This survey examines the impact of liquidness on Islamic Bankss profitableness during an 11 old ages period of 2001 to 2011. To research and construe the consequences the survey has taken samples from five Muslim Bankss that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till day of the month. In order to build the liquidness theoretical account it used four liquidness variables viz. hard currency & A ; due from Bankss to entire assets ( CDTA ) , hard currency & A ; due from Bankss to entire sedimentations ( CDDEP ) , investing to entire assets ( INVSTA ) and investing to number sedimentations ( INVSDEP ) . Harmonizing to adjusted R squares profitableness variables return on assets ( ROA ) , return on equity ( ROE ) and return on sedimentations ( ROD ) are severally 17.1 % , 4.5 % and 24.6 % dependant on independent variables. The statistical consequences suggest that CDTA is found undistinguished with all profitableness variables, whereas CDDEP is separately important with all profitableness variables except ROE. On the other manus INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized important with all three profitableness variables. However, when ROE stands for an undistinguished relationship with the overall liquidness theoretical account, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar theoretical account at 1 % important degree. The findings do beef up the specification that the impact of liquidness reflects equal infliction on profitableness that the Islamic Bankss in Bangladesh must stay by.

Keywords: Dependency degree ; Islamic Banking Goals ; Liquidity ratios ; Profitability ratios ; Significance degree.

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JEL Classification: G21

## Introduction

Business in Islam has ever been viewed as an chance for potencies every bit long as it stands on moral and ethical evidences and conforms to the Islamic codification of behavior. The existent function of Islamic bank inherits in advancing and authorising the banking services and merchandise based on Islamic rules. The chief rules of Islamic banking comprise of prohibition of involvement in all signifiers of minutess, and set abouting concern and trade activities on the footing of just and legitimate net income ( Haron and Shanmugan, 1997 ) . But harmonizing to Islamic rules, wages, i.e. net income without sharing the hazards or jeopardies in the economic apprehensions is wholly prohibited. Possibly, the most important hazard of an Islamic bank is to construct a sound liquidness direction.

Islamic banking has gained much popularity in Bangladesh over the last few old ages. There is a high demand for interest-free banking services from a section of people in Bangladesh who have a strong desire to stay by the regulations and rules set by Shariah. Along with spiritual demand, economic exigencies provide a new mentality to the function of banking in advancing investing / productive activities, act uponing distribution of income and adding stableness to the economic system.

The downswing in the United States in the late portion of 2008 led to a dramatic downswing in concerns and fiscal establishments, non merely in the United States but other states as good ( Lau, 2008 ) . It affected the universe stock markets and made big fiscal establishments to either travel belly-up or sell off their portions to the populace ( Anup, 2009 ) . But surprisingly it could non impact the Islamic banking industry every bit much as expected.

Most Bankss now keep protective militias on top of planned militias. Excess liquidness is reported in about all Muslim Bankss ( Ali and Howlader, 2005 ) . Due to inaccessibility of local capital market, Islamic banking sectors have been enduring from puting idle fund in liquid venture ( Rashid and Nishat, 2009 ) . Surplus liquidness with Muslim Bankss can non be easy transferred to conventional Bankss since the Islamic Bankss do non accept involvement ; nevertheless there is room for exchange of excess financess among the Islamic Bankss on a Mudarabah / Musharakah footing. The greater the figure of Islamic Bankss and wider their activities, the greater will be the range of cooperation in this field. So, what should be the important pick of an Islamic bank ; whether to take cardinal pick of net income maximization or to concern more on confidence of liquidness in any banking concern under Islamic rules? Possibly the reply could lift if we can hold thoughts on how liquidity place affects Islamic bank ‘s profitableness.

Analysis of fiscal statement has become really important due to widespread involvement of assorted parties in the fiscal consequence of a concern unit. As a Muslim community, Bangladesh and its people are in greater involvement for a Shariah approved banking system. The inquiry from the people arise when there are any missing in response to clients ‘ demand ( liquidity hazard ) every bit good as any lack in demoing upward Bankss ‘ value ( profitableness hazard ) . Consequently this is a demand of clip now to measure the impact of liquidness hazard on profitableness for overall Islamic banking industry in Bangladesh, as this paper attempts to happen.

## Literature Review

Banks today are under great force per unit area to perform- to run into the aims of their shareholders, employees, depositors and borrowing clients, while someway maintaining authorities regulators satisfied that the bank ‘s policies, loans and investings are sound ( Rose, 2004-2005 ) . At present a batch of states around the universe holding twofold banking system, as involvement free Bankss are working analogues to conventional Bankss ( Akhtar, Ali and Sadaqat, 2011 ) .

In Islam, net income is merely a wages of taking hazard. So, it should be a natural result of the just drama of the twin forces of demand and supply in the market ( Latif, 1982 ) . On the other manus liquidness implies handiness of hard currency that how bank quickly may change over its assets into hard currency to run into the demand of short term. It is considered that it is life of the Bankss. Higher sum of the liquid assets reflect the greater liquidness of the house ( Akhter, Raza, Orangzab and Akram, 2011 ) . The kernel of liquidness direction job arises from the fact that there is a tradeoff between liquidness and profitableness and mismatch between demand and supply ( Khan and Ahmed, 2001 ) . While the bank has no control over the beginnings of fund ( sedimentations ) , it can command the usage of financess. To back up their depositor ‘s demand, Bankss need money, or in other sense the power to make money. That is why Akkas ( 1982 ) suggested that commercial Bankss should be compelled to maintain militias up to the full sum of their sedimentations, a modesty of 100 per centum. Muslim rules are ever in favour of non-inflationary economic system. Therefore, conveying a sort of equilibrium between demand and supply for investible financess appears to be a major concern for fiscal intermediation ( Siddiqui, 2010 ) . But, it is to be noted that Islamic market mechanism does non back up the construct of equilibrium monetary value, instead, acts as the instrument to run into the effectual demand of a consumer.[ 1 ]

Not merely does Muslim Bankss ‘ profitableness seem less volatile than that of conventional equals, but it is besides higher on norm, at least in the GCC part ( Hassoune, 2002 ) . Haron ( 2004 ) said that liquidness, entire outgos, financess invested in Islamic securities, and the per centum of the profit-sharing ratio between the bank and the borrower of financess are extremely correlated with the degree of entire income received by the Islamic Bankss. Similar effects are found for external factors such as involvement rates, market portion and size of the Bankss. He besides added that other determiners such as financess deposited into current histories, entire capital and militias, the per centum of net income sharing between bank and depositors, and money supply besides play a major function in act uponing the profitableness of Islamic Bankss.

Tax return on assets is a good index of a bank ‘s fiscal public presentation and managerial efficiency. It shows how competent the direction is in apportioning plus into net net income. The higher the ROA, the higher is the fiscal public presentation or profitableness of the Bankss ( Samad, 2004 ) . Return on equity measures the rate of return on the bases of capital and equity capital ( Akhter, Raza, Orangzab and Akram, 2011 ) . This ratio indicates how bank can bring forth net income with the money stockholders have invested. The higher value of this ratio shows higher fiscal public presentation. Like ROA, ROE is besides an index for managerial efficiency ( Ika and Abdullah, 2011 ) . Return on sedimentations shows per centum return on each currency of client ‘s sedimentation. In other words, it indicates the effectivity of bank in change overing sedimentation into net net incomes ( Rosly and Bakar, 2003 ) . However, profitableness is merely portion of bank public presentation narrative ( Samad and Hasan, 1999 ) .

Cash in a bank vault is the most liquid plus of a bank. Cash assets include vault hard currency held on bank premises, deposits the bank holds at the Central bank in its territory, sedimentations held with other Bankss to counterbalance them for uncluttering cheques and other interbank services, and hard currency points in the procedure of aggregation ( Rose, 2004-2005 ) . A higher cash-deposit ratio indicates that a bank is comparatively more liquid than a bank which has lower cash-deposit ratio. Depositors ‘ trust to bank is enhanced when a bank maintains a higher cash-deposit ratio. On the other manus an addition in loan-deposit ratio indicates that a bank is in more fiscal emphasis by doing excessively much loan. Therefore, lower loan-deposit ratio is ever favourable to higher loan-deposit ratio ( Samad and Hasan, 1999 ) . Loans-assets ratio measures the per centum of assets that are tied up in loans. The higher the ratio, the less liquid the bank will be ( Samad, 2004 ) .

While doing important advancement in return on assets ( ROA ) and return on equity ( ROE ) , the liquidness public presentation of Bank Islam Malaysia ( BIMB, the individual fully fledged Islamic bank in Malaysia ) between 1984-89 and 1990-97 in assorted steps such as cash-deposit ratio, loan-deposit ratio and current ratio showed neither impairment nor betterment ( Samad and Hassan, 1999 ) . Chowdhury and Ahmed ( 2009 ) investigated that entire sedimentations of Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. was higher in comparing to some non-Islamic Bankss during 2002 to 2006. Saifullah ( 2010 ) argued that Islamic Bankss in Bangladesh are superior to Conventional Bankss after an overall appraisal of fiscal public presentation including liquidness and profitableness place.

When doing comparings across houses ( or over clip ) , it is utile to command for differences in their resource base ( Foster, 2002 ) . At the same clip liquidness of those resources is of paramount significance for Bankss ( Maheshwari and Maheshwari, 2002 ) . Akhtar, Ali and Sadaqat ( 2011 ) found positive but undistinguished relationship of size of the bank and net-working capital to net assets with liquidness hazard in Islamic Bankss. In add-on return on assets ( ROE ) in Islamic Bankss is found to be positive and important with liquidness hazard at 10 % important degree.

A survey over determiners of Jordanian Islamic Bankss ‘ profitableness revealed that there are important and positive relationship between Return on Assets and Provision for Credit Facilities + Interest in Suspense / Credit Facilities, Total Equity / Total Assets and Entire Income / Total Asset of the Islamic banking, and there are important and negative relationship between ROA and the Bank Size, Total Liabilities / Total Assets, Annual Growth Rate for Gross domestic merchandise, Inflation Rate and Exchange Rate of the Islamic Banking. Besides this survey found that there are important and positive relationship between Return on Equity and Log TA, TL / TA, TI /TA and ERS of the Islamic banking, and there are important and negative relationship between ROE and PRFCFI / CF, TE / TA, GDPGR and INF of the Islamic Banking ( Khrawish, Siam and Khrawish, 2011 ) .

Naceur and Goaied ( 2010 ) probe sing the determiners of the Tunisian Bankss ‘ public presentations during the period 1980-1995 showed that the chief determiners of a bank ‘s public presentation are by order of importance: labour productiveness, bank portfolio composing, capital productiveness and bank capitalisation. Athanasoglou, Delis and Staikouras ( 2008 ) examined the profitableness behaviour of bank-specific, industry-related and macroeconomic determiners, utilizing an imbalanced panel dataset of South Eastern European ( SEE ) recognition establishments over the period 1998-2002. The appraisal consequences indicated that, with the exclusion of liquidness, all bank-specific determiners significantly affect bank profitableness in the awaited manner. The paper concludes with some comments on the practicality and implements ability of the findings.

Using bank degree informations for 80 states in the 1988-1995 periods, a survey suggested that involvement borders differences and Bankss ‘ profitableness reflect a assortment of determiners such as ; bank features, macroeconomic conditions, explicit and inexplicit bank revenue enhancement, sedimentation insurance ordinance, overall fiscal construction, and several implicit in legal and institutional indexs ( Demirguc-Kunt and Huizinga, 1998 ) . Shahchera ( 2012 ) analyzed the impact of liquid plus retentions on bank profitableness for a sample of Persian Bankss. Using the Generalized Method of Moment ( GMM ) , this survey analyzed the profitableness of listed Bankss utilizing imbalanced panel informations over the period of 2002-2009. An of import determination of this survey is that the concern rhythm significantly affects bank net incomes. The coefficient of ordinance is negative and important. Therefore if regulators cut down the restraints imposed on Bankss, Bankss obtain net income.

Liquidity is of critical importance to the day-to-day operations of a bank. Maintenance of a sound liquidness place of the bank is necessary to protect the bank against uncertainnesss of its concern. Care of liquidness bears both hazard and return. A trade-off between these two elements can minimise the struggle between liquidness versus profitableness of a bank ( Islam, 2008 ) . As stated by Islam ( 2008 ) Koch ( 1992 ) believed that there is a short-term trade-off between liquidness and profitableness. The more liquid a bank is, the lower are its return on equity ( ROE ) and return on assets ( ROA ) , all other things being equal. Therefore, statistical significance of liquidness on profitableness can be a great factor for possible investors. In a nutshell the influence of Islamic Bankss ‘ liquidness can non be negligible when sing net income as their most vigorous concern.

## Methodology

## 3.1 Sample Design and Data Collection

In Bangladesh, presently seven Islamic Bankss are supplying their services as “ pure Muslim Bankss ” and running their operations under the counsel of Islamic Shariah. Among them, five Muslim Bankss have been selected to look into the impact of Islamic bank ‘s liquidness hazard on profitableness over the period of 11 old ages during 2001 to 2011.[ 2 ]Selected Muslim Bankss are-

1. Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited

2. Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited

3. Al-Arafah Islami Bank Limited

4. Export Import Bank of Bangladesh Limited

5. Social Islami Bank Limited

The informations used in this survey are compiled from income statements and balance sheets of selected Bankss from their each twelvemonth one-year study. The survey theoretical account is tested on clip series cross-sectional bank degree informations in the context of Bangladesh over the period 2001 to 2011. Therefore, present survey has been conducted taking into history a entire samples of [ 5A-11 ] 55 under each variable.

## 3.2 Explanatory Variables

To analyse the liquidness impact on profitableness utilizing multiple arrested development analysis, variables were assigned into two sections-

Dependent Variables:

Tax return on Assetss = Net Income after Taxes / Total Assetss

Tax return on Equity = Net Income after Taxes / Total Equity Capital Account

Tax return on Deposits = Net Income after Taxes / Total Deposits

Independent Variables:

Cash & A ; Due from Banks to Total Assets = Cash & A ; Due from Banks / Total Assetss

Cash & A ; Due from Banks to Total Deposits = Cash & A ; Due from Banks / Total Deposits

Investing ( Loans & A ; Progresss ) to Total Assets = Investment / Total Assetss

Investing ( Loans & A ; Progresss ) to Total Deposits = Investment / Total Deposits

## 3.3 Research Model and Hypotheses

The current research is being conducted to measure the impact of liquidness on profitableness by using multiple additive arrested development theoretical account which had antecedently been developed and applied by Demirguc-Kunt and Huizinga ( 1999 ) , Haron ( 2004 ) , Athanasoglou, Delis and Staikouras ( 2008 ) , Toni ( 2008 ) , Naceur and Goaied ( 2008 ) , Saleem and Rehman ( 2011 ) , Khrawish, Siam and Khrawish ( 2011 ) , Shahchera ( 2012 ) and many more in kernel of their part to banking, economic sciences and finance. Using the similar theoretical account these predating surveies focused on measuring diverse determiners of Islamic Bankss ‘ profitableness. Present survey used the same theoretical account but for merely to beef uping on liquidness variables in order to show their impact on profitableness. Current research theoretical account is as follows-

Where,

ROA = Return on assets

ROE = Return on equity

ROD = Return on sedimentations

CDTA = Cash & A ; due from Bankss to entire assets

CDDEP = Cash & A ; due from Bankss to entire sedimentations

INVSTA = Investment ( loans & A ; progresss ) to entire assets

INVSDEP = Investment ( loans & A ; progresss ) to entire sedimentations

E‘ = changeless term

aµ¦ = inclines associated with the independent ( liquidness ) variables

I = Bankss

T = clip

a‚¬ = mistake term

To make the analysis following two hypotheses were designed:

There is an undistinguished relationship between liquidness and profitableness, i.e. H0: b1 = b2 = b3 = b4 = 0 ( void hypothesis )

There is a important relationship between liquidness and profitableness, i.e. Hour angle: b1 a‰ b2 a‰ b3 a‰ b4 a‰ 0 ( alternate hypothesis )

## 4 Statistical Consequences and Analysiss

The statistical analysis of secondary informations has been divided into three dimensions, i.e. descriptive, correlativity and arrested development. All the statistical trials have been performed through SPSS V15.0.

## 4.1 Descriptive Statisticss

Table 1 shows descriptive statistics for dependant and independent variables. The analyzed statistics figures illustrate the mean, standard divergence, upper limit and minimal values of Islamic Bankss. The statistics suggest irregular drawbacks in minimal value of ROA & A ; ROD, even more in ROE, taking to a dramatic lessening in per centum return for overall Islamic banking industry.[ 3 ]The average value of dependent variables imply that maximal part of bank ‘s income goes for stockholders, as here ROE indicates greater result in per centum return in comparings to ROA or ROD. However, harmonizing to the statistics, the fraction of investing in entire assets and entire sedimentations exceeds hard currency & A ; due from Bankss to a great extent if we take a expression at their mean values.

## Table 1 Descriptive Statisticss

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Dependent Variable

ROA

-4.85

3.07

1.2060

1.05572

Roe

-176.07

38.81

15.8591

27.86636

Rod

-5.20

3.66

1.4722

1.22965

Independent Variable

CDTA

9.94

82.12

21.4307

12.59587

CDDEP

11.62

95.43

25.3715

14.06618

INVSTA

13.33

82.51

70.2224

11.45243

INVSDEP

15.49

103.86

84.2804

15.55431

Beginning: Calculated value utilizing Annual Reports of the Bankss issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange ( 2001-2011 )

## 4.2 Correlation Matrix

The correlativity coefficients are stated in Table 2. This gives information on the grade of correlativity between all the dependant ( profitableness ) and independent ( liquidness ) variables used in the analysis. The chance has been tested with the Pearson correlativity coefficients trial. The consequence indicates that the liquidness variables CDTA and CDDEP are negatively related with all selected profitableness variables. On the other manus, the staying two liquidness variables INVSTA and INVSDEP are positively related with all three profitableness variables.

## Table 2 Correlation Matrix of Profitability and Liquidity Variables

ROA

Roe

Rod

CDTA

CDDEP

INVSTA

INVSDEP

ROA

1

Roe

## .905**

1

Rod

## .994**

## .867**

1

CDTA

-.232

-.062

-.260

1

CDDEP

-.206

-.048

-.226

## .993**

1

INVSTA

.222

.037

.252

## -.945**

## -.936**

1

INVSDEP

## .326*

.115

## .376**

## -.896**

## -.856**

## .950**

1

## Pearson Correlation Coefficient

** Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed )

* Correlation is important at the 0.05 degree ( 2-tailed )

Beginning: Calculated value utilizing Annual Reports of the Bankss issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange ( 2001-2011 )

## 4.3 Arrested development Consequences

Tables 3, Table 4 & A ; Table 5 study the consequences of arrested development analysis in which four independent variables are regressed by utilizing the information of Islamic Bankss of Bangladesh from 2001 to 2011. The adjusted value of R squares indicate that ROA, ROE and ROD of Islamic Bankss of Bangladesh are severally 17.1 % , 4.5 % and 24.6 % dependant on independent variables, i.e. CDTA, CDDEP, INVSTA and INVSDEP. Therefore, as liquidness factor, these four variables are considered major issues to specifying profitableness of Islamic Bankss in Bangladesh over 11 old ages period.

## Table 3 Regression Results of ROA ( 2001-2011 )

## Model 1

## Unstandardized Coefficients

## Standardized Coefficients

## T

## Sig.

## Bacillus

## Std. Mistake

## Beta

( Constant )

2.125

3.118

.681

.499

CDTA

.293

.186

3.502

1.576

.121

CDDEP

-.274

.161

-3.652

-1.699

## .096*

INVSTA

-.194

.074

-2.110

-2.630

## .011**

INVSDEP

.159

.054

2.343

2.948

## .005***

Roentgen squared.233

Adjusted R squared.171

F statistics esults

3.792

P-value.009***

Durbin-Watson 1.635

*** Significant at the 1 % degree

** Significant at the 5 % degree

*Significant at the 10 % degree

Beginning: Calculated value utilizing Annual Reports of the Bankss issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange ( 2001-2011 )

Harmonizing to the arrested development consequences as specified in Table 3, CDTA and INVSDEP are positively correlated with ROA. Alternatively CDDEP and INVSTA show negative relationship with ROA. With an exclusion to CDTA ; rest independent variables CDDEP, INVSTA and INVSDEP are significantly correlated with ROA at 10 % , 5 % and 1 % important degree in that order. Durbin-Watson trial shows that the remainders are positively correlated. At overall 1 % important degree as per p-value the liquidness theoretical account [ Model 1 ] is significantly correlated with ROA. So the void hypothesis ( H0 ) is rejected and alternate hypothesis ( Ha ) accepted here.

## Table 4 Regression Results of ROE ( 2001-2011 )

## Model 2

## Unstandardized Coefficients

## Standardized Coefficients

## T

## Sig.

## Bacillus

## Std. Mistake

## Beta

( Constant )

77.929

88.349

.882

.382

CDTA

7.326

5.277

3.312

1.388

.171

CDDEP

-6.960

4.571

-3.513

-1.523

.134

INVSTA

-4.796

2.096

-1.971

-2.289

## .026**

INVSDEP

3.492

1.528

1.949

2.285

## .027**

Roentgen squared.116

Adjusted R squared.045

F statistics 1.637

P-value.180

Durbin-Watson 2.024

*** Significant at the 1 % degree

** Significant at the 5 % degree

* Significant at the 10 % degree

Table 4 represents that CDTA and INVSDEP are positively correlated with ROE. At the same clip CDDEP and INVSTA create negative correlativity with ROE. Here, merely INVSTA and INVSDEP are found important with ROE at 5 % important degree. As Durbin-Watson statistic is about really near to 2, hence the remainders are uncorrelated. However, harmonizing to p-value the overall liquidness theoretical account [ Model 2 ] is non significantly related with ROE at any formulated degree. Thus the void hypothesis ( H0 ) is accepted for the relationship of liquidness and profitableness ( ROE ) .

## Table 5 Regression Results of ROD ( 2001-2011 )

## Model 3

## Unstandardized Coefficients

## Standardized Coefficients

## T

## Sig.

## Bacillus

## Std. Mistake

## Beta

( Constant )

2.433

3.464

.702

.486

CDTA

.340

.207

3.480

1.642

.107

CDDEP

-.317

.179

-3.631

-1.771

## .083*

INVSTA

-.245

.082

-2.284

-2.985

## .004***

INVSDEP

.202

.060

2.557

3.373

## .001***

Roentgen squared.302

Adjusted R squared.246

F statistics 5.404

P-value.001***

Durbin-Watson 1.599

*** Significant at the 1 % degree

** Significant at the 5 % degree

* Significant at the 10 % degree

As demonstrated in Table 5 ROD has positive relation with CDTA and INVSDEP, and negative relation with CDDEP and INVSTA. Here, merely undistinguished variable is CDTA. CDDEP is significantly related with ROD at 10 % degree. At 1 % important degree both liquidness variables INVSTA and INVSDEP are detected statistically important with ROD. Durbin-Watson trial indicates positive autocorrelation for the remainders. As per p-value the theoretical account [ Model 3 ] is statistically important with ROD at 1 % important degree. As a consequence here the void hypothesis ( H0 ) is rejected and alternate hypothesis ( Ha ) accepted.

## 5 Decision

The current survey marks the really first effort to analyse liquidity impact on Islamic Bankss ‘ profitableness in Bangladesh during the period 2001 to 2011. Major parts of the survey consequences reveal greater dependence of Bankss ‘ profitableness on liquidness. Specifically hard currency & A ; due from Bankss to entire assets is non important with any profitableness variables. Cash & A ; due from Bankss to entire sedimentations is found undistinguished with ROE, but important with ROA and ROD at 10 % important degree. Other two independent variables investing to entire assets and investing to number sedimentations are separately and significantly correlated with all selected profitableness variables. Investing to entire assets is important with ROA and ROE at 5 % important degree and with ROD at 1 % important degree. On the other manus, investing to entire sedimentations is significantly correlated with ROA and ROD at 1 % important degree and with ROE at 5 % important degree. The full liquidness theoretical account is found statistically important with ROA and ROD at 1 % important degree. The ground to detect ROE less dependent and undistinguished with the overall liquidness theoretical account is perchance due to that immense loss in foreign dealing by Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited in the fiscal twelvemonth 2004. However, adding farther liquidness variable to the theoretical account may do it more or less important with profitableness. In add-on, it should besides be said that liquidness is non the individual ground to specifying Muslim Bankss ‘ profitableness. Therefore, in any matter, current survey serves as initial motion, go forthing infinites for future researches to heighten and enrich its mentality.