Gender individuality is defined as a personal construct of oneself as a male or female or seldom, both, or neither. Gender individuality, in about all cases, is self-identified, as a consequence of a combination of built-in and extrinsic or environmental factors. All persons posses a gender individuality and that the procedure of going aware of it is an of import portion of the psycholosocial development of a kid. Children Begin to hold an consciousness of themselves as male childs or misss it ‘s the beginning of gender individuality. The development of a gender individuality is shown by age of the kids. ( Shriver, 1999, p.288 ) .
Therefore, the term of gender individuality clearly describes to us about the psychological state of affairs that reflects experiencing in a individual related to their ego being as male or female. Information about the differentiation between female and male is among the first learned by kids. Presents, we see a batch of people are confused with their gender individuality. One of the most interesting facets of pubescence is that it marks a important separation between genders particularly in physical, psychological, and societal facets.
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The thought about gender comes from the survey stating that:
Psychologists define sex to mention to the biologically based classs of male and female, the term gender refer to the features ascribed to and order for the sexes. Gender can mention to “ the non-physiological facets of sex – the cultural outlooks for muliebrity and maleness “ . Gender is besides the description of differences between adult females and work forces within the same family and within and between civilizations that are socially and culturally constructed and alteration overtime. These differences are reflected in functions, duties, entree to resources, restraints, chances, demands, perceptual experiences, positions, etc. that are held by both adult females and work forces. ( Lips, 1988:3 )
Therefore, the term of gender psychologically clearly describes to us about the distinction between female and male, and besides the form of masculine and feminine behaviour.
The difference between male and female individuality are clearly seen at apparels lifestyle, hair manner, athleticss, avocations, occupations, how to eat, how to make, how to walk, how to shout and so on. The gender individuality between male and female would be in unsafe if there is exchange of functions between male and female when they are still a kid. Therefore, when the male child and the miss were assigned to the male child or the girl class precisely. Gender shows two features if maleness for male and muliebrity for female.
The author wants to analyse the message that contained in this movie, Tomboy is an
interesting movie directed by Celine Sciamma. In developing analysis, the author negotiations about
gender individuality the miss who takes on male child ‘s individuality in this movie. There are two points in this
survey: 1. The factors that make the individuality exchange happen in the movie ; and 2. How does the
phenomena mean when analyzed from gender attack?
The movie fundamentally tells about a narrative of a household that moves into a new town. The household
has two girls. Laure is a 10 – old ages – old who wants to be a male child, she looks like a male child with a
short hair and ne’er wear a frock: and her sister Jeanne is a six – old ages – old. Her female parent
pregnant, they are waiting for a new babe. When Laure plays with Jeanne, she looks a group of
kids in exterior and she wants to play with them. Then she meets Lisa in forepart of her
flat. Lisa introduces herself and Laure introduces herself as a Mikael. Lisa asks to follow
her and they plays together with others. Following twenty-four hours, Mikael looks their friends playing football.
She merely watches them and does non play football. Laure does non like playing with her sister and
she merely goes off and plays football with her friends. Mikael was good at football and she acts
what her friend ‘s attitude. She plays without apparels and besides tries to ptyalize.
The following scene, Lisa invites Mikael to travel to swim with others, but Mikael is afraid
because of her camouflage. When she plays with Jeanne, she finds an thought to cover up her
camouflage. In over clip Jeanne knows it and Laure orders her sister does non state their female parent.
Laure makes an understanding with Jeanne with one status that Laure will ask for Jeanne dramas
with them. They play H2O war and Jeanne falls down and injuries. Mikael hits her friends until
he gets bruised.
In the terminal, Laure ‘s female parent knows her camouflage as a Mikael. Her female parent is really angry
with Laure. Her female parent wants to state Laure ‘s friend that she is a miss non a male child. Particularly with
Lisa, because Lisa starts to wish her as a fellow. After all of their friends know it, they want
to do certain the truth. All of friends want to do certain that Mikael is a miss non a male child. At last,
Mikael recognizes that she is a miss non a male child and her name is Laure.
C. FIELD OF THE STUDY
The field of the survey is in Literature, with the specification of analysis the movie narrative utilizing gender attack.
D. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The range of the survey will concentrate on the alteration of individuality that a miss takes on male child ‘s individuality as it happen in the movie. Then, the factors of the exchange a miss takes on male child ‘s individuality in the movie, and the last analysis will be about the exchange of individuality in the movie analyzed from gender position.
E. PROBLEM FORMULATION
The inquiries that will be developed in the survey are as follows:
What are the factors that make the individuality exchange happen in the movie?
What does the phenomenon mean when analyzed from gender attack?
F. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Aim of the survey contents the object that is traveling to analyse based on the job preparation.
To seek for the factors that make the individuality exchange happen Lauree as a Mikael
To seek, analyze, discuss and explicate about the individuality exchange that a miss takes on male child ‘s individuality on Celine Sciamma ‘s Tomboy see from gender attack.
H. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this survey is to use the cognition that already gained and unite it with the theory, so utilize it to analyse the bing movie stuff. The consequence of the survey can obtained consciousness for the difference between male and female ; and utilize gender attack to see identity exchange. The author besides hopes that the readers have a new penetration about the survey of movie itself. Furthermore, the consequence of the survey can be used as practical intent.
I. DEFINITION OF TERMS
The definition of footings in this survey:
Tomboy: a miss who was physically active, noisy, unprompted and heedless. ( Dukut,2011, P. 31 )
Puberty: the period of rapid skeletal and sexual ripening that occurs chiefly in early adolescence. ( Santrock, 2001, p. 180 )
Gender: the societal dimension of being female and male. ( Santrock, 2001, p.405 )
Gender individuality: a personal construct of oneself as a male or female ( or seldom, both, or neither ) . ( Shriver, 1999, p. 288 )
Gender stereotypes: the feelings and beliefs about what behaviour for females and males. ( Santrock, 2001, p.404 )
Maleness: Maleness is non a fixed feature of work forces, but is socially created and alterations through history. ( Baron, B. , & A ; Kotthoff, B. , 2001, p. 141 )
Femininity: The matchmaking, cosmopolitan gender, adult female ‘s highest value, which she seeks to recognize ever and everyplace. ( Weininger, O. , 2005, p. 236 )
J. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
J.1. Gender Identity
The author has found related literary readings both primary and secondary beginnings which are of import and utile to bring forth literary survey. There are the definitions of gender and gender individuality based on the related literary readings as follow:
Gender individuality is defined as a personal construct of oneself as a male or female ( or seldom, both, or neither ) . Gender individuality, in about all cases, is self-identified, as a consequence of a combination of built-in and extrinsic or environmental factors. All persons posses a gender individuality and that the procedure of going aware of it is an of import portion of the psycholosocial development of a kid. Children Begin to hold an consciousness of themselves as male childs or misss it ‘s the beginning of gender individuality. The development of a gender individuality is shown by age of the kids. ( Shriver, 1999, p. 288 )
Gender is the term used to embrace the societal outlooks associated with muliebrity and maleness. ( Lips, 2003, p. 6 )
Gender adalah perbedaan peran, fungsi, dan tanggung jawab antara laki- laki dan perempuan dan tanggung jawab antara laki- laki dan perempuan yang merupakan hasil konstruksi societal dan dapat berubah sesuai dengan perkembangan jaman. Perbedaan peran gender sering menjadikan Pongo pygmaeus berpikir kembali tentang pembagian peran yang prejudice brubah dan diubah, perbedaan peran gender ini menjadikan Pongo pygmaeus berpikir kembali tentang pembagian peran yang dianggap telah melekat baik pada perempuan maupun laki- laki. Seks adalah perbedaan jenis kelamin yang ditentukan secara biologis. Seks melekat secara fisik sebagai alat reproduksi. Oleh karena itu, seks merupakan kodrat atau ketentuan Tuhan sehingga bersifat permanen dan universal. Menurut pengertiannya antara gender dan seks memiliki banyak perbedaan yang antara lain gender dapat berubah sesuai dengan budaya masing- masing dan bukan merupakan suatu kodrat ( buatan masyarakat ) sedangkan seks sendiri tidak dapat berubah dan merupakan kodrat ( ciptaan Tuhan ) . ( Sasongko,2009, p7 )
Gender refers to the attitudes, feelings, behaviours that a given civilization associates with a individual ‘s biological sex. Behavior that is compatible with cultural outlooks is referred to as gender-normative ; behaviours that are viewed as incompatible with these outlooks constitute gender non-conformity. Excerpt from: The Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients, adopted by the APA Council of Representatives, February 18-20, 2011. The Guidelines are available on the APA web site at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/guidelines.aspx gender definition pdf
Gender is the societal cultural dimension of being female and male. Gender individuality is the sense of being female or male, which most kids get by the clip they are 3 old ages old, a gender function is a set of outlooks that prescribe how females and males should believe, act, and feel. ( Santrock,2001, p396 )
The distinction between adult male and adult female can be clearly seen from the term of gendered attack. A determination by Wormer, 2010, p.4, says that “ Gendered attack is important to the intervention of female within the condemnable justness system is because misss are different from boys – physiologically and socially, and in more or less the same manner, adult females are different from work forces. ”
Puberty is a procedure and non an event. The parents must take a function in this clip with giving information to their kid in pubescence. Puberty is changed of grownup visual aspect, grownup physiology and altered individuality. It is differences in signifier and construction female and male, female is related with feminity and male is related with maleness. ( Hayward,2003: 1 )
In puberty kids can larn the difference between male and female, they can larn from societal environment. The difference between male and female can be clearly seen from the term of gendered attack. A determination by ( Wormer, 2010, p. 4 ) , says that “ Gendered attack is important to the intervention of female within the condemnable justness system is because misss are different from boys – physiologically and socially, and in more or less the same manner, adult female are different from work forces. ” Besides a determination by ( Bonvillain, 1985, p. 5 ) , says that “ Gender is primary facet of 1 ‘s personal and societal individuality. This designation begins in one ‘s earliest socialisation through the ways that a babe is handled, treated, and talk to. ”
Two outstanding theories address the manner kids get masculine and feminine attitudes and behaviour from their parents. A determination by Freud, 2001, p.398, says that, “ A theory that preschool kids develop a sexual attractive force to the opposites-sex parent, so at 5 to 6 old ages of age renounce the attractive force because of dying feelings, later placing with the same sex parent and unconsciously following the same sex parents features ” . Furthermore, it has been argued that:
The miss who enjoyed male childs ‘ activities were allowed to fall in male childs ‘ groups and went back and Forth between miss and male child groups with comparative easiness. The narrative for male child was rather different. Boys had particularly strong reactions to male schoolmate who violated gender norms. They taunted and teased those who played with the misss, utilizing derogative term such as “ effeminate male child ” . When the “ offending ” male childs tried to rejoin the male childs groups, they were rejected, criticized, and physically threatened. ( Fagot, 1977 ) .
In the old ages from 9 to 12, most kids will get down rapid stage of passage from childhood to adolescence. The term of “ pubescence ” refers to a phase of biological ripening where a male child or miss becomes capable of reproduction. In this clip the kids must be cognizant of the alterations that will happen in their organic structures and larn about the alterations in the opposite sex. The kids are taught at an early age about their sexual differences by their parents. ( Dukut,2011: 27-28 )
There is misconstruing of kids about who are they. A male child can be a miss and a miss can be a male child. A miss who takes on male child ‘s individuality named “ Tomboy ” . The word “ romp ” really goes back to the sixteenth century. It was a term to impute the masculine qualities of a female at a clip when ideal criterions of gender behaviour were of polar antonyms. In the sixteenth century, a peculiar bully male child was called a romp, but the term shortly came to intend “ a wild frolicing miss ” – a tomboy ( heiden – Dutch ) which has a negative sexual intension of immodesty, unchasteness. ( Stevenson, pp. 47-61 )
All of the theories about gender individuality above used by the author to seeking, analysing, discoursing and explicating about the exchange of individuality a miss who takes on male child ‘s individuality on Celine Sciamma ‘s Tomboy that indicated when analyzed from gender position.
Work force and adult females are typically differ in a figure of ways – such as such as physical visual aspect and frock, personality manner, occupational penchants, rearing functions, and some specific endowments and abilities. It is non merely in western society but in most civilizations around the universe. Many such differences can be traced to childhood and event babyhood. They must cognize who are they and they can move like their individuality.
The theory about gender stereotype above used by the author to compare and see about the exchange of individuality that happened Lauree as a Mikael Characters On Celine Sciamma ‘s Tomboy related to the gender stereotype.
Gender stereotype consider for “ masculine ” and “ feminine ” . Based on Santrock, 2001, p.405 says that
Divers behaviour can be called on to back up each stereotype, such as hiting a touchdown or turning facial hair for “ masculine ” and playing with dolls or have oning lip rouge for “ feminine ” . The stereotype may be modified in the face of cultural alteration. At the point in history, muscular development may be though of as masculine ; at another point, maleness might be associated with a more lissome, slight build.
A controversial issue about gender began a one-fourth of century ago. The issue differentiates between gender and sex of homo. That distinction about gender and sex so do a scientist do a research to clearly province about gender and sex. The research can be analyzed as an internalisation of male and female features. ( Archer, J. , & A ; Lloyd, B. B. , 2002 )
K. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
There are two sorts of method of informations aggregation and analysis, qualitative and quantitative research. Stake ( 2010, p. 11 ) , says that, “ In which personal experience, intuition, and incredulity work aboard each other to assist polish the theories and experiments. By qualitative we mean that it relies chiefly on human perceptual experience and apprehension. ” From two sorts of methods at that place, the type or research for Gender individuality a miss takes on male child ‘s individuality In Celine Sciamma ‘s 2011 Tomboy: Gender Approach is qualitative research. The author will utilize the qualitative 1 with the specification in library research. Therefore, to cover the acceptable quality of research, the author set the type of roll uping informations, instrument, and process of informations analysis.
K.1. Method of Data Collection
K.1.1. Collecting Data
The author will utilize movie as the primary informations. Then, the author will utilize books as the secondary informations. Books have functions as referential beginnings to back up the author to make the analysis. The author is roll uping the information from some books and many other beginnings that can be related to the capable affair being analyzed. The author usage book that focal point on gender attack, gender individuality, and related book as the secondary informations.
In making the survey, the author usage movie as primary instrument. Then, the author will utilize other instruments such as DVD, DVD participant, and computing machine as the media to watches the movie.
There are some process to analyse the information of Celine Sciamma ‘s 2011 Tomboy that described as follows:
The author will watch the movie as the primary ocular information.
The author will roll up, high spot, and do some notes about the of import thing from the movie such as the information about the gender roles exchange.
The author will make the same thing with the related literary books as the non ocular secondary informations about the theory about gender functions, gender, and movie.
The author will utilize the primary informations and make analyze with the theory from the secondary informations.
K.2. Data Analysis
As the survey of qualitative research, the information is analyzed through analyze, in which comprehension of the informations and object of analysis every bit good as the usage of theory and reading become really aˆ¦ The signifiers of my informations are movie, notes of movie, and notes of theories. The notes clearly merely offer a partial sum-up of movie, concentrating on those of import facets which the author doing the notes felt to be most important at the clip for their ain utilizations. In pull offing the information, the author will cut down their size and range, so that the author can describe adequately and usefully. Then, analyze the managed set of informations by draw attending to what the author feel is peculiar importance or significance. The stairss in procedure of analysis are analysis, constructs, theories, accounts, and understanding. Analysis is about the hunt for account and apprehension, in the class of which constructs and theories will likely be advanced, considered, and developed. The author will happen a great trade, and much more elaborate, treatment of these and related thoughts in some of the farther reading books. The last analysis will be about the author reading. The thought about reading comes from the survey by ( Blaxter, L. , & A ; Hughes, C. , 2001, p. 219 ) , says that, “ Interpretation is the procedure by which you put your ain significance on the information you have collected and analyzed, and compare that intending with those advanced by others. ” The author will construe the movie informations and compare the movie informations with the farther reading books.