Kennedy Doctrine United States Relations History Essay

President John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the thirty-fifth president of the United States from 1961 to 1963. During his inaugural address, Kennedy said, Let every state know, whether it wishes us good or ill, that we shall pay any monetary value, bear any load, run into any adversity, back up any friend, oppose any enemy, in order to guarantee the endurance and the success of autonomy (, n.d. ) . In his inaugural address Kennedy was allowing the universe know that the United States will non allow communism win. As Roskin stated, “ these philosophies are merely fluctuations on the first, the Truman Doctrine. The Truman Doctrine which is sometimes called the containment policy ( Roskin, 2010, P. 58 ) . ” The flexible response scheme was created in order to give President Kennedy options in covering with the Soviet Union. Vietnam was a trial of the Kennedy Doctrine in which he was seeking to incorporate communism and non allowing it fall to South Vietnam. The Cuban missile crisis in October 1962, which was a menace of national security, was another state of affairs where the Kennedy Doctrine came into drama. The above are events that Kennedy dealt with in his presidential term that played a portion of foreign policy and the Kennedy Doctrine.

The flexible response policy came about from President Kennedy ‘s issue with the Soviet Union and East Germany. The Soviet Union was traveling to subscribe a pact with East Germany to cut off Berlin from the remainder of Western Europe. Even though the Soviet Union did non subscribe the pact, they did build a wall through the center of Berlin. This became the Berlin Wall, East Berlin was communist and West Berlin was democratic. If they would non hold built the wall, non merely would East Germany been communist but so would n’t hold West Germany. The flexible response policy was developed in order to give a president multiple options. The policy would besides let the president to utilize whatever agencies to forestall Soviet progresss around the Earth, whether it would intend directing military personnels to contend the counter- insurrectionists or as a last resort, utilizing atomic arms ( Spark Notes Editors, 2005 ) . After this incident, President Kennedy ordered additions in our ground forces, air power and military militias. When the Soviets reinitiated atomic testing, President Kennedy reinitiated proving in 1962. If the flexible response policy would hold been in topographic point prior to the issue with the Soviet ‘s and East Germany, he perchance could hold allow them believe he would hold used atomic arms.

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Vietnam War started in 1954 and was a long, dearly-won war in which over 58,000 Americans were killed. The war was between communist Ho Chi Minh of North Vietnam against anti-communist Ngo Dinh Diem in the south. President Eisenhower supported Diem by directing equipment and military advisors. When Kennedy came into his presidential term in 1961, he sent assistance and more military personnels. Kennedy used his policy of flexible response by directing Particular Forces, who were to develop the South Vietnamese in counter-insurgency warfare. Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother were killed in November 1963 and three hebdomads subsequently Kennedy was assassinated. South Vietnam was furthered weakened by this event. President Lyndon B. Johnson decided to direct more military personnels and economic assistance. The Vietnam War continued into Nixon ‘s presidential term and ended in 1975. ( The History Channel Website, 2012 )

In the late 60 ‘s, the American people started protesting the war, and anti-war mass meetings were go oning at colleges throughout the state. At Kent State in Ohio and Jackson State in Mississippi, six college dissenters were killed. Unfortunately, our service work forces returned place to a populace that did non back up the Vietnam War.

After the Bay of Pigs, Fidel Castro was outraged by the United States effort to subvert him. He turned to Soviet leader Khrushchev and reached an understanding to provide atomic missiles that were capable of protecting Cuba against another invasion. The American intelligence became leery when the Sovietss started traveling equipment to Cuba. In September, President Kennedy warned Khrushchev that if “ Communist build-up in Cuba were to jeopardize or interfere with our security in any manner. . . or if Cuba should of all time. . . go an violative military base of important capacity for the Soviet Union, so this state will make whatever must be done to protect its ain security and that of its Alliess ( National Archives and Records Administration, 1988 ) . “ A A The warning did non maintain Khrushchev from building the sites in Cuba. Surveillance planes were doing trips over Cuba and supervising their activity. In October, an American undercover agent plane photographed the missile sites under building. This was cogent evidence that the Soviet Union installed atomic arms in Cuba that were capable of striking the United States and doing utmost desolation and decease. Kennedy informed the American populace and placed a naval encirclement around Cuba. The United States prepared for a land invasion or air work stoppages. “ On October 28, the Soviets agreed to take the missiles from Cuba ( National Archives and Records Administration, 1988 ) . ” Negotiations continued with the Soviet leader and he agreed to the backdown of his bombers in Cuba.

I believe the Kennedy Doctrine, every bit good as the flexible response policy was used in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Thingss could hold gone awfully incorrect and atomic arms could hold been used in that state of affairs. Thankfully, President Kennedy and Soviet leader Khrushchev decided on negotiating.

President Kennedy ‘s Doctrine and the flexible response policy were used during the Vietnam War and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Events and state of affairss could hold played out rather otherwise if he had non developed these policies.

At the clip of the Kennedy Doctrine, the United States was already at war with Vietnam. Vietnam War started in 1954 and our relationship with Vietnam was in struggle. In 1961, President Kennedy called for more aid for the South Vietnamese authorities in its war against the Vietcong guerrilla. The United States sent new equipment plus 3,000 military advisers and support. In January 1962, Operation Chopper, choppers which were flown by U.S. Army pilots took 1,000 South Vietnamese soldiers to Saigon that marked American ‘s first combat mission against Vietcong. President Kennedy felt that the Americans were at that place to assist and help the South Vietnamese, but it was up to the South Vietnamese people to win the war against communism and the North Vietnamese. “ President Kennedy pledged that the American people would “ pay any monetary value, bear any load, run into any adversity, back up any friend, oppose any enemy to guarantee the endurance and success of autonomy ( John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, n.d. ) . ”

In 1975, the United States closed its South Vietnam Embassy and evacuated all the Embassy forces merely prior to South Vietnam ‘s resignation to North Vietnamese forces. In 1991, Vietnam allowed the United States to open an office in Hanoi to manage POW/MIA personal businesss ( Manyin, 2012 ) . It was n’t until 1995 that the United States announced the formal standardization of diplomatic dealingss with Vietnam. ( U.S. Department of State, 2012 ) Vietnam ‘s Defense Ministry was a small on the diffident side and did non desire it to look as though they were welcoming the United States with unfastened weaponries. In the beginning old ages of interaction with “ Vietnam ‘s Defense Ministry, there were three types of activities: many-sided conferences and seminars hosted by the U.S. Pacific Command ( PACOM ) ; senior-level military visits ; and practical bilateral cooperation in countries such as hunt and deliverance ( SAR ) , military medical specialty, environmental security, and de-mining ( Jordan, 2012 ) . ”

President Clinton, in 1994, announced the terminal of the U.S. trade trade stoppage on Vietnam. Clinton besides appointed the first post-war embassador to Vietnam and signed U.S. – Vietnam bilateral trade understanding in 2000. During this timeframe, Vietnam was besides bettering dealingss with the United States by go oning betterments in the POW/MIA attempts. Their attempts allowed United States staff to be involved in the hunts of aircraft clang sites and treatments with local Vietnamese informant. Vietnam besides allowed entree to POW/MIA records and achieves. The attempts are a bipartisan street ; United States has allowed Vietnam entree to our records and maps in their hunt for Vietnamese MIA ‘s. Their attempts have led to the find of 700 losing United States service forces. ( Manyin, 2012 ) .

Vietnam ‘s economic status was non favourable ; they had put doi moi reforms in topographic point in 1986. After subscribing the BTA in 2000, Vietnam has put into topographic point a series of steps: Enterprise Law which gave legal position to the private sector, cut downing ruddy tape and making transparence regulations necessitating the publication of many types of new regulations and ordinances before execution. Since so, their agricultural production has increased and made them the universe ‘s 2nd largest exporter or rice and 2nd largest manufacturer of java. By traveling off from a bid economic system, they have reduced poorness degrees from 58 % of the population in 1992 to less than 30 % in 2002. Vietnam has a end of going a in-between income state by 2020. ( Manyin, 2012 ) .

Vietnam ‘s energy demands have grown by 15 % yearly between 2000 to 2010. Their energy ingestion is expected to treble between 2015 and 2030. In order to maintain up with their energy demands, Vietnam plans to construct 10 atomic power workss by 2030. “ The United States Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission train Vietnamese functionaries on non-proliferation and atomic safety best patterns related to power works operation ( Manyin, 2012 ) . ” In order for a state to hold atomic power plan, it needs to beef up its export controls and the United States State Department ‘s Export Control and Border Security Program ( EXBS ) provided aid to Vietnam. Uranium enrichment was besides a concern, but under the Non-Proliferation Treaty Vietnam has the right to prosecute enrichment. The caput of the Vietnamese Atomic Energy Institute implied Vietnam does non be after to prosecute enrichment. As portion of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, “ Vietnam has been change overing its Soviet supplied research reactor in Dalat from extremely enriched U to moo enriched U fuel and returning the HEU fuel to Russia ( Manyin, 2012 ) . ”

An issue where the United States and Vietnam does non see eye-to-eye is human rights. The Vietnamese Communist Party does allow most signifiers of personal and spiritual look, but selectively represses persons or organisations that are a menace to the party ‘s monopoly on power. In 2011, a attorney was sentenced to seven old ages in prison for distribution of propaganda against the province.

Imperativeness and cyberspace rights have besides been an issue of concern. The imperativeness, which is province controlled, had been given infinite to knock the authorities on safe issues, such as corruptness, economic policy, nature preservation and environmental pollution. The authorities has been aiming bloggers and attorneies who represent human rights, and pro-democracy militants. ( Manyin, 2012 )

Presently, the United States and Vietnam portion a common concern about Beijing ‘s claim to the South China Sea. There have been a figure of anti-China presentations around Vietnam. One took topographic point at Ho Chi Minh City that was attended by 100s of people which security forces broke up. China is puting claim to about the full sea, including countries recognized by the U.N. as sole economic zones of other adjacent states. ( Gayathri, 2012 )

Even though there are many issues that the United States and Vietnam are doing headway, there are still issues such as human rights that the communist manner is outstanding. Economically, Vietnam has been able to better in some countries and is hopefully on their manner to going a in-between income state. Vietnam and the United States have made huge betterments in the POW/MIA relationship. The partnership that the United States and Vietnam have in respects to atomic power is strong and their plan is critical to their energy ingestion decrease. In current international political relations state of affairs with China and Vietnam, the United States is endorsing Vietnam and trusting that “ China will experience force per unit area about run intoing international criterions ( Perlez, 2012 ) . ”


Gayathri, A. ( 2012 ) . South China Sea: Vietnam Disperses Rare Anti-China Protest. International Business Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012 from hypertext transfer protocol: //

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. ( n.d. ) . The Cold War. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from hypertext transfer protocol: // p=2

Jordan. W. , Stern. L. , & A ; Lohman, W. ( 2012 ) . The Heritage Foundation. U.S. – Vietnam Defense Relations: Investing in Strategic Alignment. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from hypertext transfer protocol: //

Manyin, M. ( 2012 ) . U.S. – Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy. Retrieved December 1, 2012, from hypertext transfer protocol: //

National Archives and Records Administration. ( 1988 ) . The Cuban Missile Crisis: President Kennedy ‘s Address to the Nation. Retrieved October 27, 2012, from hypertext transfer protocol: // flash=true & A ; doc=94

Perlez, J. ( 2012 ) . Asiatic Nations Plan Trade Bloc that, Unlike U.S. ‘s, Invites China. The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012, from hypertext transfer protocol: // ref=vietnam & A ; _r=0

President Kennedy. ( n.d. ) . Miller Center. Retrieved November 1, 2012, from hypertext transfer protocol: //



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