BA°LENERJA° , Bilkent Enerji Uretim Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Az. , the first company of Bilkent Holding in the field of energy production was founded on September 1993.
BA°LENERJA° was established in order to bring forth the electricity required for Bilkent University territory and the production workss owned by Bilkent Holding located at Bilkent University.
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Besides the operational steam of Meteksan Paper Mill and the steam required for heating all the edifices at the campus of Bilkent University is besides provided. There are two chief units for energy production within the installation, holding established power capacities of 4.5 MW and 32 MW.
Electricity coevals started in 1995 by agencies of the MAN gas turbine of 4.5 MW. Afterwards the capacity has been increased to 36.5 MW by the add-on of 36.5 MW Rolls-Royce gas turbine and Allen Steam turbine. The installation settled on 8500 M2 of which 2,100 M2 is closed country. ( Figure 1 )
Figure 1. Company edifice and works
In line with its strategic ends and the affiliated importance given to its employees, BA°LENERJA° continually applies dynamic and advanced system approaches as being one of the pioneering companies in the sector. BA°LENERJA° is ready for recognizing dependable undertakings in order to work out energy demands non merely in Turkey but besides in neighboring states. Company profile is in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Company Profile.
Mission of Electrical- Electronics Engineer:
The mission of electrical and electronics applied scientist is shown in company profile as being runing applied scientist who are responsible from operation, production and care of the works. Furthermore, there are many technician working on works and EE applied scientist is the individual who will direct these technicians to work decently.
In add-on, the applied scientist enters the day-to-day production outlook to the online system of TEDAAz called DGPYS ( Dengeleme ve Guc PiyasasA± Yonetim Sistemi ) . In this manner TEDAAz is adjust supply and demand informations give orders some big workss to increase or diminish their electric production. EE applied scientist is besides responsible from the studies given each hebdomad and each month to the administrative units about the working hours, production, electricity and H2O ingestion or some proposals about new merchandise acquisition.
Plant Schematic: In Figure 3 there is a line connexion of works.
Figure 3. The line connexion of Bilenerji Plant.
3. Work Done:
A gas turbine, besides called a burning turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of burning gas. It has an upstream compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a burning chamber mediate. Gas turbine may besides mention to merely the turbine constituent. [ 1 ] ( Figure 4 )
Figure 4. Gas Turbine [ 1 ]
Energy is added to the gas watercourse in the combustor, where fuel is assorted with air and ignited. In the high force per unit area environment of the combustor, burning of the fuel increases the temperature. The merchandises of the burning are forced into the turbine subdivision. There, the high speed and volume of the gas flow is directed through a nose over the turbine ‘s blades, whirling the turbine which powers the compressor and, for some turbines, drives their mechanical end product. The energy given up to the turbine comes from the decrease in the temperature of the fumes gas. [ 1 ]
The Brayton rhythm is a thermodynamic rhythm that describes the workings of the gas turbine engine, footing of the jet engine and others. It is named after George Brayton ( 1830-1892 ) , the American applied scientist who developed it, although it was originally proposed and patented by Englishman John Barber in 1791. It is besides sometimes known as the Joule rhythm. The Ericsson rhythm is similar but uses external heat and incorporates the usage of a regenerator. [ 2 ] ( Figure 5 )
Figure 5. Brayton Cycle [ 2 ] .
A Brayton-type engine consists of three constituents:
aˆ? A gas compressor
aˆ? A mixing chamber
aˆ? An expander
The efficiency of the ideal Brayton rhythm is, where I? is the heat capacity ratio. [ 2 ]
Types of Gas Turbines: Aero derived functions and jet engines, amateur gas turbines, subsidiary power units, industrial gas turbines for power coevals, compressed air energy storage, turboshaft engines, radial gas turbines, graduated table jet engines, micro turbines.
Advantages of gas turbine engines:
aˆ? Very high power-to-weight ratio, compared to reciprocating engines.
aˆ? Smaller than most reciprocating engines of the same power evaluation.
aˆ? Moves in one way merely, with far less quiver than a reciprocating engine.
aˆ? Fewer traveling parts than reciprocating engines.
aˆ? Low operating force per unit areas.
aˆ? High operation velocities.
aˆ? Low lubricating oil cost and ingestion. [ 1 ]
Disadvantages of gas turbine engines:
aˆ? Less efficient than reciprocating engines at idle.
aˆ? Longer start up than reciprocating engines.
aˆ? Less antiphonal to alterations in power demand compared to reciprocating engines. [ 1 ]
Gas Turbine Manufacturers: There are many gas turbine maker about. The energy works in Bilenerji A.Az . uses MAN GHH and Rolls Royce gas turbines in electric works. The other most known makers are AlliedSignal, Allison, Ansaldo Energia, Cooper Rolls- Coberra, Centrax Gas Turbines, European Gas Turbines, Fiat Avio, General Electric, Greenwich Turbine, Hitachi, Ishikawajima-Harima, Kongsberg Dresser, Kvaerner Energy, MAN GHH, Mitsubishi, Mitsui Engineering, MTU Friedrichshafen, Niigata Engineering, Nuovo Pignone, Pratt and Whitney, Rolls Royce, Ruston, Siemens, Solar, Stewart and Stevenson, Sulzer, Thomassen Holland, Tuma Turbomach SA, Turbomeca Industrial, Turbo Power and Marine Systems, Volvo Aero Turbines, Westinghouse. [ 3 ]
Thermal Power Plants:
A thermic power station is a power works in which the premier mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which either drives an electrical generator or does some other work, like ship propulsion. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a capacitor and recycled to where it was heated ; this is known as a Rankine rhythm. The greatest fluctuation in the design of thermic power Stationss is due to the different fuel beginnings. Some other to utilize the term energy centre because such installations convert signifiers of heat energy into electrical energy. [ 4 ]
The constituents of thermic energy workss is like that and figure shown in Figure 6.
1. Cooling tower. 2. Cooling H2O pump. 3. Transmission line ( 3-phase ) . 4. Unit transformer ( 3-phase ) . 5. Electric generator ( 3-phase ) . 6. Low force per unit area turbine. 7. Condensate extraction pump. 8. Condensor. 9. Intermediate force per unit area turbine. 10. Steam governor valve. 11. High force per unit area turbine. 12. Deaerator. 13. Feed warmer. 14. Coal conveyer. 15. Coal hopper. 16. Pulverised fuel factory. 17. Boiler membranophone. 18. Ash hopper. 19. Superheater. 20. Forced draught fan. 21. Reheater. 22. Air intake. 23. Economiser. 24. Air preheater. 25. Precipitator. 26. Induced draught fan. 27. Chimney Stack.
Figure 6. Thermal Energy Plant Schematic.
Types of Thermal Power Plants:
There are three types of thermic power workss. This categorization is made through the rhythm they have.
Simple Cycle: In a gas turbine, big volumes of air are compressed to high force per unit area in a multistage compressor for distribution to one or more burning gases from the burning Chamberss power an axial turbine that drives the compressor and the generator before wash uping to atmosphere. In this manner, the burning gases in a gas turbine power the turbine straight, instead than necessitating heat transportation to a water/steam rhythm to power a steam turbine, as in the steam works. [ 5 ] ( Figure 7 )
Figure 7. Simple Cycle Power Plants. [ 5 ]
Cogeneration: Apart from what is done in simple rhythm, besides the hot fumes gases from gas turbines are used to bring forth steam ; but this steam is non used in a steam turbine, it is merely sold. In this manner steam taken from gas turbines straight sold. This is besides one manner how Bilenerji recovers steam. Bilenerji sells the steam to Meteksan and some other Bilkent Keeping companies. ( Figure 8 )
Figure 8. Cogeneration Plant Schematic.
Combined Cycle: In add-on to that Bilenerji besides tries to bring forth electric from the steam they produce. The combined-cycle unit combines the Rankine ( steam turbine ) and Brayton ( gas turbine ) thermodynamic rhythms by utilizing heat recovery boilers to capture the energy in the gas turbine fumes gases for steam production to provide a steam turbine as shown in the figure “ Combined-Cycle Cogeneration Unit ” . ( Figure 9 and Figure 10 ) Procedure steam can be besides provided for industrial intents. [ 5 ] .
Figure 9. Combined Cycle Plant Schematic [ 5 ]
Figure 10. The works diagram from the simulator named Kraftwerk Fundamental.
A contactor is an electrically controlled switch used for exchanging a power circuit, similar to relay except with higher amperage evaluations. [ 6 ] Contactors and relays are constituents for the protection of the works, because an mistake in the system may be unsafe for whole system and in this dismaies or trips contactors and relays break up the connexion. ( Figure 11 )
Figure 11. Contactor and Relay [ 6, 7 ]
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to run a shift mechanism, but other operating rules are besides used. Relays discovery applications where it is necessary to command a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. [ 7 ] ( Figure 11 )
Circuit Surfs and Disconnectors:
A circuit ledgeman is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from harm caused by overload or short circuit. Furthermore, disconnectors are besides electrical switch which is used to do certain that an electrical circuit can be wholly de-energized for service or care. [ 8 ]
Electrical power transmittal webs are protected and controlled by high-voltage surfs ( switchgear ) . These high electromotive force surfs are classified through the stuff that are covered which is largely vacuumed air, SF6 gas or oil. ( Figure 12 ) A sulfur hexafluoride circuit ledgeman uses contacts surrounded by S hexafluoride gas to slake the discharge. They are most frequently used for transmission-level electromotive forces and may be incorporated into compact gas-insulated switchgear. In cold climes, auxiliary warming or de-rating of the circuit surfs may be required due to liquefaction of the SF6 gas. [ 8 ] In Bilenerji, they are besides utilizing circuit surfs which are contains sulfur hexafluoride gas which is shown in image below.
Figure 12. SF6 Circuit Breakers. [ 9 ]
Some of the makers are ABB, GE ( General Electric ) , AREVA, Mitsubishi Electric, Pennsylvania Breaker, Siemens, Toshiba, KonA?ar HVS, BHEL, CGL. [ 8 ] Bilenerji uses Siemens circuit surfs.
An electric motor uses electrical energy to bring forth mechanical energy, really typically through the interaction of magnetic Fieldss and current-carrying music directors. The contrary procedure, bring forthing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is accomplished by an alternator, generator. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators, and frailty versa. For illustration a starter/generator for a gas turbine. In the works, we really see that all stairss for bring forthing electricity is chiefly came from electric motor rule. They are bring forthing mechanical power from some electric power after that they use this mechanical power to bring forth more electricity with the aid of motors.
Star & A ; Delta Connections:
Power lines nominally carry 220V with regard to the land but they have three stages. The stages are set so that the electromotive force difference between any two stages yield 220*a?s3 =~ 380V ( that means line electromotive force ) . While utilizing leading connexion, each weaving sees phase-to-ground electromotive force which is 220V. While utilizing delta connexion, each weaving sees phase-to-phase electromotive force which is 380V.
In delta connexion Vin = Vline, Iin= Iline*a?s3, nevertheless in star connexion Vin= Vline*a?s3, Iin = Iline. ( Figure 13 and 14 ) For the star connexion, we use motors which has power more than 5 KW, motors which are less than 5KW are connected as delta connexion.
Figure 13. Delta Connections
Figure 14. Star Connections
A transformer is a device that transportations electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors-the transformer ‘s spirals. [ 10 ] ( Figure 15 ) The energy works besides uses transformers because in the line they give the electric or they take there may be some differences. For illustration they should step up the electromotive force they produce or they should step down the electromotive force in the BEDAAz ‘s line. Transformers are used by works in this sort of activity for the electromotive force.
Figure 15. The transformer schematic. [ 10 ]
There some types of transformers for illustration electromotive force transformers are used some odd electromotive force flow in works and besides for measurings. Particularly for the input electromotive forces of relays. These transformers converts the unwanted electromotive force into coveted value. In the measurings VTs creates electromotive force end products.
Furthermore, in works, they are utilizing current transformers ( CT ) in order to do some measurings which creates current end product. ( Figure 16 ) For illustration, the current transformer sends 10 ma for each 1000 V passes over the line. For this sort of measurement current transformers are used.
Figure 16. Current Transformer
The transformers have some internal protections to take safeguards. For illustration, the armored combat vehicle protection makes system invalid when they are any lackage to land from the armored combat vehicle. In instance of a mistake between the armored combat vehicle and the land, it protects the transformer by signalling the circuit cutter to open.
In the field of electric power distribution and transmittal, a Buchholz relay, besides called a gas relay or a sudden force per unit area relay, is a safety device mounted on some oil-filled power transformers and reactors, equipped with an external operating expense oil reservoir called a curator. The Buchholz Relay is used as a protective device medium to the effects of dielectric failure inside the equipment. [ 11 ]
P & A ; ID:
A piping and instrumentality diagram/drawing ( P & A ; ID ) is a diagram in the procedure industry which shows the piping of the procedure flow together with the installed equipment and instrumentality. [ 12 ] This is an control mechanism for the works. For illustration, the system may give an TI or TT codification for some pre numbered machine. ( Figure 17 ) This means temperature index or temperature sender of the system is in qui vive. This indexs or senders uses thermocouple circuits while they are change overing the measured informations to voltage end product. Thermocouples will be explained in the following session.
Figure 17. P & A ; ID Instrument Identification Letters
A thermocouple is a junction between two different metals that produces a electromotive force related to a temperature difference. ( Figure 18 ) Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature detector for measuring and control and can besides be used to change over heat into electric power. [ 13 ] . In 1821, the German-Estonian physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered that when any music director is subjected to a thermic gradient, it will bring forth a electromotive force. This is now known as the thermoelectric consequence or Seebeck consequence. [ 13 ]
Figure 18. Thermocouple circuit. [ 13 ]