Evaluation Of Four Cocoa Rehabilitation Techniques Environmental Sciences Essay

July 22, 2017 Environmental Sciences

The observed downward tendency in Nigeria ‘s chocolate production since 1972 has been attributed to the fact that over 70 % of the chocolate farms are unproductive due to factors such as ripening of the bing plantation, hapless care and unequal cognition of how to rehabilitate unproductive farms. The experiment was carried out as an facet of Sustainable and Competitive Cocoa Systems ( SCCS ) undertaking to measure four different methods of rehabilitation to place the most effectual, economically feasible and environmentally friendly to cocoa husbandmans. Four farm sites were evaluated and 120 husbandmans ‘ participated in the exercising. Farmers ‘ participatory attack was used at the four locations and husbandmans ‘ direction scheme was adopted for the experiment. The four rehabilitations techniques are ( 1 ) coppicing and let the most vigorous chupon to replace the old tree ( 2 ) coppicing and grafting of budwood selected from super-tree from husbandmans ‘ farm ( 3 ) coppicing and grafting of budwood from improved assortment from CFC undertaking and ( 4 ) copping and replace with improved seedlings from CRIN. Each intervention was replicated three times with small alteration in some husbandmans ‘ field. Datas were collected on success per centum, energy, early output parametric quantities and acceptableness evaluations by the husbandmans. The consequences showed that coppicing and grafting of improved stuffs from CFC was the most vigorous and demo early output properties than the remainder interventions coming into full blossoming after two old ages, coppicing and replanting with seedlings had the highest success per centum ( 70 % ) while coppicing and grafting of bud wood was most favoured by the husbandmans. The recommendation for the best rehabilitation technique may hold to be location specific since so many logistic jobs were encountered during this on farm-farmer direction experiment.

Rehabilitation was considered to be the Restoration of the outputs to the peak degree by the systematic replacing of inferior trees ( Shepherd, 1955 ) while on the other manus it was regarded as the procedure of reconstructing output by improved cultivation and direction of bing mature chocolate tree ( Wood and Lass, 1985 ) .

Low bean output of 400kg/ha as gettable in most cocoa plantation in Nigeria has been attributed to old age of the plantations and hapless direction patterns. As is common to all harvests, there is a maximal age conditioned by assortments, dirts, general plantation direction, diseases, insects and other factors beyond which a plantation ceases to be of economic involvement. Montgomery ( 1981 ) reported that the highest chocolate outputs are achieved between 15 and 25 old ages while Krug and Quartey-papafio ( 1964 ) after carry oning chocolate study throughout the turning parts of the universe, recommended 30 to 40 old ages as the mean economic life span of a chocolate tree.

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Olaiya ( 2001 ) suggested that apart from age consideration, a secret plan could be declared unproductive if the output has declined to about the one-fourth of what is gettable at the peak period of 10 – 25 old ages while Oduwole ( 2001 ) based his ain recommendation on the cost/benefit ratio of carry oning rehabilitation.

Rehabilitation through coppicing and chupon coevals have been reported to better output by Olaiya et Al ; ( 2003 ) , while Odegbaro and Folarin ( 1974 ) reported that budded and grafted F3 Amazon trees came into fruiting faster than the generated Amelonado trees and that by the 6th twelvemonth, output of F3 budded and grafted trees has doubled that of the generated amelonado.

This survey was hence carried out to relatively measure four methods of rehabilitation utilizing On Farm Adaptive Research ( OFAR ) and Farmers Participatory Approach ( FPA ) so as to take the tepid attitude of Nigeria Cocoa Farmers to rehabilitate their farms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experiment was conducted under the protections of Sustainable and Competitive Cocoa Systems ( SCCS ) undertakings. Eight different farmsite were ab initio selected for this tests, four locations were dropped ( Temidire, Osun State, Uloen, Ilekun, and Osin, Ondo State ) for assorted ground boardering logistics. The four sites that were evaluated in this paper are Oda, Ipoba Ojomu, Lasia and Legbira all in Ondo State the major chocolate bring forthing province in Nigeria. The tests were carried out between February, 2003 and November, 2006. In each location, an country of 20m ten 20m was mapped out and fourty trees all of which are F3 Amazon were selected for rehabilitation. The rehabilitation options are: Coppicing and leting the most vigorous chupon to take over the old tree ( CVC ) ; coppicing and grafting of bud wood from supper tree stuff selected from the husbandmans farm on the most vigorous chupon ( CGST ) ; coppicing and grafting of bud wood from CFC selected stuffs ( C77 and Pa57 x Pa1570 ) on the most vigorous chupon ( CGCFC ) and replacing the old tree with improved seedlings obtained from Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria. ( ISCRIN ) . Ten trees were indiscriminately selected for each intervention, trees were coppiced utilizing the methods of Adenikinju, 1993. Data were collected on per centum success, early tolerance to past/diseases, early output properties and husbandman ‘s acceptableness. Super-trees were selected based on harvest history and ( Pod yield 200 pods/year. Plantains were planted to supply shadiness for the regenerated chupons and seedlings the same clip Grafting processs as described in IPGRI ( 1998 ) manual for Cocoa was used and grafting was done 12 hebdomads after coppicing.

Structured questionnaire were besides administered on 30 husbandmans per location and responses were evaluated for husbandmans ‘ perceptual experience of the undertaking viz-aviz-acceptability, willingness and ability to transport out rehabilitation of their old chocolate farms. Descriptive statistics was used in the analysis and reading of informations.

Consequence

All the rehabilitated trees had between 4 and 10 chupon regrowth out of which most vigorous chupon was selected after four hebdomads. Grafting of the improved assortments was carried out 12 hebdomads after coppicing. The consequences in table 1 showed that the success of the rehabilitation exercising ranges between 55 – 80 % in all the location and 65 – 70 % in the four rehabilitation options. Replacing the old trees with improved seedlings had the highest success per centum of 70 % when compared with other options. Oda farmsite had the highest success per centum of 80 % across the interventions while Legbira farmsites had the least ( 55 % ) . There are broad fluctuations in clip of blooming in the four interventions. The full blossoming period as reported here means the blossoming of all the five trees selected for each intervention at each locations. Table 2 showed the mean figure of month to full blossoming of all the four interventions at each location. In all, CGST came to full blossoming at 19 months after coppicing at Oda to be the best while others ranges between 20 and 32 months.

Table 1: Success per centum of four chocolate rehabilitation options ( 10 trees )

ISCRIN

Location % success

Treatment

Location

CGCFC

CGST

CVC

Oda 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 80.00

Ipoba Ojomu 7.0 8.0 7.0 8.0 75.00

Lasia 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 60.00

Legbira 6.0 5.0 5.0 6.0 55.00

Treatment % 67.50 67.50 65.00 70.00

Success

Location

ISCRIN

Treatment

CGCFC

CGST

CVC Table 2: Effectss of rehabilitation options on early output properties ( months to first blossoming )

Oda 24.0 19.0 20.0 28.0

Ipoba Ojomu 26.0 25.0 22.0 32.0

Lasia 31.0 26.0 26.0 32.0

Legbira 30.0 29.0 28.0 30.0

Average 27.75 24.75 24.00 30.50

On the mean CGCFC performed best coming into full blossoming at 24 months after coppicing. Seedlings were systematically in all location the last to come into blossoming.

Most the coppiced interventions bear fruits within 30 months while seedling came to bearing subsequently. The mean figure of cods at first bearing was shown in table 3 with the two grafted interventions exposing outstanding public presentation holding 13 cods each.

Out of the four options CGCFC recorded the highest per centum of acceptableness among the husbandmans with 34.17 % followed closely by CGST 29.17 % . The ISCRIN received the lowest penchant 15.83 % .

Table 3: Effectss of rehabilitation options on early output properties ( Nos of cod at first production )

CGST

CVC

Location

ISCRIN

Treatment

CGCFC

Oda 5.7 15.2 16.5 6.3

Ipoba Ojomu 7.4 12.8 10.9 7.8

Lasia 2.5 11.7 13.6 4.9

Legbira 7.8 12.4 11.0 3.7

Average 5.85 13.03 13.00 6.68

CVC

Location

Treatment

ISCRIN

CGCFC

CGST Table 4: Farmers ‘ acceptableness of rehabilitation exercising

Treatment

ISCRIN

CGCFC

CGST

CVC

Location

Oda 7 8 9 6

Ipoba Ojomu 6 9 9 6

Lasia 5 12 10 3

Legbira 7 6 13 4

Entire 25 35 41 19

Percentage 20.83 29.17 34.17 15.83

Discussion

About all the coppiced trees had chupon regrowth, nevertheless there were some dicback across the locations and interventions. This is connected with daze that the stumps received during cutting and old age of the trees. The low success recorded for Lasia and Legbira could be adduced to dirty factor. Ojeniyi 1981, and Olatoye et Al ; ( 1987 ) has recommended some fertilisers amendment to better dirt productiveness in chocolate plantation in Nigeria.

Olaiya 2006 reported improved output in rehabilitated secret plans than in old secret plans when Boron was foliarly applied. Planting of seedlings recorded the highest success per centum because the seedlings were planted at the oncoming of rain and plantains were planted near to immature seedlings than the stumps of the coppiced trees. Low per centum of constitution in husbandmans ‘ farm either under old trees or new plantation have been attributed to failure of husbandmans to follow good agricultural patterns in constitution phase ( Adenikinju et al ; 1989, Olaiya 2007 ) The two grafted interventions performed better in the two early output properties tested. This is in understanding with studies Odegbero and Folarin 1974 who reported that budded and grafted Amazon trees came into bearing faster than the regenerated Amelonado trees. Adenikinju ( 1993 ) besides reported that F3 Amazon came to bearing 18 months after coppicing operations while Odegbaro ( 1972 ) showed that regenerated Amelonado performed better than new plantation given output of about four times/hectare of any new plantation. Olaiya, ( 2006 ) and Fagbayide reported yield addition with supplement foliar application of Boron endocrine Adeyemi ( 1996 ) besides got yield betterment under rehabilitated secret plan with dirt application of NPK fertiliser. Though economic output could merely be evaluated after six old ages. The grafted intervention gave dual output compared with the regenerated chupons and the seedlings.

The husbandmans penchant for CGCFC is non unconnected with the early output properties displayed by the grafted stuffs every bit good as the preparation received during the undertaking which help to demystify the premises amongst husbandmans ‘ that grafting could merely be carried out at research Stationss by scientists.

Decision

The demand to reassess what is on husbandmans ‘ farms to acquire more ace tree stuffs for rehabilitation will be more advantageous to peasant husbandmans. There is besides the demand to incoporate dirt betterment or nutritionary additives into rehabilitation bundle for old farms. More preparation of husbandmans through Farmers ‘ field school to enable them to rehabilitate their farm by themselves utilizing any of the four options should be embarked upon by research scientists. Coppicing and grafting of bud wood from ace tree collected from husbandmans ‘ farm and CGCFC are recommended. However, recommendation could be location specific for logistic ground. The cooperation of husbandmans was non wholly barren of inducements received, and preparation exposure received during the undertaking.

Recognitions

The writers are greatly indebted to CIRAD for funding the undertaking, Dr ‘s Jean Luc Battini and Didier Snoek for organizing the undertaking expeditiously, Late, K. Badaru, Dr. I.E. Okuku, Mr. L.O. Raji and other field workers who participated on the undertaking from origin. The cooperation of husbandmans particularly at Oda farm site is herewith acknowledged.

Mentions

Adenikinju, S.A ( 1993 ) Observation on chupon as a tool for chocolate rehabilitation. In proceedings of 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, 14 – 18 July, 1993 Yamousoukro, Coted’Ivoire pp 769 -774

Adenikinju, S.A ; E.B Esan and A.A. Adeyemi ( 1989 ) Nursery techniques, Propagation and Management of Cocoa, Kola, Coffee, Cashew and Tea: In Progress in Tree Crops Research. 2nd Edition Published by Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan ( 1989 ) .

Adeyemi A.A. ( 1996 ) NPK fertilisation in rehabilitated Cocoa: Effectss on the growing and the development of Cocoa under different rehabilitation methods. Proceedings of 12th International Cocoa Research Conference, Salvador, Bahai, Brazil.

IPGRI ( 1998 ) Working Procedures for Cocoa Germplasm Evaluation and Selection. Proceeding of thr CEC/ICCO/IPRGS Project Workshop 1 – 6 Feb, 1998. Montpellier, France A.B. Eskes, J.M.M. Engels and R.A. Lass, Editors

Krug, C.A. amd E Quartey-Papafio ( 1964 ) World Cocoa Survey. FAO Agricultural Studies. No 63pp 1 – 242.

Montgomery, P.J ( 1981 ) Some ideas on the life span of Cocoa. Planter ( Kuala Lumpur ) Vol. 57 pp 604 – 609

Odegbaro, O.A. ( 1972 ) Prospects of Rehabilitating Amelonado Cocoa with improved Cocoa assortments in Nigeria without complete replanting. Continuing 5th International Cocoa Research Conference, Ibadan, Nigeria 1975 pp 259 -64

Odegbaro, O.A. and J.O. Folarin ( 1974 ) Potential cod Production and Pod Yields of F3 Amazon Cocoa Budded or Grafted on Shoots Regenerated from Coppiced Amelonado Trees. Turrialba 24, 3:256 -64.

Oduwole, O.O. ( 2001 ) Economicss of Cocoa rehabilitation: In Manuscript of Training Programme on National Cocoa Rehabilitation in Nigeria, May 2001 pp 45 – 49.

Ojeniyi, S.O. ( 1981 ) Review of consequence of fertiliser test on Cocoa in Nigeria. Proceedings of 8th international Cocoa Research Conference, Cartageno pp 171 – 174.

Olaiya, A.O. ( 2001 ) Cocoa Rehabilitation: In Manuscript of Training Programme on National Cocoa Rehabilitation in Nigeria, May, 2001 pp 40 – 44.

Olaiya A.O. , L.A. Hammed and A.O. Famaye ( 2003 ) Yield rating of Cocoa Rehabilitation through coppicing. In proceeding of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana.

Olaiya, A.O. ( 2006 ) Effects of Boron, Naphthalene acetic acid and Gibberellic acid sprays on cod development of Cocoa. Theobroma Cocoa L. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis Agronomy Department, University of Ibadan pp 143.

Olaiya, A.O. and Fagbayide J.A ( 2006 ) Effects of Boron and endocrine sprays on cod development and output of Cocoa ( Theobroma Cocoa ) Presented at the 15th International Cocoa Research Conference, Costa Rica 9 -14 October, 2006.

Olaiya A.O. ( 2007 ) Good Agricultural Practices in Cocoa Plantation Paper presented at COCOQUAL Workshop 13 – 16 February, 2007 Acera, Ghana.

Olatoye, S.T ; Egbe, N.E and V.O Chude ( 1987 ) Soil productiveness and Cocoa in Nigeria. Invited paper presented at the Workshop on dirt productiveness: The line of life of Agricultural productiveness, University of Jos, Makurdi Campus, Nigeria.

Shepherd C.Y ( 1955 ) Rehabilitation of Cocoa Plantations in Trinidad In D.h. Urgunart ( erectile dysfunction ) Cocoa ( 2nd Edition ) Longman, London.

Wood, G.A.R and R.A. Lass ( 1985 ) Cocoa 4th Edition London, Longman pp 620.

ADOPTION PROSPECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS

AMONGST COCOA FARMER ‘S IN NIGERIA

Olaiya, A.O1, A.R. Adedeji2 and R.A. Sanusiaˆ‘2

Crescent University, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria

electronic mail: alikhlasolaitan @ yahoo.com

Summary

A low acceptance rate of technological inventions amongst chocolate husbandmans was observed in Nigeria. This survey was carried out to measure factors responsible for low acceptance and chart a manner frontward for betterment of Nigerian Cocoa economic system.

Structured and unstructured questionnaires were used to obtain relevant information from respondents. These were supplemented, where necessary with interviews, treatment, and inquiry and reply Sessionss. Fifty husbandmans were selected per province within the five South Western Cocoa Producing States in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics was used to analysed the information. Farmers ‘ determinations are influenced by a figure of factors such as economic possibilities ( 71 % ) , affordability, ( 67 % ) , cognition, instruction or preparation ability ( 62 % ) , Age or tradition ( 60 % ) , hazard antipathy ( 56 % ) , entree to resources and subsidies ( 53 % ) , socio-communal factor ( 52 % ) amongst others. Adoption rate could be improved by formalizing research consequences through husbandmans ‘ direction on-farm adaptative research, incorporating chocolate husbandmans to organize a concerted group and constitution of farmer field school as an effectual manner of information airing and preparation for rural husbandmans and non through journal publications or mass communicating.

*Correspounding Address: Biological Sciences Department, Crescent University, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Introduction

For research to lend to poverty decrease and greater support security, the accent must be on the application of appropriate cognition, instead than simply developing it and in order to do merchandises of the research procedure more relevant to the demands of little holder husbandmans, research organisations need to progressively engaged in participatory research, whereby the research and engineering development procedure focal points on and closely interweaves with the practical application of appropriate cognition in real-life state of affairss. Hellin et Al ; ( 2006 ) specify two intents of participatory attacks as functional and authorization. The two intents are found to act upon the rate of acceptance of technological inventions.

Oduwole ( 2003 ) reported that “ top-down ” attack in engineering transportation is responsible for low acceptance and the existent demands of the husbandmans are barely addressed by the research workers. Low acceptance of technological inventions originating from dislocation of communicating between research organisations and peasant husbandmans have been the curse of development amongst chocolate husbandmans in Nigeria. Hamzat et Al ; ( 2006 ) .

Governments have mostly been responsible for research and the proviso of extension services in Nigeria. However, since early 1990 ‘s, structural accommodations, political instability and low budget for agribusiness has led to breakdown of classical agricultural research and extension services.

This work was carried out to measure acceptance degree of some research inventions and chart a manner frontward for a better acceptance chances amongst chocolate husbandmans in Nigeria.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The field work was carried out between 2004 and 2006 traveling across the five South Western Cocoa bring forthing States ( Oyo, Osun, Ondo, Ekiti and Ogun ) . Four chief research inventions were tested viz-a-viz-Agronomic direction ( Plant population/hectare or spacing ) , Pest/Disease direction ( Spraying of Fungicides/Insecticides ) , Soil direction ( Fertilizer application ) and Harvesting/Processing ( Timeliness/Frequency ) while socio-economic factors such as profitableness, affordability, hazard antipathy, handiness of subsidies and socio communal factors were used to measure the acceptance degrees of these Research Innovations. Age or tradition, degree of instruction and agencies of airing of research consequences were besides evaluated.

Structured and unstructured questionnaires were used to obtain relevant information from respondents. These were supplemented, where necessary with interviews, treatment, and inquiry and reply Sessionss. Fifty husbandmans were selected per province for questionnaire disposal. Descriptive Statistics as ranking and percentiles was used to analysed the informations.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Profitability – a. High – Farmers describe any net income that is at least doubles their normal income as high.

B. Low – Farmers accept any extra income that is non up to duplicate of the former income as low.

Affordability a. Technical input – Any technological invention that require proficient input such as machinery, higher instruction or input non available to the husbandmans.

B. Non proficient input – Any technological invention that husbandmans could easy beginning the input locally and can be carried out by themselves are said to be low-cost.

Risk antipathy a. High hazard – Any technological invention that has risk to wellness or necessitate high investing are considered as high hazard by husbandmans.

B. Low hazard – Any technological invention that does non present wellness jeopardy and are cheap are considered to be low hazard.

Subsidies – a. Handiness of subsidies such as loans, reduced monetary value or free transit or input supply for certain agreed per centum of green goods.

b. Non-availability of subsidies is the antonym of a.

Socio-communal factor a. Link – Farmers holding nexus with Research Institution, ADP, NGO or husbandmans organisation.

B. No Link – Farmers that does non hold a direct nexus with Research Institutions, ADP, NGO or husbandmans organisation.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The consequences as shown in table 1 revealed that over 80 % per centum of husbandmans adopted engineerings that help to cut down plague and diseases in their farm, most chocolate husbandmans are accustomed to spraying of antifungals and insect powders, some even went on calling several recommended antifungals and insect powders in their shop. This tendency was followed by engineerings that has to make with harvest home and processing which recorded 73 percent acceptance rate. This is as a consequence of these two parametric quantities associating visibly with productiveness and higher income. Overall, high profitable outlook is the most important factor impacting acceptance chances of technological invention holding recorded 71 % per centum on the norm of the four engineerings evaluated.

Most of the husbandmans lack proficient know how of assorted research inventions, this is as a consequence of their educational background, as merely 13 per centum of the husbandmans are able to follow technological inventions that required proficient input while 56 per centum of husbandmans evaluated adopted research inventions that has low hazard involved.

Technological inventions that has low hazard is dearer to husbandmans than anything else since they are their ain work force and are resource hapless when it comes to investing.

Asante ( 2003 ) reported that investing cost are really high for acceptance of improved engineerings and that entree to recognition installations will take to higher acceptance rate by provincial husbandmans, or better still future research be directed to happening utility engineerings with lower per unit production costs.

Subsiding or no subsidy 38 – 42 per centum of husbandmans evaluated still adopted technological inventions that has to make with Pest/Diseases Management and Harvesting/Processing. Subsidies was nevertheless important in raising the overall acceptance per centum to 53 per centum.

Fertilizer application recorded the least acceptance per centum ( 18 % when subsidies is removed this showed that without equal subsidies most husbandmans will non follow fertiliser application in their farms Olaiya, et Al ; ( 2003 ) suggested subsidies to promote Cocoa husbandmans to rehabilitate their old farms. The same goes for equal nexus with R1 and NGO to better fertilisation of chocolate farms without which most husbandmans will non follow fertilisation of their farms 11.8 % will fertilise their farms without any nexus.

The vernal age of 20 – 40 old ages recorded low acceptance degree of 15.2 % . comparison with 26 % of 40 – 60 old ages while the least adoption degree was recorded for old age 8.1 % ( Table 2 ) . The ages 20 – 40 of immature husbandmans could justly be described as acquisition age, when young person largely thinks of feeding and enjoyment while ages 40 – 60 could be described as investing age and 60 and supra as retiring age. The chances of betterment in acceptance degree rest forthrightly on the in-between age of 41 – 60 since the 60 and above are no more in active production and are contented with whatever comes out of their farm. Unfortunately more than half of the husbandmans that were evaluated falls in this class ( 51 % ) , the immature chocolate husbandmans ( 14 % ) while 35 % belong to the in-between category.

The consequences showed that educational position do play a major function in acceptance procedure, those husbandmans with secondary school instruction easy adopted technological invention with 29.5 % and 37.5 % acceptance and chance severally. ( table 2 ) . Any technological invention that require proficient input ever run into this class of husbandmans at place, in which instance others considers it as hazardous and cumbersome.

Table 3 showed the effects of agencies of circulating research consequences on acceptance degrees and chances. In every bit much as more than half of the husbandmans ( 151 ) evaluated reported holding been cognizant of research invention through mass media, merely a little fraction adopted such engineerings ( 27 ) . It is note worthy that newspapers are available to the husbandmans more than the journals/research studies, nevertheless the per centum of acceptance from journal/research studies was higher than newspaper. Though the acceptance degree from diary was really high ( 71 % ) but merely really few husbandmans ( 14 ) had contact with diary or research studies. The acceptance chances from extension agents is hardly 46.8 % , this is due to the fact authorities which hitherto to hold been responsible for research and proviso of extension services is soon diverted to other countries of economic system and defense mechanism. The geographic expedition of on-farm adaptative research and husbandmans group advanced programme will hold a serious impact of acceptance chances of technological invention. The acceptance degree of 92 % recorded from OFAR and the chance of its increasing over clip showed that addition in consciousness of this method will take Nigeria out of forests in term of acceptance of technological inventions.

Consequence

Table 1: Effectss of socio-economic factors on acceptance degree of Research Innovations

Profitability % Affordability % Risk Factor % Subsidies % Socio-Communal %

Research Innovation on Cocoa High Low Tech. Input No Tech. Input High Low Avai. Non-Avai Link with RI & A ; NGO No Link

Agronomic mgt. bundle 69.6 26.1 12.7 66.3 18.7 49.3 53.4 25.0 49.8 17.5

Pest/Disease mgt. bundle 80.7 17.8 10.5 68.6 08.9 52.1 55.9 38.4 53.4 21.3

Soil mgt. bundle 60.2 23.4 13.2 73.5 12.3 55.2 52.5 18.7 44.5 11.8

Harvesting/Processing bundle 73.5 16.3 16.9 60.7 05.1 67.5 50.7 42.1 60.9 26.6

Average 71.0 20.9 13.3 67.2 11.2 56.0 53.1 30.9 52.2 19.3

Table 2: Effectss of Age and Educational Status of husbandmans on acceptance chances of Research Innovations

Age % Educational Level

Phases 20 – 40 41 – 60 60 and Above Non Formal Primary Secondary

Awareness 78.3 83.9 56.5 41.2 49.0 74.7

Adoption level 15.2 26.0 08.1 10.7 17.6 29.5

Adoption prospects 20.6 35.8 03.7 08.4 16.5 37.3

Table 3: Effectss of agencies of airing of Research Innovation on Adoption Prospects

Nos of Farmers

Means Television Radio Newspapers Extension Agents Journal/Research Report OFAR/Farmers Group

Phases

Awareness 62.0 89.0 31.0 47.0 14.0 38.0

Adoption degree 15.0 ( 24.2 % ) 12.0 ( 13.5 % ) 17.0 ( 54.8 % ) 20.0 ( 42.6 % ) 10.0 ( 71.4 % ) 35.0 ( 92.1 % )

Adoption prospects 16.0 ( 25.8 % ) 11.0 ( 12.5 % ) 19.0 ( 61.3 % ) 22.0 ( 46.8 % ) 10.0 ( 71.4 % ) 37.0 ( 97.4 % )

Decision

Farmers ‘ picks are influenced and limited by the frame work of regulations, ordinances and values of the society in which they live. The form of resource distribution, entree to knowledge and resources, and the prevailing precedences and policies, serve as inducement to following attacks. This suggests a strong demand for alteration in Nigerian agricultural policies to breed greater acceptance of technological invention for sustainable production, reduced poorness and increased nutrient security/ national economic prosperity. The consequence showed that husbandmans ‘ single fortunes will find whether they are interested in following new patterns or non. Their personal aspirations, demands, economic potency and socio-cultural state of affairs plays a outstanding function. Farmers are enterprisers, so the economic possibilities plays a important function in their determination to follow technological inventions particularly those that affect monetary values and have short term consequence.

Most husbandmans following technological inventions are better educated ( at least secondary school ) , than the non adoptive parents. “ Old habits decease hard of the husbandmans ” , age or civilization play an of import function, the age 60 and above are non extremely nomadic. Many husbandmans are non following new technological invention despite the fact that they are cognizant, this is due to the beginning of consciousness which is from mass media and non through seeing the engineering at work, husbandmans are largely influenced by the common proverb “ visual perception is believing ” , therefore it is non simply the agronomic potencies of technological invention itself that influences husbandmans ‘ determination about consumption, but such proficient facets as OFAR and participatory attack to research secret plan direction and on the occupation husbandmans ‘ preparation will take to greater acceptance of technological invention.

Recognitions

The writers wishes to admit NCDC, SCCS, and STCP for patronizing several field work during which most of the informations used in this paper were collected.

Mentions

Asante, E.G. ( 2003 ) An rating of the kineticss of Cocoa direction engineerings and their deductions for sustainable production in Ghana. Paper presented at 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana.

Hamzat, R.A ; Olaiya, O.A ; Sanusi, R.A. Adedeji ( 2006 ) State of Cocoa turning, Quality and Research in Nigeria: Need for Intervention. A proficient book presented at the Biannual Partnership Programme of the World Cocoa Foundation held at Hotel Bristol Stephanile, Brussels, Belginin 16 – 18 May, 2006

Hellin, J. Bellon, M and H. Badstive ( 2006 ) Bridging the spreads between research workers and husbandmans worlds. Leisa Magazine 22.3 September, 2006.

Oduwole, O.O. ( 2003 ) Sustainability of Cocoa Production within the context of the coevals, transportation and acceptance of improved Cocoa Technology in Nigeria. Presented at 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Aecra, Ghana.

Olaiya, A.O. ; L.A. Hammed and A.O. Famaye ( 2003 ) Yield rating of chocolate rehabilitation through coppicing. In proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana, pp 331 – 334.

Evaluation OF COCOA FARMS AND FARMER ‘S PRODUCTIVITY IN SOUTH WESTERN, NIGERIA

*Olaiya, A.O1, Sanusi, R.A2, Adedeji, A.R2, Hammed, L.A.2 and R.A Hamzat3

Crescent University, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria

Purdue University, USA

electronic mail: alikhlasolaitan @ yahoo.com

Summary

Cocoa is one of the chief beginning of income to husbandmans in the South Western Nigeria which produces over 60 per centum of the National Output. However, most plantations give low output ( & lt ; 300kg/ha ) and husbandmans productiveness are on the diminution. A diagnostic study was carried out and a structured questionnaire were administered on Cocoa husbandmans in the five South Western States of Nigeria to measure factors responsible for low productiveness of chocolate farms every bit good as unravel the factors responsible for the Luke word attitudes of Cocoa husbandmans towards bettering their productiveness. The analysis of informations collected showed that non acceptance of assorted technological inventions was responsible for the low output while urbanisation, low monetary value originating from Naira devaluation, multiple ironss of jobbers and fight are responsible for deficiency lustre attitude of Cocoa husbandmans towards bettering their productiveness. There is the demand for enabling authorities policy to revamp Nigerian Cocoa economic system and International market should look into fight as one of the factors to be considered before monetary value repairing trade good harvests.

*Correspounding Address: Biological Sciences Department, Crescent University, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Introduction

The Cocoa industry is one of the anchors of the Nigerian economic system and rank foremost in her agricultural export trade. Ojo ( 2005 ) reported that South Western Nigerian remains the prevailing Cocoa zone accounting for over 70 per centum of Nigeria entire end product. Most husbandmans live in remote, wholly rural countries in footings of substructure and they form a major component of the rural link. Hamzat et Al ; ( 2006 ) stressed that the undeveloped nature of the rural countries poses a batch of restraints to Cocoa husbandmans in virtually all facets of Cocoa economic system be it cultivation, direction, harvesting/post harvest home every bit good as selling. Low output originating from old age of the trees and hapless direction patterns have compounded the jobs of peasant husbandmans. ( Olaiya, 2007 ) .

Sanusi and Lawal ( 2006 ) reported that in most instances husbandmans lack sufficient fund to buy needful agro-chemical as at when due and the alternate formal recognition installations is either non available to or accessible by Cocoa husbandmans. Rural-urban migration of young persons has besides compounded labour scarceness thereby doing the few available 1s rather expensive ( Sanusi, 2005 ) .

The predomination of nonreader and old husbandmans in Cocoa cultivation who could non easy follow improves engineerings contributed in no little step to the jobs of Nigerian Cocoa Production ( Hamzal et al ; 2006 ) . Oduwole ( 2004 ) revealed that Research Extension Farmers Input Linkage System ( REFILS ) has non achieved its end with regard to Cocoa productiveness. This sentiment was in line with that of Guyton ( 2003 ) who concluded that husbandmans ‘ participatory attack to engineering transportation on Cocoa holds the key to sustainable Cocoa production.

This survey was conducted to measure all these factors in dealingss to their consequence on Cocoa production and husbandmans ‘ productiveness in South Western Nigeria.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The field work was carried out between 2004 and 2006 traveling across the five South Western Cocoa bring forthing provinces ( Oyo, Osun, Ondo, Ekiti and Ogun ) . Structured questionnaire was used to obtain relevant information from respondent on basic production patterns and socio economic factors impacting output and husbandman ‘s productiveness. One hundred husbandmans were selected per province for questionnaire disposal. Descriptive statistics such as ranking and percentile was used for analysis and reading of the informations.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The consequences as shown in table 1 revealed that there are low degrees of acceptance in agronomic patterns of rehabilitation and fertiliser application since 22.5 % and 17.0 % severally of husbandmans have adopted these betterment patterns. The apparently high acceptance degree of 51.9 % and 45.6 % in plague diseases direction and processing techniques severally underscore the importance of those facets to both output and husbandmans ‘ productiveness. The low acceptance of agronomic patterns was partly linked to inaccessibility either in footings of cost or accomplishments to transport out some of the improved engineerings. The husbandmans ever look at cost or accomplishments to transport out some of the improved engineerings. The husbandmans ever look at cost benefit ratio in the short term than long footings consequence as gettable in agronomic patterns of rehabilitation and fertiliser application. High cost of agrochemicals was said to be responsible for the broad border between handiness and acceptance degree by husbandmans ( 27.6 % ) . Over 70 per centum of the husbandmans evaluated complained bitterly on province of recognition installations to cocoa husbandmans to better their productiveness, deficiency of basic substructure and unequal research extension support were the major factors linked to unproductivity of chocolate farming endeavor ( Table 2 ) . About 67 per centum of husbandmans evaluated are comfy with the current selling system. This is non unconnected to the fact that some husbandmans are portion of the selling concatenation as flush husbandmans are able to purchase up green goods of hapless husbandmans who have pressing demand for hard currency at one clip or the other for a cheep monetary value and resell subsequently at higher monetary values.

Table 1: Evaluation of acceptance degree of technological inventions in Cocoa Farms

Farmers ( % )

Awareness

Production Practices

Adoption degree

Handiness

Rehabilitation of old Farm 81.60 44.80 22.50

Pest and Disease ( Agrochemical ) 96.02 79.50 51.90

Soil mgt Fertilizer application 75.70 38.70 17.00

Harvesting/Processing tech 89.10 62.40 45.60

Table 2: Factors impacting Cocoa husbandmans ‘ productiveness in SW Nigeria

Carnival

Farmers ( % )

Adequate

Bad

Rating

Factors

Recognition installations 2.40 8.40 78.80

Basic substructure 4.40 27.20 63.60

Handiness of labour 23.60 29.20 46.40

Marketing System 9.60 67.10 22.00

Research extension support 6.80 35.60 54.40

Input handiness 11.60 36.80 49.20

Farmers are cognizant of the high quality in public presentation of improved agricultural engineerings but the major restriction to wide-scale acceptance was contributed to high costs of inputs or labor to transport it out on their farms.

The jobbers are ever around during the harvesting period in hunt of moisture or dried chocolate beans to purchase and shop for some clip in jute bags. The stored trade goods are handed over to their several parent companies every bit shortly as equal transit directions are completed. This selling agreement does non vouch equal wage to husbandmans ‘ production attempts since their sale monetary values are ever below the current market monetary values.

Marketing information is mostly through farmer-to-farmer exchange which is excessively hapless in this epoch of fight. The selling system is characterized by fluctuations in supply, and the jurisprudence of supply and demand determined Cocoa bean monetary values.

Though there exist in Nigeria a figure of authorities bureaus with a strong prejudice towards the development of Cocoa industry but research support to extension bringing through preparation and preparation of field testing of engineerings has fallen to low degrees due to inadequate support, low morale among field staff, hapless logistics and corruptness. This has made extension service support to husbandmans in effectual in supplying relevant aid in carry oning field-level presentation on critical production jobs. This corroborates the positions of Oduwole ( 2004 ) who concluded that Research Extension Farmers Input Linkage System ( REFILS ) has non achieved its end with regard to cocoa productiveness.

Non handiness of critical production inputs such as improved planting stuffs, agrochemicals, fertilisers, labor and farm implements at cost low-cost to husbandmans has kept the productiveness of chocolate farms at a low degree as shown in table 2.

The processing activities such as agitation and Sun drying are clip devouring and in efficient particularly for harvests produced during raining season, the development of intermediate energy salvaging machines or techniques for these operations will profit husbandmans greatly ( Amoa Awua et Al ; 2007 ) .

There is a general deficiency of capital in the system to fulfill the recognition demands of the provincial husbandmans. The recognition job is fundamentally the deficiency of entree to recognition and high involvement rates due to the current accent on deregulating in authorities policy. Farmers on their portion have hapless organisational strength and high default rates.

Lack of basic substructure inhibits efficiency and agricultural production capacity, impairs the quality of merchandises and is an tremendous strain on the labour force. Most of the Cocoa husbandmans and their kids are now populating in towns go forthing the green goods in the manus of caretaker/sharecroppers who are more interested in nutrient harvests which provide them with regular income and stable nutrients for their family. Sanusi ( 2005 ) reported that rural urban migration of young persons has led to labor scarceness in rural countries.

Decision

Poverty degrees in Nigeria have been on the addition since 1990 ‘s and most resource hapless work in the agricultural sector and shack in rural countries. Bettering husbandman ‘s productiveness will hold far making good deductions for income sweetening and poorness decrease every bit good as societal and economic development. It besides has the possible to bring forth employment chances for immature work forces who are driven to urban Centres looking for non existing white neckband occupations.

Recognitions

The writers wishes to admit NCDC, SCCS, and STCP for patronizing several field work during which most of the informations used in this paper were collected.

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