The United States maintain their place of the universe as the strongest, most influential state for many decennaries. Detecting their history closely, we can see that they had gone through many ups and downs, and rough yet necessary conflicts within the state and with other states. In order to analyze the Civil War and Reconstruction of the United States, we need to understand the causes of the war, what happened during the war, and the alterations that the war had brought. I believe that the Civil War of 1861 played a important function in constructing the stronger state ; likewise, I will discourse three major causes of the war – which are the bondage, the struggles between the North and South provinces, and the Presidential election of 1860 – depict how awful the war was, and how the bondage, the relationship among the provinces, and the economic and political state of affairs changed after the war. Furthermore, I will show my ain positions on the Civil war.
First, the bondage was one of the greatest causes of the Civil War. The Slavery in all across North America has had existed for 168 old ages. Finally, by 1804, most of the Northern provinces abolished slavery establishment, but the innovation of cotton gin in 1793 increased the usage of slaves in the South and the bondage became really of import for the South. Before the Civil War, the tenseness between the North and the South was invested in Slavery. The North was take a firm standing that America should go free state and need to industrialise the South. On the other manus, the South was opposing the North by being pro-slavery for their agricultural industry.
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The U.S. Constitution was clearly allowing bondage even though the papers did non include the words slaves and bondage. For illustration, in U.S. Constitution Section 2 of Article IV said “ held to Service or Labor in one State, under the Laws thereof, get awaying into another ” ( Constitution On Slavery ) . It shows the fleeting slaves must be returned to their proprietors. Furthermore, the Bill of Rights in 1791 did non advert about bondage, yet on the Fifth Amendment, it says “ Be deprived of life, autonomy, or belongings, without due procedure of jurisprudence ” ( Constitution On Slavery ) . Harmonizing to the Fifth Amendment, the slave owners were given an absolute right to take their belongings with them. Since the slaves were equaled belongingss, they could take their slaves even to the free Northern provinces. It developed into negative struggles between the North and the South.
However, America gained immense portion of the West from the triumph in the War with Mexico, including California, Utah Territory and New Mexico Territory. In Addition, the sum of gold that was discovered in California was immense and it led the Gold Rush in America, which did non last for long. The issue of whether the new provinces in the West should be opened to slavery or should be free from the bondage brought a large political confusion.
The province of California was highly of import for the both powers. The North was asseverating wholly opposite sentiments from that of the South. Since California got so much richer rapidly, if the bondage in California got abolished, the South provinces would significantly lose their political and economic power. In contrast, if the bondage got permitted and protected by the federal authorities, the South provinces would be able to derive more power. The South was stating that they would go forth the Union if California becomes a free province. “ Finally, the issue drove the South to asseverate their sentiment, which was to elect two different presidents between the North and the South ” ( i„?is?e??i ? : [ i?¤eS?i?? e??i ?i†?i‚¬/ 1i›” 29i?? ] 1850e…„i?? i?ˆi?‘ ) .
The old compromiser Henry Clay addressed the Compromise of 1850 in order to maintain the peace between the two different powers. Clay, Calhoun, and Webster proposed that California should be admitted as a free province, and while the slave retention could be lawfully admitted, the Slave trade should be abolished in Washington D.C. For the South provinces, they offered stronger fleeting slave act, which was to return the runaway slaves back to their proprietors by utilizing force. “ Besides, the other new districts in the West such as New Mexico and Utah were opened to slavery ” ( Keesee 265 ) . The Compromise of 1850 was debated for around 8 months and eventually passed. The president Taylor disagreed with the Compromise, stating that it could split the districts and widen bondage. His expectancy turned into world when the fleeting slave act brought a counter consequence, rousing people in the North about the slavery issue. Likewise, the Whigs party changed their name as the Republicans.
After the Compromise of 1850, another contention arose when the Kansas-Nebraska Act was proposed. Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois envisioned building a transcontinental railway which connects the East and the West, and the railway had to travel through the unorganised portion of the Louisiana Purchase. When the part required an organized authorities for the building, many Southerners resisted territorial organisation ; hence, “ Douglas sought to win Southern support for his railway by a cagey piece of statute law ” ( Keesee 270 ) , which was the “ Kansas-Nebraska Act ” . The Act stated that Kansas and Nebraska provinces would take on the position of bondage for themselves, and the Southerners welcomed this thought because they want to spread out the bondage. Besides, the South and the North both wanted those provinces in order to derive more power in the House of Representatives.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act “ resulted in two events which finally destroyed Democratic laterality of American political relations: the rise of the Republican Party and a practical civil war in Kansas ” ( Keesee 270 ) . In an effort to win the part, proslavery “ boundary line bullies ” from Missouri and antislavery “ free-staters ” clashed in Kansas. On May 21, 1856, boundary line bullies ransacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas, which was known to be a steadfast free-state country. ( Martin ) , and the contending known as “ Bleeding Kansas ” had begun. The barbarous onslaught happened in Lawrence triggered another hideous event. One of the most publicised events that occurred in Kansas was “ Brooks-Sumner Episode ” ( Keesee 272 ) . In Washington D.C. , Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts, stand foring the angry North, made a address that seemingly contemning and knocking Andrew Butler, a senator of South Carolina. As a effect, Preston Brooks, a relation of Butler ‘s, got angry and confronted Sumner. Brooks “ hit him repeatedly with a cane ” ( Keesee 272 ) and Sumner got severely injured. This disgraceful event worsened the struggles between the North and the South, and led to a violent solution.
Furthermore, the event which eventually triggered the Civil War was the Election of 1860. The Presidential Election of 1860 contained four presidential campaigners from different parties: Stephan Douglas, John C. Breckinridge, Abraham Lincoln and John Bell. The Northern Democrats nominated Stephan Douglas and the Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckinridge. John Bell was nominated by the Constitutional Union Party.
In the terminal, Abraham Lincoln who was stand foring the Republicans got the most ballots. When Lincoln got elected as the President of the U.S. , the sezession began. “ Leaderships in the Deep South had insisted that if Lincoln won, they would non subject themselves to what they considered a hostile, purely Northern party ; likewise they would splinter, or leave the Union ” ( Keesee 280 ) .
On December 20th of 1860, the first Regulation of Secession began by South Carolina. South Carolina declared independence by go forthing the Union, and other Southern provinces considered following South Carolina ‘s way. Ultimately, the 10 other provinces from the South joined South Carolina by 1861, under the name of “ Confederate States of America [ C.S.A ] . ” Jefferson Davis, a Senator from Mississippi was elected as the president of C.S.A. Southern diary keeper Mary Boykin Chesnut wrote, “ We are divorced, North and South, because we have hated each other so ” ( South Carolina Secedes ) .
Second, as the Union and the Confederates were separated, they began the bloodiest war of the U.S. History. The Union was willing to coerce the Confederates to rejoin, but the Confederates kept declining. However, on March 5, 1861, the Fort Sumter in Charlestown Harbor, South Carolina was in demand of supplies. Abraham Lincoln was notified by Robert Anderson, the Commander of the Fort, stating that “ they had less than a six hebdomad supply of nutrient left in garrison ” ( Fort Sumter ) . In Addition, the Fort Sumter was located in C.S.A. governed country, so the Confederates wanted the Fort to be evacuated.
Consequently, the General P.G.T. Beauregard, the Commander of Charlestown was ordered by Confederate authorities to unclutter out the Fort. Anderson announced to Beauregard that the Fort will evacuate by midday on April 15 unless the extra supplies arrive. Beauregard replied that the proclamation was unacceptable and stated that their guns will no longer keep fire more than an hr. On April 12th, 1861, the Confederate soldiers began to fire, and even though the Fort did non hold adequate supplies of nutrient nor guns, they courageously defended over 30 hours. At last, they surrendered and went back to the North. ( Fort Sumter )
The conflict was non slaughter because the soldiers from both sides did non decease or earnestly injured ; nevertheless, the Battle of Fort Sumter significantly gave rise to the most slaughter and violent war of U.S. History.
The Civil War began with the Battle of Fort Sumter. As the clip passed on, the War got more violent and serious. Brothers killed each other and 1000s of work forces died. The War had legion conflicts yet the Battle of Gettysburg was the most important conflict of all.
Lincoln addressed the Union ground forces to environ the small town of Gettysburg in order to support the Confederates. On July 1st, 1864, the Battle began. General Robert E. Lee was in charge of the Union ground forces and Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade was in charge of the Confederate ground forces. On the first twenty-four hours of the conflict, Union ground forces was forced to withdraw to south of Gettysburg. Furthermore, they retreated up to the hills, which gave them an of import advantage to perchance win the conflict. “ On the 3rd twenty-four hours, the Union ground forces ruled the conflict by successfully supporting Confederate ‘s sudden onslaught with 12,500 soldiers. The Confederates were defeated and retreated to Virginia ” ( Borade ) .
Finally, the Union won the conflict by forcing the Confederates back to the South. In fact, both sides had close figure of casualties. “ As a consequence, 51,000 casualties from both side and 28,000 were Confederates ” ( Kelly ) . It was the bloodiest conflict of all the other conflicts during the Civil War. Besides, it was the flood tide of the War and a cardinal conflict for the Union to reason the whole War.
On April 3, Richmond fell to Union military personnels as Robert E. Lee led his Army of Northern Virginia in retreat to the West pursued by Grant and the Army of the Potomac. A running conflict ensued as each Army moved further to the West in an attempt to throw out wing, or prevent being out flanked by the enemy. Finally, on April 7, General Grant initiated a series of despatchs taking to a meeting between the two commanding officers ( Surrender at Appomattox, 1865 ) .
Harmonizing to the text, Lee finally retreated back to the South and eventually gave up on the Civil War. On April 9th, 1865, Lee and Grant met at Appomattox Court House. Grant suggested Lee to give up and offered a opportunity to give up with award. “ The Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered 26,765 military personnels of the Army of Northern Virginia with award ” ( Lee Surrenders to Allow at Appomattox, Ending Civil War ) .
Third, on 1865, the Congress passed the 13th Amendment which abolished bondage. The triumph of the Union gave them power to liberate all the inkinesss across America. The authorities of U.S. had to retrace the whole state. Unfortunately, they faced other troubles on passing Torahs to give full citizen ships to the all freed inkinesss.
Confederate licking and the terminal of slavery brought far-reaching alterations in the lives of all Southerners. The devastation of bondage led necessarily to conflict between inkinesss seeking to take a breath substantial significance into their freedom by asseverating their independency from white control, and Whites seeking to retain every bit much as possible of the old order. The significance of freedom itself became a point of struggle in the Reconstruction South. Former slaves relished the chance to flash their release from the countless ordinances of bondage. Immediately after the Civil War, they sought to give significance to freedom by reuniting households separated under bondage, set uping their ain churches and schools, seeking economic liberty, and demanding equal civil and political rights ( America ‘s Reconstruction: Peoples and Politicss After the Civil War ) .
The slaves got the freedom and privileges that they ever dreamed about, but they besides faced on the rough favoritisms. The increasing favoritisms were the white Southerners ‘ response to the terminal of bondage. The favoritisms were acquiring earnestly force and the Ku Klux Klan appeared in 1866. “ Schools, churches, and other community establishments, symbols of black freedom, became the marks of force, every bit good as private places and single African americans ” ( America ‘s Reconstruction: Peoples and Politicss After the Civil War ) . It was non easy for the state to unite together once more when they were separated and had the bloodiest War in the history.
During the Reconstruction period, President Andrew Johnson ‘s program was rejected by the Congress. Finally, the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 was passes over President Johnson ‘s veto on March 2nd. “ Johnson ‘s veto of these steps moved many centrists into the extremist cantonment, and inaugurated a acrimonious struggle over control of Reconstruction policy, which culminated in 1868 when he was about removed from office by impeachment ” ( America ‘s Reconstruction: Peoples and Politicss After the Civil War ) . The 14th Amendment and the 15th Amendment were each ratified on 1868 and 1870 by the Congress. By the terminal of the Reconstruction, when South ‘s violent favoritisms and terrorist acts would non halt, the North retreated from holding duty of equality.
After the War, the North was on the manner with industrial revolution. The Civil War resulted otherwise in the North than in the South. Unexpectedly, their economic system seemingly benefited from the War. Alternatively of contending in conflicts, they had reconstructing to make.
There were new markets for merchandises used by the Union Army. Northern mills were bring forthing more than of all time before. Booming mills meant that bankers and investors were doing net incomes. This money supported new innovations and better ways to bring forth goods. New engineerings sprouted from this period of growing. While the Civil War was in advancement, Cyrus Fields of Massachusetts developed the first trans-Atlantic telegraph overseas telegram. The overseas telegram was laid on the ocean floor in 1866. At this same clip, Christopher Sholes invented the typewriter. Alexander Bell developed the telephone, proving it successfully in 1876. Thomas Edison was experimenting with the record player and the light bulb. Both these innovations were made populace in the 1870s every bit good. During the war, the demand for arms and other metal merchandises had caused a encouragement in steel production. Natural stuffs were plentiful. Now, excavation and refinement of metals became the anchor of Northern industry. ( Robinson )
Presents, people think of America as a state full of freedom. Slavery was a awful status and cipher wanted to be under the status. The Civil War ended and brought freedom to about 8 million slaves. It besides brought a dramatic passage from bondage to citizen ship. The Civil War was inevitable and necessary since there were the “ anti-slavery ” Northerners and the “ pro-slavery ” Southerners existed in the same state. Slavery must hold been banned because all human existences are created every bit and should be treated every bit.
The United States ‘ 16th President Abraham Lincoln said, “ As I would non be a slave, so I would non be a maestro. This expresses my thought of democracy ” ( LINCOLN ‘S DEFINITION OF DEMOCRACY – As He Would Not Be a Slave, So He Would Not Be a Master. – Article – NYTimes.com ) . Lincoln was elected in the twelvemonth of 1860. He was besides the President of the Union side and kept his place during the Civil war. He was legendary and famously known as the Father of the United States of America. Peoples say that Abraham Lincoln blew in freedom to the state by aiming freedom of the slaves.
In Conclusion, The Civil War was caused because of the bondage, legion struggles between the North and the South and the Secession of 11 States finally caused by the Election of 1860. I believe that the Civil War of 1861 played a important function in constructing the stronger state because it gave freedom to the state by liberating slaves, the outer conflicts between the North and South provinces were concluded by Union ‘s triumph, and the War affected positively on the Industrial Revolution of the America. By detecting the Civil War, we can larn that the War within the state dark be necessary in edifice stronger and more stable state. In fact, the United States of America has the strongest place in the universe now.