LED TV Technology Overview Engineering Essay

This paper discusses the Light Emitting Diode ( LED ) engineering and the impact it shall hold on telecasting applications. The paper highlights the advantages and challenges for these applications and research the particular advantages that LED engineering has for DLP ( Digital Light Processing ) merchandise applications.


With a broad assortment of applications, the LED has become a polar light technology.Since their initial innovation, LEDs have been used in many diverse applications such as tickers, reckoners, remote controls, index visible radiations, and backlights for many common appliances and family devices. The engineering is progressing at a rapid gait and as the brightness and efficiency of LEDs additions, new applications continue to emerge.

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From the early 1900s, scientists have been detecting ways to bring forth visible radiation from assorted stuffs. In 1907, Henry Joseph Round discovered that visible radiation could be generated from a sample of Silicon Carbide ( SiC ) . For the following 50 old ages, scientists continued to detect the light breathing belongingss that exist with some compounds. In the 1950s, surveies around the belongingss of Gallium Arsenide ( GaAs ) paved the manner for the first functionary LED discoveries that shortly followed.1

LED research began in the early 1960 ‘s, chiefly at Bell Labs, Hewlett Packard ( HP ) , IBM, Monsanto, and RCA. Gallium-Aresenide-Phosphide ( GaAsP ) provided the footing for the first commercially available ruddy LEDs in 1968 by HP and Monsanto. In the early 1970s, the usage of LEDs exploded with new applications such as reckoners and tickers by companies like Texas Instruments ( TI ) , HP, and Sinclair. Other applications such as index visible radiations and alphameric shows shortly became the mainstream usage for LEDs and continued to be so for many years.2

LED Technology Background

As the name implies, an LED is a rectifying tube that emits visible radiation. The rectifying tube is the most basic semiconducting material whose intent is to carry on electrical current with some signifier of controlled variableness. The rectifying tube in its simplest signifier is comprised of hapless carry oning stuffs that have been modified ( or “ doped ” ) to increase the sum of free negatrons that are available. High negatron stuffs ( referred to as N-type stuffs ) are combined with low negatron stuffs ( referred to as P-type stuffs ) to organize a junction for these free negatrons to flux. This junction is frequently referred to as the PN junction.

An LED is a PN junction rectifying tube semiconducting material that emits photons when electromotive force is applied. This procedure of photon emanation is called injection electroluminescence and occurs when negatrons move from the N-type stuff to make full the lower energy holes that exist in


the P-type stuff. When the high energy negatrons fall into these holes, they lose some of their energy which consequences in the coevals of photons. The stuffs used for the P-type and N-type beds along with the size of the spread between them determine the wavelength and overall energy degree of the visible radiation that is produced.

Many stuffs have been developed for fabricating LEDs. Aluminum-Gallium-Arsenide ( AlGaAs ) , Aluminum- Indium-Gallium-Phosphide ( AlInGaP ) , and Indium-Gallium-Nitride ( InGaN ) are normally used for present LED architectures. “ AlInGaP ” is typically used for Red and Yellow dies while “ InGaN ” is used for Blue and Green. These stuffs expeditiously produce photons that have wavelengths in the seeable spectrum. These stuffs in combination with new fabricating architectures have enabled the production of really bright LEDs that are get downing to happen their manner into general lighting and automotive applications. Some architectures have begun utilizing extra phosphor compounds to bring forth white visible radiation and are now get downing to vie with common incandescent and fluorescent illuming – with much lower power and much longer life-times.

The world-wide production of LEDs has risen to about 4 billion units per month. Fabrication in Taiwan, Japan, and the U.S. comprises the most important volumes with Taiwan taking with about one half of that volume overall. Much of the fabrication involves the packaging of the LED dice with a limited figure of makers making the existent LED dice stuff. Figure 1 illustrates the market size for low brightness and high brightness

LEDs as a map of the sum LED market.3

Low Brightness

36 %

High Brightness

64 %

** Total LED Market: $ 5.74 Billion

Figure 1 – Light-emitting diode Market Sections

LED Technology Breakthroughs

Recent inventions in the fabrication of the die stuff and packaging have resulted in extremist high brightness capablenesss. The usage of new stuffs for the substrate have allowed for improved thermic conduction which allows for higher power ingestion and net visible radiation end product. This addition in light end product has enabled new applications for LEDs such as automotive lighting, traffic signals, and more late, telecasting shows. An illustration of these new constructions is illustrated in Figure 2.


N Layer –

Quantum Wells

Brooding Layer

P Layer


Thermally Conductive Substrate

Figure 2 – Basic LED Structure

Significant betterments in the production of Aluminum-Indium-Gallium-Phosphide ( AlInGaP ) and Indium- Gallium-Nitride constructions have allowed for improved brightness in green and bluish specifically. Extra colourss such as gold and cyan are besides


being developed at a rapid gait. These betterments enable system designs that can bring forth better colour fidelity at close tantamount brightness to common lamp-based engineerings with longer life-times. Extra public presentation sweetenings include system flat characteristics like blink of an eye on, no quicksilver, no colour refresh artefacts, dynamically adjustable brightness, and improved colour gamuts. Figure 3 illustrates the gamut country for LED light as compared to the common mention criterion ( Rec. 709 ) .


Rec. 709



Figure 3 – LED Color Gamut

LED light provides a much larger colour gamut ( every bit much as 40 % or more than the HDTV colour criterion [ Rec. 709 ] ) , supplying more accurate colour fidelity. These public presentation properties can be rather appealing for telecasting applications where long life and first-class colour fidelity are required. As LEDs continue to progress, their impact on telecasting applications could be important. Figure 4 illustrates the development of LEDs and their possible brightness efficiency in the coming years.4


Incandescent Lamps


W )


Flourescent Lamps



( Lm

High Pressure Arc





Light Emiting













Figure 4 – Lighting Technology Evolution

LED Technology Challenges

Controling the thermic stableness of the LED dice is critical to the public presentation and stableness of LED light and dependability. The LED architecture inherently produces visible radiation from all sides and surfaces of the PN construction in a lambertian distribution ( unvarying distribution into a 180 grade hemisphere ) . While this might look efficient, most of this visible radiation is really absorbed into next dice, the mounting substrate, or other surfaces of the LED assembly. This soaking up consequences in an increased thermal burden of the full LED assembly. This heat must be addressed to obtain maximal light end product and dependability. Additionally, for applications that require imagination of the light energy to a little show device ( e.g. DLPA® HDTV ) , any visible radiation that is emitted outside of the system etendue is non functional and merely adds to the heat and overall power burden. Controling this soaking up, determining the visible radiation to fit the system etendue, and maximising the thermic efficiency to pull out heat from the dice are all critical to increasing the visible radiation end product and serviceability of the LEDs.

For traditional applications, LEDs are normally driven in CW ( uninterrupted wave – 100 % responsibility rhythm ) manner. For high brightness applications, nevertheless, this is non as desirable. Since the mean temperature of the PN junction


determines both the light end product and life-time of the LED, it is frequently more efficient to drive the LEDs with a smaller responsibility rhythm. With a smaller responsibility rhythm, the LEDs can potentially be driven to higher current tonss to increase the overall visible radiation end product while keeping a lower mean temperature of the PN junction. The challenge with this, nevertheless, is that the driver circuitry must be able to bring forth fast shift wave forms, exchanging big currents in as short a clip as merely a few microseconds. This surely presents some challenges for the design of the LED power driver. But, solutions have already been developed with public presentation that easy meets these demands.

Another challenge that consequences from higher thermal burden is that of colour displacement. As the PN junction alterations temperature, the end product wavelength of the visible radiation can switch by every bit much as 10nm or more. This colour displacement evidently impacts the colour point for that colour, but besides impacts the white point for the system since each of the colourss are assorted to make white. Basically, to stabilise this colour displacement, the LEDs must either be run at a lower power or keep utmost thermic stableness. However, with the execution of some signifier of system feedback and proper power control algorithms, the stableness of the white could be preserved while keeping high brightness efficiency.

DLPA® Television with LED Illumination

TI has developed a DLPA® HDTV system to take advantage of LED light with brightness public presentation that is about tantamount to lamp based systems. By using the latest coevals of high brightness LEDs and implementing a unique

feedback system, it is now possible for DLPA® HDTV designs to bask the benefits of LED light. Figure 5 illustrates the basic optical constellation of this system.

Paralleling Lenss

Dichroic Filters

Optical Integrator

Doctor of dental medicine

TIR Prism

Blue Array

Green Array

Red Array

Condenser Lens

Projection Lenss

Figure 5 – DLPP

HDTV LED Optical Architecture

Using a alone feedback algorithm, TI has demonstrated that any colour displacement fluctuations that affect the white point can be controlled to a tolerance beyond what the oculus can observe.

The current DLPA® merchandises execution with LED engineering utilizes a TI DSP constituent to treat system information in existent clip, offering superior stableness over a broad scope of operating temperatures while maximising brightness and dependability.

DLPA® Products Performance Advantages

The rapid exchanging capablenesss of LED engineering lucifer absolutely with the fast shift belongingss of DLPA® engineering. By taking advantage of the high velocity capablenesss of the DMD and LEDs, it is now possible to use colour refresh rates that are much higher than what exists with today ‘s designs. It is besides possible to randomise the colour order. Ultimately, images can be created with higher spot depth, better gesture fidelity, and higher brightness. By increasing the shift frequence of the LEDs, it is possible to drive them with increased power while minimising the thermic burden of the PN junction. These fast shift capablenesss of


DLPA® engineering return advantage of the new LED colourss that are going available, supplying much more flexibleness for multiple colour constellations utilizing a individual DMD device. With a DLPA® system, the LEDs do non necessitate polarisation, reflecting the light exactly off of the DMD mirror surface. The visible radiation is used expeditiously, merely when it is needed. This maximizes brightness and system efficiency while cut downing heat. The net consequence is a lower system cost with higher brightness and larger colour gamuts that far exceed those possible by traditional systems using other common light beginnings.


As LED engineering developments continue to better brightness and dependability, LED light may go more of a mainstream visible radiation beginning for many future applications. Future developments will be able to take farther advantage of the fast LED shift clip to better picture public presentation, enhance contrast without opto-mechanical constituents, and make adjustable colour gamuts that far exceed the possibilities of traditional light beginnings. New merchandises will shortly profit from these cardinal capablenesss supplying new, alone designs that offer instant on, better colourss, and overall better image utilizing the velocity of DLPA® micromirror arrays. With the advantages of LED and DLPA® engineerings working together, it is expected that DLPA® HDTVs will supply even better public presentation with better dependability far transcending any bing DLPA® HDTV merchandise.



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