Case Studies Of Tea Plantation In Wayanad Environmental Sciences Essay

July 23, 2017 Environmental Sciences

Over the past few decennaries, tea has grown to go one of the most of import trade goods of India. Tea has become a major trade good in India and is ranked 2nd largest exporter of tea in the universe and offers a assortment of merchandises from original orthodox to CTC and green tea.

Tea is one of the major exporting harvests in Kerala. In 2007, the production of tea was 70.287 million kilogram which accounted for 5.6 % of entire production in India. The tea is produced in Kerala chiefly in Idduki and Wayanad territory. The part of Wayanad territory in tea production in 2007 was 18.8 % of entire tea production in Kerala while Idduki & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s part was 73.3 % . After Idduki, Wayanad is the major manufacturer of tea in Kerala. The country under tea production in Kerala constituted about 37137 hectares in 2007 which accounted for 6.4 % of entire countries under tea turning country in India. Out of this 14.7 production were done in Wayanad territory and 74.5 % in Idduki territory. In the twelvemonth 2010, the tea production fell by 1.3 % over the last twelvemonth to 966.4 million kilogram.

The tea plantation in Wayanad is done on a really little graduated table. Most of the organic agriculture is for java. For tea no organic agriculture is done in Wayanad but good agricultural patterns are used which employs limited usage of chemicals and pesticides. There are some little co-ops in Wayanad territory where such patterns are being adopted. But the production has non been good in last few old ages.

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Most of the tea plantations countries are under the ownership of big tea estates like Priyadershi Tea Estate and Arrepatta Meppadi Tea Estate. Tea is a high labour intensive and land intensive plantation harvest and requires immense investing. Majority of the husbandmans are little tea agriculturists and have to depend on big plantations to sell their foliages plucked. Due to fall in monetary values in last few old ages, the plantations are under the brink of being lockout. Besides the conditions status has non been prefering the tea production.

Priyadershi Tea, a government-run estate in Wayanad has been able to increase its production by presenting midday repast for its workers. Under its midday repast strategy it has been feeding oral cavities of 316 tribal workers, bulk being adult females. The estate was shutdown in 2005 but after being revived in 2007, it has shown betterments in production.

Case Study of Organic Farming in Idduki District

A local NGO at Idduki territory named Peermade Development Society ( PDS ) which has promoted organic agriculture in the territory has non merely confined its part at surface degree but has provided support in research and engineering besides. This organisation has besides provided its assistance in research oriented experiments in field of vermiculture and vermicompost. It has set up a modern tea mill.

When they introduced organic agriculture in Idduki territory their chief aim was to associate husbandmans with markets. The chief donees from this undertaking were small-scale tea manufacturers and their communities.

The agriculture merchandises require timely processing else they lose their worth. Similarly, fresh tea foliages are perishable and must be processed instantly after crop else they become useless. The market for tea was controlled by large plantations in Idduki country. So, in order to assist small-scale husbandmans with the PDS established pool that runs its ain tea mill and bring forth organic tea for European markets.

The pool established in November 2003, was funded by loan and givers and under the umbrella there are about 1200 members but has the ability to function more than 10,000 husbandmans. An of import measure of the procedure of associating organic farming to market was to supply international standard quality and acquire organic enfranchisements for husbandmans. The mill spends around Rs 85,000 a twelvemonth merely on quality control. There are six inspectors in the local country who advise husbandmans on assorted issues. The duties of the inspectors include:


Standards required for organic agriculture

Organic and biodynamic agriculture patterns

Different facets of tea cultivation

Use of botanical pesticides and bio control agents

Pest and disease surveillance

Application of organic manure and vermicompost

Good harvest home and station harvest home patterns

The mill merely purchases from certified organic husbandmans and warrants them 30-70 % above the unfastened market rates. This ensures regular supply of quality green leaves from husbandmans which are so sold as finished tea through Fair Trade Channels.

This pattern has reduced environmental impact on natural resource base and improved the earning for husbandmans besides. The husbandmans get assured monetary values irrespective of the season. Besides portion of net income is used for the betterment of socio-economic status of community members. These activities include supplying instruction to kids, making public public-service corporations, supplying services and put ining computing machines for usage in instruction and community public assistance.

The factors which accounted for success of Organic farming are:

Growth of organic markets: Organic market is turning in India which provides chances for selling.

Visible consequence of farm degrees: The husbandmans were educated about the sick effects of chemicals and decrease in the cost of inputs. The higher quality and low input cost tempted husbandmans to follow organic agriculture.

Education: The literacy rate among the mark group was high. It made easier for airing of information. The husbandmans were ready to follow the new methodological analysis.

Monetary value of PDS Tea: The monetary value of PDS Tea is non really expensive as compared to other teas available in the market. So, market accepted the tea without any vacillation.

Village organisations: There were village degree establishments already in the topographic point which made the initial work of PDS easier.

PDS Experience: Palladium had earlier experience in organic agriculture and helped the little husbandmans in acquiring organic enfranchisements which made the organic agriculture popular among the husbandmans in the Idduki country.

Even though the organic mill enterprise started by PDS has been a successful enterprise, it faces some issues of its ain:

Competition from private mills: The private mills may raise the monetary values they offer to husbandmans and therefore coerce them to sell the fresh foliages to them and strip organic mill of supplies.

Conversion Cost: It takes 3 old ages for husbandmans to change over their land and go an organic certified husbandman. During the passage period, the output is really low which might halt them from following organic methods of farming. Or famers could happen alternate beginnings of income in order non to lose on income due to passage of land.

Cost of monitoring and Technical Support: Continuous monitoring and proficient support is required for maintain the quality of the merchandise.

Distance to Factory: The harvested foliages have to be at mill within an hr for best processing consequences, so the radius of the farm country can be one hr thrust merely.

High Fixed Cost: The Numberss of operating expenses are high and include involvement, fuel, power and enfranchisement. Due to this high cost the husbandmans are non able to acquire the worth they deserve. Fuel costs can be reduced by 20 % if solar power is used.

Troubles to happen functionaries for the pool: Not many husbandmans want to take duties within pool as these places are non paid and necessitate excess clip.

Control Costs: The internal and external control system requires excess staff to look into the patterns used in order to supply quality merchandises. This increase the control costs.

Lack of Brand Characteristics: The Kerala tea is non known for any specific features and can non vie with those of Assam and Darjeeling tea. Kerala tea is most suited for normal tea bag production.

There are many restraining factor associated with switching to organic agriculture. They are:

Market Entree: The international market is really competitory and entree can be achieved merely through trade carnivals. Large Organic manufacturers can force out little pool of PDS. Small mills might lose on supplying supplies to big supermarket ironss.

Awareness: Most of the husbandmans are more concentrated on turning good harvests and protecting it from plagues. So, they have non much cognition about processing and selling issues and accept whatever monetary values they are offered.

Certification: The enfranchisement for international market is really expensive. The Indian enfranchisement system does non fulfill the demands of the national market at an low-cost monetary value.

Investing: To get down a undertaking like PDS Organic mill, immense sum of money is required. Even a good known NGO like PDS had troubles in bring forthing loans for such large undertaking. Donors provide support to good cognize NGOs ; smaller NGOs have to construct repute to pull large givers to put in their undertakings.

Puting up a mill: The bureaucratic procedure of puting up a mill in India is a really long procedure unless you have the contacts of right individual.

Retroflexing the undertaking elsewhere: Not every Nongovernmental organization has the willingness to retroflex their undertaking or even scale it up. They are more interested in ecological or societal issues. And the NGOs who are willing to prosecute themselves in the concern deficiency financess.

The instance survey gives us an thought of challenges and restraints faced by little co-ops in puting up a little organic mill. The same can be said about the parts in Wayanad.

Proposing Natural Farming in Wayanad

Natural Farming besides called Zero Budget Farming uses natural mechanism to buoy up work load while heightening dirt biological activities, doing dirt rich and making more diverse and stable ecological system. This method is a new construct and taking roots in Kerala. Subhas Palekar, an agricultural scientist signifier Maharashtra. A contributing environment for growing of angleworms in the dirt is developed for successful pattern of this method. The surface angleworms used in organic agriculture are different from those used in Natural Farming. Tea is a harvest which is produced in Wayanad utilizing good agribusiness patterns which uses limited usage of fertilisers and pesticides.

The lands in Wayanad are more suited to turn tea but low net incomes had made husbandmans to exchange to coffee, which is a large earner of gross. If natural agriculture is decently exploited so it can gain husbandmans a high output at low cost.

The chief job with tea agriculturists is that most of the husbandmans are little husbandmans with low land retentions. Large tea estate can originate the procedure by educating husbandmans about the benefits of natural agriculture. Unlike Organic farming which involves immense control cost, natural agriculture does non affect control cost but is as labour intensive. Priyadershi tea estate, owned by authorities is one of the largest tea estate in Wayanad territory can assist husbandmans in this respect. Unlike organic agriculture there is no demand of enfranchisement in this method. Large Tea estate can easy market the merchandises as they are good known. The husbandmans can acquire the same monetary value but at low cost of inputs.

Some of the husbandmans have adopted zero budget agriculture and had made immense net incomes by seting harvests like rice, coconut. They seem to be happy with the consequences of such agrarian methodological analysiss.

There is besides demand of trade brotherhoods in the country, who could analyze each and every facet of industry such as productiveness, pay net income, disposal, etc and be cognizant of impact of external trade policies to back up such sort of activity. The quality of tea produced has gone down in past few old ages which need to be handled with proper disposal and support from authorities in order to do it successful. The co-ops are formed so they must be given full liberty in running their personal businesss doing it free from bureaucratic control of province.

The biggest issue in any agrarian method is of financess. Banks should supply loans at nominal rate of involvement and do the loan handiness hassle free.

Proper storage installations should be in topographic point so that husbandmans can maintain their plucked foliages at that place without any concern for their green goods acquiring putrefaction. Most of the husbandmans are little land holders and they can non afford warehouses.

The natural agriculture is the demand of the clip for husbandmans with little land retentions, if the methodological analysiss are decently implemented so it can be made successful non merely in tea plantation but besides in other harvests.


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