. Now, many fantastic solar powered applications, A from simple solarA reckoner to complexA commercialA lighting, H2O pump to chilling system, fan toA CCTV and manyA other advanced solar powered applications have been invented to back up our day-to-day life.A Solar powered merchandises aid salvaging money, A creatingA better environment for us and future coevalss. However, the chief jobs that restricting the solar use are the dearly-won equipment, wrongly choice of the peak sunlight location and the solar energy is non available at all clip. In this work, coevals of electricity from solar energy by utilizing photovoltaic engineering and the hereafter of solar energy are presented.
Augustin Mouchout ( 1825-1911 ) was labeled as “ solar energy innovator ” . He is the 1 who design and construct the first reflector devices known as axicons. These devices were intended to concentrate sunlight along the cardinal axis of the cone and let the radiation to be uniformly distributed along the exterior of a cannular endoergic surface, therefore relieving some of the danger of firing a hole in an underfilled boiler. Besides, he besides invented the first active solar motor. In 1861, Mouchout developed a steam engine powered wholly by the Sun. Its high costs coupled with the falling monetary value of English coal doomed his innovation to go a footer in energy history.
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Figure 1: Axicon, designed by Mouchout
However, solar energy continued to pull European scientists through the nineteenth century. However, the Sun ‘s energy is intermittent and undependable. Therefore, when fossil fuel-fired engineerings were developed and able to bring forth big sums of heat, people all around the universe adopted them. Interest in the Sun as an energy beginning was quickly decreased. This revolution in energy use began with coal, so oil and other energy beginnings shortly followed. Some interior decorators continued to construct with the Sun in head, but merely where and when the monetary value of fossil fuels was high.
The dodo fuels has become the chief energy beginning of the universe now. However, their supply is limited and it will be more expensive and hard to happen and work in future old ages. Besides, fossil fuels besides cause serious pollution such as acerb rain and are making the nursery consequence. Due to these grounds, the renewable beginnings of energy are progressively exploited as a beginning of power. Presents, solar energy is one of the preferable beginnings of energy even though with limited engineering available to tackle the energy into a utile one. Photovoltaic or solar cell, is semiconductor device that being used to change over sunshine into direct current electricity. This paper is traveling to cover some of the basic constructs, constituents, and applications of PV. Besides, it besides discusses complete analysis of photovoltaic system every bit good.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Harmonizing to ( Wikipedia ) ,
Photovoltaic ( PV ) is a method of bring forthing electrical power from harnessed solar energy by utilizing photovoltaic consequence. Photovoltaic power coevals usage photovoltaic stuff such as monocrystalline Si, polycrystalline Si, formless Si, Cd telluride, and Cu In selenide/sulfide to bring forth electrical power. A photovoltaic system is a system which uses solar cells to change over sunshine into electricity. A photovoltaic system consists of multiple constituents, including cells, mechanical and electrical connexions and climbs and agencies of modulating or modifying the electrical end product. A solar vehicle is an electric vehicle powered by solar electricity. This is obtained from solar panels on the surface of the vehicle or utilizing a solar jacket in electric bikes. Photovoltaic ( PV ) cells convert the Sun ‘s energy straight into electrical energy.
Harmonizing to Jack Hollingum ( 2001 ) ,
The sum of power available from a PV device is determined by the type and country of the stuff, the strength of the sunshine and the wavelength of the sunshine.
Cynthia Graber ( March 2008 ) stated that,
Large-scale solar power workss require a immense sum of infinite. To get the better of this job, Israeli research workers late patented a system called solar-collecting balloons. The helium-filled Earths will be covered with thin-film, flexible photovoltaic panels to capture Sun ‘s beams. Designs that proposed before include natation and winging solar arrays. But this is a modular system, tethered to the land through a system of overseas telegrams. Some overseas telegrams will present He to the balloons, others will transport the solar energy back to Earth.
III. PHOTOVOLTAIC ( PV )
Photovoltaic ( known as PV subsequently on ) consequence is the transition of light photons into electrical electromotive force. PV is a method of bring forthing electrical power by change overing solar radiation into direct current electricity utilizing semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic consequence. Materials soon used for PV include monocrystalline Si, polycrystalline Si, formless Si, Cd telluride, and Cu In selenide/sulfide.[ 1 ]
Figure 2: Basic Components of Photovoltaic Cell
Silicon PV cell is composed of a thin wafer consisting of an ultra-thin bed of phosphorus-doped ( N-type ) Si on top of a thicker bed of boron-doped ( P-type ) Si. Advantages of utilizing thin movies are easy deposition and assembly, the ability to be deposited on cheap substrates and high suitableness to big applications. An electrical field is created near the top surface of the cell where these two stuffs are in contact, called the P-N junction. When light radiances on the top surface of PV cell, the electrical field will provides impulse and way to light-stimulated negatrons ensuing in a buildup of electromotive force between 2 junctions.[ 2 ]
Figure 2: 51 kilowatt PV system on the warehouse roof
The end product of power from a PV device is determined by type and country of the stuff, the strength of the sunshine and the wavelength of the sunshine. In full sunshine, where the radiation falling on the Earth ‘s surface is 1kW/m2, a typical Si PV cell of 100cm2 will bring forth about 1.5 Wattss of power at 0.5V DC. A characteristic of PV cells is that the electromotive force does non depend on the size of the cell and remains reasonably changeless with altering light strength. However, the current is about straight relative to light strength and size.
IV. PHOTOVOLTAIC ( PV ) SYSTEM
A PV system consists of multiple constituents, including cells, mechanical and electrical connexions and climbs. Since a individual solar panel can merely bring forth a limited sum of power, so several cells are combined together into photovoltaic faculties and connected together into an array in order to make more power. PV systems are same with other electrical power bring forthing systems. PV array needs a figure of other constituents to carry on, control, convert, distribute, and store the energy produced. The specific constituents include DC-AC power inverter, battery bank, battery charge accountant, subsidiary energy beginnings and sometimes the specified electrical burden.
Batteries are frequently used in PV systems for the intent of hive awaying energy produced by the PV array during daylight, and to provide electrical tonss during dark and when there is low light strength. Besides, batteries used for grounds PV array can run near its maximal power, tonss are supplied at stable electromotive forces and to provide rush currents to electrical tonss and inverters. Normally, battery charge accountant is used to protect the battery from overcharge and overdischarge. The balance of system ( BOS ) depends on the burden profile and the system type. Difference types of system are designed and the highest energy output system will be used in a peculiar investing.
V. TYPES OF PHOTOVOLTAIC ( PV ) SYSTEM
PV power systems are by and large classified harmonizing to their functional and operational demands, their component constellations, and their connexion to other power beginnings and electrical tonss.[ 3 ]The three types of PV system are grid-connected systems, stand-alone systems and intercrossed system.
Grid-connected PV systems are designed to run in analogue with and interconnected with the electric public-service corporation grid. The primary constituent in grid-connected PV systems is the grid-controlled inverter. The grid-controlled inverter transforms the DC power into AC power and provender into the grid when there is inordinate electricity produced. The PV system AC end product circuits are bidirectional interface between electric public-service corporation and distribution panel. When the electrical tonss are greater than the PV system end product, the balance of power required by the tons is received from the electric public-service corporation. This safety characteristic is required in all grid-connected PV systems so that the PV system will non go on to run and feed back into the public-service corporation grid when the grid is down for service or fix.
Figure 3: Diagram of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System
Stand-alone PV systems are designed to run independent of the electric public-service corporation grid. It does non hold any connexion to the electricity brinies and merely powered by a PV array merely. The generated power demand to be buffered with a battery if the burden is supplied independently of isolation. The system may be integrated with a charge accountant to avoid battery damaged by inordinate charging or discharging and optimising the production of the faculties by maximal power point trailing ( MPPT ) . The DC power is consumed in little devices such as ticker or reckoners. However, an inverter needs to be used to change over the DC ( from the faculties or batteries ) into AC in larger systems such as distant edifices or ballistic capsule.
Figure 4: Diagram of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System
A intercrossed PV system is about same with the stand-alone system, merely that wind turbine or an engine-generator is being used as an subsidiary power beginning. However, more than one renewable signifier of energy may be used inside this system. The PV power coevals serves to cut down the ingestion of non renewable fossil-fuels. Nowadays, intercrossed systems are largely found on islands and usually this system are combined with air current turbine.
Figure 5: Diagram of Hybrid Photovoltaic System
VI. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOLAR ENERGY
The first advantage of solar energy is it is free of cost. Solar energy is wholly free and merely needs an initial capital cost for PV installing and the energy can be harnessed from the Sun freely. It can run for many old ages with small care and the operating cost is highly low compared to other power workss. Besides that, solar energy coevals is economically superior when the grid connexion is dearly-won and impossible to make certain topographic points. Therefore, it is used particularly in distant locations, island communities and orbiters. Third, solar energy is clean and environment friendly, but the most of import is it is renewable. It works wheresoever there is sunshine available. Solar energy helps to salvage our planet from pollution if it is widely implemented all over the universe.
On the other manus, solar energy is an intermittent energy beginning. It relies entirely on the sunlight during twenty-four hours clip. However, the Sun does n’t reflect systematically 8 hours every twenty-four hours. So, less electricity will be produced during blowy clip. Although sunlight is free of cost, but the PV cells installing are dearly-won. The initial capital cost is highly high and it is non low-cost by most of the people. Furthermore, choice of peak sunlight location is really of import as good. Location of puting solar panels must be precisely calculated so that these solar panels can acquire the maximal sun array. Ideally, orientation of panels is best at true South and should n’t be capable to any shading.
Solar Water Heater
In solar power warming, Sun ‘s heat is used to heat H2O in glass panels which usually put on the roof. Water is pumped through the painted black pipes in the panel. The pipes are painted black because the black colour will absorb more heat compared to other colour. This warming system will decidedly cut down occupants ‘ monthly electricity measure since the sunlight is free and will ne’er stop.
Figure 6: Solar Water Heating System
Solar furnace usage big sum of mirrors to concentrate the Sun ‘s energy into a little country. After period of clip, a really high temperature up to 3000oC will be produced. The high temperature might be used for power coevals intent.
A solar vehicle is an electric vehicle powered by solar electricity.[ 4 ]PV cells are being installed in the solar vehicle to change over Sun ‘s energy into electrical energy. Normally, the PV cells are put on the surface of the vehicle.
VIII. FUTURE OF SOLAR ENERGY
Scientists have suggested big measure of PV arrays to be topographic point in infinite orbit. These arrays would bring forth big sum of power and are called Solar Space Power Satellites ( SSPSs ) . The gathered energy would direct back to the Earth power station in microwaves type.
Figure 7: Transmission of Solar Energy from Solar Space Power Satellites ( SSPSs )
Solar power workss usually cover immense package of the infinite. Solar roll uping balloons have been proposed to work out this job. The helium-filled Earths will be covered with thin-film, flexible photovoltaic panels to capture Sun ‘s beams.[ 5 ]Some overseas telegrams will present He to the balloons while others will transport the solar energy back to the Earth. Furthermore, this system can be easy expanded by hooking up another balloon if more power is needed. However, few challenges such as cut downing the weight of the balloons, covering with air current, and planing the optimum system for transporting the energy down to the surface demand to be solve to do solar balloons become realistic.
In a nutshell, everything human bash and pattern has the pros and cons. As for solar energy, it is more to the affair of environment concern as some conventional energy beginnings such as fossil-fuels contribute high emanations to the environments. In the tropical state such as Malaysia, the solar energy potency must be to the full utilised. The R & A ; D Centre every bit good as the universities must make more research on solar energy to entree the solar energy application potency for proper use. However, the engineering of change overing the Sun energy into electrical power is really expensive presents. Thus this engineering must be improved so that we can acquire a cheaper PV cell one twenty-four hours. By making so, more and more solar power workss can be built.
Ten. LIST OF REFERENCES[ 1 ] Jack Hollingum. ( 2001 ) . “ Space Technology Comes Down to Earth ” , Volume 21, Number 2, page 112-117, from hypertext transfer protocol: // www.emeraldinsight.com+journals.pdf [ 2 ] Florida Solar Energy Centre, How PV Cells Work, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/solar_electricity/basics/how_pv_cells_work.htm [ 3 ] Wikipedia. Photovoltaic, from hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaics [ 4 ] Wikipedia. Photovoltaic System, from hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaic_system [ 5 ] Florida Solar Energy Centre, Types of PV Systems, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/solar_electricity/basics/types_of_pv.htm [ 4 ] Jyoti Lata Pandey. , M.K. Banerjee. , Energy Conservation with the Use of Solar Selective Coatings. Volume 45, Number 1, page 16-24. Retrieved 1998, from www.emeraldinsight.com+journals.pdf [ 5 ] Wikipedia. Solar Vehicle, from hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_vehicle [ 6 ] James E. Dudenhoefer and Patrick J. George, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. ( 2000 ) . Space Solar Power
Satellite Technology Development at the Glenn Research Center-An Overview. Retrieve July, 2000, from
hypertext transfer protocol: //gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/reports/2000/TM-2000-210210.pdf[ 7 ] Cynthia Graber. ( n.d ) . Solar Energy via Balloons. Retrieved March 28, 2008, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode.cfm? id=F2D473A3-AEBE-C31F-E672CBB36BAF7E89