Analysing the use of solar power

Solar power is the energy generated by the radiation of the Sun, more specifically the radiation that reaches the Earth. The energy received the by the Sun in signifier of radiation can be converted straight or indirectly into signifiers of energy, such as heat and electricity. The sum of energy from the Sun that falls on Earths is unmeasurable. Solar power came into being more than billion old ages ago, nevertheless the usage of this renewable beginning of energy has been in pattern from earlier period of century, still the technicians from all over the universe are working and discussion how to come on this renewable beginning of energy which is wholly free.

Ursula ( 2006 ) demonstrated a square meter of horizontal Earth surface receives, under German clime conditions, between 925 KWh/m2 in the North to 1170 KWh/m2 in the south solar irradiance yearly. The sum of energy received by radiation of Sun a day-to-day norm of around 3 KWh/m2.

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From last few old ages people start put ining solar panels on roof of house and are pin downing solar energy for their electricity. By the aid of advanced engineering the usage of solar energy is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. The later frequent usage of the solar power H2O warming, solar autos, solar pump and solar electricity which can be used in any contraptions used in house.


The term photovoltaic has been in used in English since 1849. It comes from the Greek word “ phos ” , intending “ light ” and “ galvanic ” intending electrical. The “ Gur ” derived from the name of the Italian physicist Volta, by whom the unit of electrical possible V is named. However, until 1883 the solar cell was n’t built, but at the same clip Charles Fritts coated the semiconducting material Se with an highly thin bed of gold, to organize the junctions. The efficiency of Se semiconducting material cell was non excessively much. So in later on in 1946 Russel Ohl invented modern type of cell. In 1954 Bell Laboratories accidently found that when semiconducting material Si doped with certain drosss can give 6 % efficiency in energy transition by sunshine. In 1958, US satellite Vanguard 1 launched the first ballistic capsule with solar panels. In 1970, Zhores Alfervo and squad of USSR researches created the first extremely effectual Gallium arsenide ( GaAs ) heterostructure solar cells. In 1988, Applied Solar Energy Corporation ( ASEC ) manufactured the first 17 % efficient air mass nothing ( AMO ) single-junction GaAS solar cells. In 1993, ASEC developed the first double junction cells for ballistic capsule which start giving efficiency of 20 % . However, than Triple Junction solar cells developed which increase the efficiency about 24 % in 2002, 28 % in 2005 and in 2007 has reached 30 % . In 2007, the two companies of US, Emcore Photovoltaic and Spectrolab produced 95 % of Triple Junction solar cells with the efficiency of 38 % .

16th of October 2008, 15:32 GMT | By Georgiana Bobolicu, hypertext transfer protocol: // ( 07/11/2010 )

1.1 The advantages and disadvantages of solar energy

The advantages of solar power are increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours in day-to-day utilizations and in industries utilizations, although it is a comparatively new energy beginning. In future it ‘s traveling to be the most of import energy beginning. Solar power is a renewable resource. However, the solar panel does non work in dark or on stormy, cloudy yearss. But the Sun appears following twenty-four hours and it is ready to give more energy and visible radiation. Solar power is non-polluting. It the most of import advantage because it does non breathe any nursery gases. The solar power is one clip investing method, one time the solar panel is set up ; there is no electrical disbursals lifetime. The solar cells are wholly soundless. The solar cells required really small care because there will be no traveling parts they need to be fixed. However, the solar power has excessively many advantages but it got some disadvantages every bit good like it is excessively much expensive. The initial costs of the equipment used in solar panels are excessively dearly-won, particularly the solar cells which is made of Si crystal which is adult really easy. Silicon crystals growing from pure Si and the procedure is excessively slow and expensive. The solar energy installings require big country to put in ; this is the disadvantage in countries where infinite is short like interior metropolis. Pollution is besides the one of the most disadvantages of the solar panels, as pollution can diminish the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. The solar energy work merely when the Sun is reflecting, but during dark the expensive solar equipment will be useless. The different location has different affect public presentation, due to obstructors from the environing edifices or landscape.

1.2 Rural electrification of India

Rural electrification means supplying the electricity to the rural country. By supplying the electricity to rural countries in developing states enhances the quality of life. There are tonss of small towns in India have no electricity and are non expected to be connected. Panda ( 2007 ) demonstrate that rural electrification in India is one of the biggest challenges. Until now merely 42-44 % of Indian small town are acquiring the installation of electricity still there are 77-88 million families still require the entree to the electricity. However, the photovoltaic electricity is best beginning of electricity for rural portion of India. Hansen and Bower ( 2003 ) demonstrate that the status of Indian clime is extremely suited for the solar photovoltaic engineering. In India there are about 250-300 cheery yearss in a twelvemonth. Solar energy provides 4-7kwh/m2 in India whereas it provides merely 2.7kwh/m2 in UK and Germany.

Figure 1.2 Increase in installed power capacity by solar system hypertext transfer protocol: // ( 17/11/2010 )

The overall aim of this study is to plan a peculiar system which is capable of coevals of power by agencies of solar concentration for usage in exigency in state of affairss of an bing off-grid state of affairs. The purpose of this undertaking is towards the apprehension every bit good as the development of a cost effectual system which would be considered as moderately low-cost for the intent of the freshly developing parts of the India. This system should be capable of using the available beginnings and it should incorporate a simple to advance the thought of mending rather easy. However, in order to make this end it is imperative that a few cardinal research aims must be met. The cardinal aims include word picture of the solar PV panel and the charge accountant so that it is possible to find the overall efficiency of the system. This word picture of the different constituents of the constructed system will assist in future work thoughts on a similar undertaking which is aimed towards increasing the efficiency every bit good as the overall end product of power.

The chief purpose of the undertaking is to plan a system which is more efficiency and low in monetary value for solar energy coevals which supply power to the houses which are based in a small town in certain countries of India.

1.3 Objective

To larn that beaming energy can be converted straight into electricity.

Understand the construction of a photovoltaic system, and its subsystems.

Advancement on accomplishments and know-how to pattern economical photovoltaic solar panel.

To larn how to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic solar panel.




Gathering information about solar energy, working and its history


How much it good for the off-grid country and the working of solar panel system and subsystem


Comparing the monetary value and efficiency of bing theoretical account and new theoretical account

Design of solar faculty

Parameter of solar subsystem


Of system and subsystem


Design of solar system and subsystem

Working Model

Solar panel theoretical account

Technology Analysis

Checking the working of the theoretical account

Analysis OF RESULT

Checking the electromotive force and current of the new theoretical account



Economic and efficient solar panel for the off-grid country for two bulbs


Checking how to increasing the efficiency of the theoretical account

Reading: – Gathering information about the solar panel and the photovoltaic system. Roll uping information about solar panel history and background from different resources.

Research: – Rural electrification of India and off-grid country of India. Supplying the graph for the rate of solar power installing increasing in India. The advantages and disadvantages of solar system and by the base of it the purpose and aim of the undertaking. The brief accounts of the working of solar system and the constituent of solar system ( subsystem )

Patent: – choosing the cheap and efficient subsystem for the solar system and making a economical and efficient solar faculty for the solar system.

Draft design: – Sketch design of working of solar system and the solar panel and the parametric quantity of all the subsystem. Comparing the selected subsystems from the other subsystems. Describing the constituent of the new theoretical account of solar system and explicating the series connexion of solar cells.

Working of theoretical account: – Explaining the bonding of solar cells in series to obtain the require electromotive force to bear down the 12V battery and the advantages of all the subsystem selected and their monetary value and inside informations. Explaining the each measure of modeling of solar panel.

Engineering analysis: – Checking the working of the new theoretical account and their subsystem. If the system is working than travel to analysis procedure if non travel back to the working theoretical account and look into the theoretical account once more.

Analysis of consequence: – Checking the electromotive force of the whole system and bear downing the 12V battery to glow the CFL bulb. If the electromotive force is non obtained to bear down the 12V battery once more checks the theoretical account of solar faculty.

Validate: – Increasing the efficient of the theoretical account and explicating the advantages in efficiency and the hereafter solar panels.

Decision: – Design of economical and efficient solar panel for the off-grid country for glow two CFL bulbs.

3. Solar power

The Sun supply energy in the signifier of radiation, lacking of which being on the Earth is non possible. The Sun radiates energy due to the merger which generates which alteration H atoms into He. In the other word we can state Sun is the tremendous atomic merger reactor. The energy supply from the Sun is limitless. Markvart ( 1994 ) states that the mean energy received by the Sun is about 1.2*1017W, in norm in one hr the Sun supply adequate energy to the Earth surface which can fulfill the full energy demand of the human population over the whole twelvemonth. The strength of solar radiation depends upon the distance between the Sun and the Earth outside of the Earth ‘s ambiance. Deutsche ( 2008 ) demonstrate that the Sun radiation reach Earth about after going 1.47 ten 108km and 1.52 ten 108km, by which the irradiance Eo fluctuates between 1325W/m2 and 1412W/m2. The mean value is called as the solar invariable.

Solar invariable: Eo = 1367W/m2

The whole irradiance ne’er reach Earth ‘s surface, the Earth ‘s atmosphere reduces the insularity through contemplation and soaking up by ozone, H2O vapor, O and C dioxide and sprinkling caused by air molecules, dust atoms or pollution. The irradiance value depends on the part. Largely the equator parts reach the maximal irradiance of 2300kWh/m2 per twelvemonth. As shown in the figure 3.1 the different irradiance depending on the part.

Figure 3.1 Worldwide distribution of one-year solar irradiance in kWh/m2

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Krishnadas ( 2008 ) reported that the largest solar power undertaking of the universe is supposedly entity planned in western India at Gujarat at a cost of approximately $ 5 billion, which will bring forth power about 5 gig Watts. State authorities of Gujarat, Ahmadabad said that the entire cost of the tremendous undertaking will be less than pervious the power coevals undertaking. The functionary said that it will cut down the cost of power coevals from 25 % to 10 % .

3.1 Photovoltaic cells

Photograph means light and galvanic refers to volt, a unit of electrical force. Photovoltaic has two really of import purposes in its country of application. First provide professional devices and supply systems for off-grid country ( solar place system, solar pump and telecommunication equipment ) and secondly energy coevals at the big graduated table. It is the engineering in which photons illuminated by the semiconducting material stuff in consequence generates direct current electrical power measured in Watts or kW.

3.2 Working of solar cells

The operation of solar cells is due to the ability of semiconducting materials to change over sunlight straight into electricity. Largely the semiconducting materials use in solar cells is silicon crystal. The Sun is composed of photon and this photon contains assorted sum of energy. This photon strike the solar cell and they reflected or absorbed, merely the captive photons generates electricity. By the aid of semiconducting material the energy of photon is transferred to an negatron in an atom of cells. The captive photons excite the bond negatrons into a higher energy province, assist them to travel free. These free negatrons start traveling in all way go forthing the holes where it was bonded. The negative negatrons will travel to N-layer and the positive holes got to the P-layer. The P-N type junction created in solar cells and the working of the solar cells shown in the figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2 P-N junction of solar cells beginning hypertext transfer protocol: // % 20is % 20a % 20Solar % 20Cell % 20.htm ( 12/11/2010 )

The P-N junction formed by puting P-type and N-type semiconducting material next to each other, Although the stuffs are electrically impersonal, the negative Si has extra negatrons and the positive Si has extra holes, seting these together creates P-N junction at their interface and electric field generates.












3.3 Features of solar cells

The electromotive forces of the solar cells depend upon the stuff selected in semiconducting material. hypertext transfer protocol: // ( 12/11/2010 )

In the Si semiconducting material there is merely 0.5V electromotive force generated. Terminal electromotive force is normally depending on the light radiation. The current strength addition with the higher brightness, like if the Sun radiate 1000 W/m2 on a 100 cm2 Si cell the maximal current strength will be 2 A. The merchandise of electricity and the electromotive force of cells are depending on the temperature. The end product will be low if the temperature is high. Markvart ( 1994 ) demonstrate that the electromotive force will diminish with the addition of the temperature as shown in the figure 3.3. In Si the electromotive force lessening is about 2.3 millivolts per oC.

Figure 3.3 I-V feature of a solar cell depending on temperature

3.4 Different types of solar cells

There are fundamentally three types of solar cells harmonizing to the type of crystal.

Single Crystal solar cells – first coevals

Thin movie cells – 2nd coevals

Multi crystal solar cells – 3rd coevals

Single crystal solar cells – first coevals

These types of cells are made of piece of Si crystal by sublimating, runing and stop deading Si. These type of solar cells besides known as the monocrystalline cells. These types of cells are most efficient every bit good as most expensive. Krebs ( 2010 ) demonstrates that the maximal photovoltaic production comes from the first coevals cells about 90 % of current. However the cost per produced 1 W of power is much more than the cost of electricity formed by usual.

Thin movie solar cells – 2nd coevals

These types of solar cells are made by seting the bed of formless Si upon the plastic, glass or metal. The efficiency of thin movie solar cells are excessively much as those made from single solar cells, although it has been improved in recent twelvemonth. These types of solar cells are non excessively much expensive but as their efficiency is excessively low require more panels to acquire require end product hence more infinite is taken up. These types of cells are besides known as formless Si cells.

Multi crystal solar cells – 3rd coevals

Multi crystal solar cells besides known as the polycrystalline cells. It is made from the dramatis personae block of Si which contains many little crystals. These types of solar cells are being used in big graduated table in recent yearss. The polycrystalline cells introduce the thought of multijunction solar cells which help to increase the efficiency and in economically manner.

3.5 The construction of a photovoltaic system, and its subsystems

Photovoltaic system assembled by many constituents non merely from solar cells. Many other parts required to finish the design to obtain electricity. All the constituents have to be interconnected, seized and specified for photovoltaic operation. The size of the system or photovoltaic generator and storage bomber system depend on the geographical location and it the application for which the system is design.

The photovoltaic system consists of many parts or subsystems.

The photovoltaic generator

Mechanical support for photovoltaic generator

Batteries ( storage bomber system )

Wiring for electrical connexions

Junctions boxes


3.5.1 Photovoltaic Generator

The chief portion of the system is photovoltaic generator. It is made of photovoltaic faculties which are interconnected to organize a photovoltaic generator which generate electricity. When the faculties assembled with the mechanical support is normally called as array. These types of faculties shown in figure 3.5

Figure 3.5 Different type of solar faculty

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Photovoltaic faculty

Faculty is the basic building unit of a photovoltaic generator. Module is constructed by the crystalline or semi-crystalline Si cells. These types of faculties are normally used in solar electrification. Markvart ( 1994 ) states that the cells in the faculty are connected in series due to electrical features of single solar cell, normally 4-inch diameter crystalline Si solar cell produced 1 and 1.5 Watts on the standard status depending upon the cell efficiency equal to the electromotive force of 0.5 to 0.6 V. The figure of cells in a faculty is depending upon the demand of electromotive force in faculty. The electromotive force should be lucifer between the system and bomber system. There are some standard storage conditions by which faculty parametric quantities are specified

Irradiance 1kW/m2

Spectral distribution AM 1.5

Cell temperature 25 oC

3.5.2 Mechanical support for photovoltaic generator

Mechanical support for the photovoltaic generator can be design by the two manner foremost the faculties can be moulted to the fixed places and the orientations will follow the gesture of the Sun. The faculties are supported at the fixed place confronting the disposition of the equator in maximal arrays. Due to which the cost of solar system acquire cut down because there will no traveling parts. However the support which move along with the Sun gives more efficiency because captures more radiation. Mechanical support for photovoltaic generator is shown in figure 3.6

Figure 3.6 Support for solar generator

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3.5.3 Batteries ( storage bomber system )

A battery is an enclosed and protected stuff which can be charged by electricity and provides electricity when needed. It is consist of an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte.

Without batteries to hive away electrical energy in photovoltaic system is really hard, nevertheless the photovoltaic system will supply electricity merely when the Sun is reflecting or the generator is running. Batteries in photovoltaic systems operate under specific conditions which must be suited for the system design. There are several types of storage batteries use in solar system.

RV/ Marine / Golf cart: RV or Marine type of batteries are deep rhythm batteries and largely for boat and camper. It is suited for merely really little systems. They do non hold capacity for the uninterrupted services for charge and discharge for many old ages. Golf cart batteries are really good for little system and reasonably they are more dearly-won than deep rhythm batteries.

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Flooded types: These types of batteries are besides known as lead acid batteries as they have caps to add H2O. These types of batteries largely use in solar system for shop electricity. They are non excessively much expensive and work for many old ages, nevertheless they release gas during the bear downing so normally it is non used in indoors otherwise at that place must hold airing system for let go ofing the explosive gas outside.

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Gel: These types of batteries are largely used in indoors because it does non let go of gas during bear downing procedure like afloat batteries. It allows batteries to continue a most stable temperature and transport out superior.

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AGM: AGM means Absorbed Glass Mat. These types of batteries are best for the solar power system as at that place a woven glass mat is used sandwiched between the home bases to grip the electrolyte. They do non let go of gas when bear downing and they have superior public presentation. It has all features superior quality, preserve electromotive force better, self discharge slower and really last thirster. They are more expensive and used in aeroplanes, infirmaries, remote telephone tower installings.

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3.5.4 Wiring for electrical connexions

Wiring in solar panel is non excessively much hard as installing, when the photovoltaic generator mounted successfully with the mechanical support than the simple stage wiring merely left. Firstly connect all panels with inverter with the needed wire, than the power inverter connected to batteries in where the energy will hive away for the usage in dark clip and these batteries farther connected to the place grid. There are different types of wires are at that place to utilize in solar system.

3.5.5 Junctions boxes

It is an electrical box which is used to link wire in different connexion or in more way which will convey power to different electrical devices. Basically it is the unit where different wires connected together. By the aid of junction box it easy to link the photovoltaic generator and the batteries wire to the house grid. The junction box used in solar system shown in figure below.

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3.5.6 Inverter

It is electronic equipment which is used to alter direct current ( DC ) to jumping current ( AC ) . The end product of the photovoltaic generator is DC and the inverter changes it into AC current which can be used straight to the house grid or place contraptions. The efficiency of inverter depends on the burden of current being a upper limit at undistinguished end product power. The inverter can be classified into three classs depending upon the photovoltaic application.

Variable frequence inverters

Self-commutating fixed-frequency inverters

Line-commutating fixed-frequency inverters

Variable frequence inverters are largely used in photovoltaic pumping system whereas other two inverters used for grid connexion. The inverter is shown in the figure.

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3.6 Economicss of photovoltaic installings

The economical value of a photovoltaic system is low as compared to other method of power coevals. Photovoltaic is largely really economical and utile where little sum of electricity required like off-grid country. There is some of the ground why the photovoltaic system is different and more economical than other type of power system.

The lone initial monetary value of the system is high.

In this system there is no fuel cost.

Care costs are excessively low.

Replacement costs are low due to high dependability.

Output of system depend upon the different location

The economical benefits can be discussed by two ways foremost the money which is been saved or that has been collected at the clip of runing the systems. And secondly the societal and environmental benefits which one should see every bit good when we compare between another systems.

3.6.1 Life-cycle costing

Life-cycle costing is the entire sum of money expend for the system for its life clip which expressed in today ‘s money. In this type of parametric quantities non merely the initial costs but all the hereafter costs for the life clip of the photovoltaic system see. The clip for analysis should be for the life-time as the system lived. Markvart ( 1994 ) demonstrates that the initial cost for the photovoltaic generators are more to purchase than a diesel generators, nevertheless the life-time of PV generators are 20 old ages whereas the Diesel generators life-time is merely 10 old ages and usage certain sum of fuel every clip. To make the meaningful comparing all the costs like future costs and benefits have to be low-cost to their tantamount value in today ‘s economic system which is known as ‘present worth ‘ ( PW ) .

3.6.2 Parameters of life-cycle costing

There are some values which should be known as to cipher the life-cycle costs

Time period of analysis: – longest lived system as comparison to the other system for the lifetime.

Excess rising prices: – The rate of monetary value additions for the constituent up and down from general rising prices which is normally assumed as nothing.

Discount rate: – The rate relation to the general rising prices at which financess would lift in value if invest.

Capital cost: – The entire cost of initial cost of put ining or purchasing the system.

Operation and care: – The sum of cost which is invested to maintain runing the system through whole twelvemonth.

Fuel costs: – The sum of money spend to fuel in twelvemonth ( Annual fuel measure )

Replacement costs: – The sum of money spends to replace each constituent at the terminal of its life-time.

3.6.3 Calculation of present worth

There are two types of computation of present worth which can be used in life-cycle rating when express a future monetary value or benefits. Single payment and one-year payment are the two types of computation of present worth. Individual payment computation is use for similar battery replacing after five old ages and one-year payment computation is use for as one-year fuel cost and care cost for a twelvemonth. Markvart ( 1994 ) demonstrates that the expression for the present worth for individual payment computation is

PW = Cr X Pr

Where, PW is present worth

Cr is individual hereafter cost

Pr is values of present deserving factor in N twelvemonth ‘s clip

For ciphering the present deserving factor there is another expression which is

Pr =

Where, I is extra rising prices, vitamin D is discount rate, N is twelvemonth clip

The expression for the present worth for one-year payment computation is

PW = Ca X Pa

Where Ca is payment happening one-year

Pa is present deserving factor in an one-year demand cost

However there is a expression to cipher present deserving factor for one-year demand cost

Pa =

4. Major constituents of the off-grid PV system

PV faculty

Charge accountant



Balanced of system

PV faculties overseas telegram, combiner box, illuming arrestors, over current protection, fuses and circuit surfs, AC & A ; DC disconnects, circuit surfs, dedicated gulf switches, metres and proctors, assorted enclosures boxes and battery overseas telegrams.

As for the needed undertaking the purpose is to supply the electricity for off-grid choice country ( At least for two bulbs ) , before we select the solar panel for the undertaking, we should cipher the entire burden required for the two bulbs.

4.1 CFL Bulb

CFL stands for the compact fluorescent visible radiations. Compact fluorescent visible radiation is argon and quicksilver based bulb which are used as energy sever which save money on electricity cost. It work by the quicksilver which is inside the bulb give extremist violet visible radiation which is changed to color and there is surfacing of phosphors on tubing that will visible to human oculus. CFL bulbs are four times more efficient as the incandescent bulbs and 10 times long last. The 24 Watts CFL bulb produced the same sum of visible radiation as the 100 watts incandescent bulb. The 18 Watts and 13 Wattss produced the same sum of visible radiation as the 75 Watts and 60 Watts severally. CFL bulbs are non merely made for energy rescuer but they are last long every bit good, usually the CFL last long for 8,000 hours which is tantamount to 7 old ages. These types of bulb are ideal for chief electricity supply and they are suited for 12 volt battery every bit good, so the benefits of taking this type of bulb is the PV system will non necessitate any inverter. Actually inverter change the AC current to DC current because all the contraptions in house operate on AC current. But the PV generator produced DC current and CFL bulb can run on DC current so in that instance there will be no demand of inverter. There is some parametric quantity of the CFL bulb which is traveling to be used in this undertaking.

Figure4.1 White Compact Fluorescent Bulb

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Working Voltage: 12 Volts DC nominal, input range 11 -15 Vs DC.A A A

Life: 8000 hoursA

Base connection: B22D Bayonet Connector ( BC )

Light end product: 18 watts +/- 5 % 6400K 50Lum/W Daylight typeA

Conforms to ISO 9001 2000

Ideal for usage with solar panel courser ( see my other auctions )

Electronic ballast and preheat for speedy start and no spark

Size: A A A A A A A Total lengthA = 155mmA

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Length of tubing = 70mm

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Diameter of organic structure = 58mm

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Diameter of tubeA =A 55mmA

4.2 Photovoltaic Module

The figure of solar panels needed depends on the sum of electricity required. Normally the solar panel comes with the assorted electrical powers. Watts and electromotive forces are the chief step of the PV faculty. As it is discussed in subdivision 3.4 and 3.5.1 the solar faculties can be classified as monocrystalline, polycrystalline or formless. It is rather complicated but the end product of the monocrystalline solar panel is the same as the other panel. However the difference is in the sum of country the solar panel traveling to necessitate. And the constructions of monocrystalline solar panels are more efficient than the other solar panels in bring forthing electricity from sunshine. As in this undertaking we have selected two CFL bulbs each working at 12 Vs and need 20 Watts. The monocrystalline faculties take less infinite and give the same end product so we will utilize this type of faculty for this undertaking. To plan 20 watt monocrystalline solar panel we need solar cells which should be square form. The figure of cells required are depends on the electromotive force required to bear down the battery or the electromotive force require to illume the bulb.

Monocrystaline Cell Specifications


2.0-2.6 Watts

Open circuit electromotive force

0.604-0.623 V

Close circuit current

4.881-5.300 A

Maximal power electromotive force

0.473-0.528 V

Maximal power current

4.429-4.924 A


14 % -17.5 %


75 millimeter X 64 millimeter



Figure 4.2 Monocrystalline photovoltaic cell

For the 12V solar panel we need to tab cells in series to acquire the 20 Watts for 12V battery. The constituents require for the DIY the solar panels are



Solar cells

Tabbing wires

Bus wires



Aluminum, bolts and nuts etc

4.3 Charge Controller

The charge accountants regulate the electromotive force and current coming from your PV panel to the battery. It is a device which protects the battery to being overcharged and being over discharged. Overcharged battery has a really short life clip and excessively discharged battery bend into for good damaged. For this undertaking PWM Solar Charger Controller 10A is used as shown in figure 4.3

Figure 4.3 PWM Solar Charger Controller 10A

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Benefits of taking this solar charge accountant is

It has to the full automatic operation

It has electronic operation

It is suited for 12 Vs visible radiations

It has microcontroller for digital truth

It has temperature compensation

Specification of PWM Solar Charger Controller



Charge current


Load current


25 % current overload

1 min

Load gulf


Load reconnect


Equalization electromotive force ( 10 min )


Boost electromotive force ( 10 min )


Float electromotive force


Temperature compensation ( mV/C )


Terminals for wires


Operating temperatures

-35 to 55oC


133 X 70 X 24 millimeter


144 g

4.4 Battery

Battery is one the most of import parts of the solar system for off-grid because it will hive away the electrical energy in the signifier of chemical energy which will come to utilize in dark or when the Sun is non reflecting. In this peculiar undertaking the hitter should be of 12 Vs or the battery should be charged at 12 Vs. In all type of battery gel or acerb type of battery is the best battery to utilize in solar system as they are non that much expensive and easy can be use in house. As for the little solar works it is adequate to supply electricity, so 12 Volt 18 Ah Sealed Lead Acid Battery is used in this undertaking as in figure 4.4 shown.

Figure 4.4 12 Volt 18 Ah Sealed Lead Acid Battery hypertext transfer protocol: //

Battery Specifications

Batter codification



12 Volts


18 Ah


Sealed Lead Acid Battery


15 lbs


7.13 ”


2.99 ”


6.57 ”



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