Wastewater Management: Tatlar Wastewater Treatment Plant which is the 1 of the biggest intervention workss of the Europe was put into the service in the 1997 for handling the H2O of topographic points where is included in the boundaries of Ankara Municipality. In the 2010 the coming effluent sum is 971.000 m3/day. Procedure of the intervention is anaerobiotic sludge stabilisation, active sludge technique and removing of sludge H2O by utilizing strip filter technique. The treated H2O is dispatching into the Ankara Creek. In the twelvemonth of 2025, the capacity of the works will be increased for handling the 6.288.000 people ‘s effluent which is equal to 1.377.000 m3/day. Cubuk Wastewater Treatment Plant & A ; Karakoy Wastewater Treatment Plant which were put into the service in the 2009 in order to diminish waste burden of the Ankara Creek. coming effluent sums to the Cubuk and Karakoy WWTPs are 19.250 m3/day and 42.000 m3/day, severally and they includes H2O of Cubuk, EsenboAYa, Sirkeli, AltA±nova, Saraykoy, Pursaklar, Akyurt and Karacaoren. These workss are portion of the “ Rehabilitation Project of Ankara Creek and Cubuk 1 Dam ” With this undertaking, it is aimed that physical state of affairss of Ankara Creek, Cubuk Creek and Hatip Brook will be recovered. In add-on these, treated effluent is besides used. Surveies show that treated effluent can be used merely for a surface irrigation intent. For this purpose, H2O is sent to the Anayurt Village with a dirt channel. ( URL 1 ) .
Stormwater Management: The stormwater of Ankara has been dispatching in to the Ankara Creek straight without any intervention. However in the range of “ Ankara Stormwater Project ” this state of affairs is mentioned in a really elaborate manner. ( URL 1 )
Biosolids Management: Ankara Water And Sewer Administration have been analyzing the biosolid quality for many old ages. The possible toxic elements into the biosolids, fertiliser value of these biosolids, use of biosolids around the Tatlar WWTP & A ; grass countries have been researched. Harmonizing to these experiments, these followerss are found:
It has been found that the content of possible toxic elements in the biosolids are non transcend the solid waste controls ordinance and USEPA criterias, but it is said that in order to obtain accurate consequences it is necessary to cognize mineral tonss of the solids all over the state.
Fertilizer value of biosolids are besides calculated. Harmonizing to this researches, wastewater biosolid is nitrogen and phosphorus-rich, K is non excessively much. But still it is non job, since dirt of application country is potassium-rich. In add-on to this, the chief concern is nitrogen loss of the biosolids because of drying procedure. This procedure reduces the N sum of the biosolids, due to missing of sparging machine, drying procedure should be implemented. Therefore, the fertiliser value of these biosolids are less than expected.
One of the most of import things related to biosolids is usage of these should be done in a homogeneous manner. Excessive use of biosolids around Tatlar WWTP is observed. The chief ground of utmost use is ; biosolids are free of charge. Because of these ecxess use, husbandmans have jobs with the wheat and sugar Beta vulgaris productions. However, this state of affairs is non controlled.
Biosolids is used as fertiliser for grass growing procedure. Biosolids of Tatlar WWTP is found suited for this application. Therefore, municipality salvage excessively much money.
( Bilgin, et. all,2002 ) .
In the web site of Ankara Water and Sewer Administration, there are some subdivisions related to public personal businesss. These are frequently inquiring inquiries subdivision where populace can inquire inquiries coming their heads ( URL 2 ) and salvaging H2O utilizing practical ways subdivision where the Ankara Water and Sewer Administration gives some practical solutions to forestall excess H2O ingestion ( URL 3 ) . But there is non any separate subdivisions related to stormwater, biosolid, effluent direction in order to inform public.
The chief hereafter program of the Ankara Water and Sewer Administration that is “ Rehabilitation Project of Ankara Creek and Cubuk 1 Dam ” . A°t includes both recreational activities and stormwater direction. The Cubuk and Karakoy WWTPs have already been constructed. A°n the range of this undertaking. The intent of this undertaking is ; treated H2O coming from the Cubuk & A ; Karakoy WWTPs will be diluted with the rain and snow H2O, so this H2O will be collected into the Cubuk 1 dike. The digging procedure of deposit sludge ( 300.000 M3 ) doing to odor is already started. Besides this dike will be one of the clean H2O beginnings of the Ankara Creek. Furthermore ; unaccredited buildings will be prohibited and it will be allowable merely for clean rainwater coming to the Cubuk 1 Dam and from there it is given to the Ankara Creek. For this undertaking, Ankara will derive a new diversion country which is Cubuk 1 Dam and stormwater direction ( URL 4 ) . In the 2011, 275 kilometer of effluent and stormwater H2O line will be constructed. Besides, AyaAY-SinanlA± Kazan, ElmadaAY , Kalecik, Temelli, HasanoAYlan, GolbaAYA± , Bala WWTPs are under building. In add-on, for the little communities package intervention workss will be constructed ( URL 5 ) .
KOSKI – KONYA WATER AND SEWER ADMINISTRATION:
Wastewater Management: Konya WWTP has been working since 2009. Capacity of the works is 1.000.000 people ‘s effluent that is 200.000 m3/day. The installation includes C and partial N remotion. Furthermore, contains advanced biological intervention with regard to both C and parital N remotion procedures and extremist disinfection units. After 2015, capacity of the works will be increased 1.600.000 people ‘s effluent. ( URL 7 ) Before this undertaking, domestic effluent was discharged into the Kecili Brook without any intervention. But, this state of affairs was destroy the ecosystem of the Salt Lake. And, this lake was started to dry. Therefore, with this WWPT, the inauspicious effects of domestic H2O of Konya Municipality will be decreased. Furthermore, with this undertaking 50 million m3/year irrigation & A ; urban grass H2O will be produced. ( URL 6 )
Stormwater Management: Municipality has merely constructed the WWTP and they have no stormwater direction, since in the web site of the disposal and other beginnings this issue is non mentioned.
Biosolid Management: For the future programs of the Municipality, biosolid direction is besides mentioned. With the stabilized sludge obtaining from the WWTP will be used for both agricultural fertiliser and recovery of dirts.
( URL 8 )
In the web site of Konya and Sewer Administration, there is a cultural activities subdivision. In at that place, information and picture related to H2O, H2O use, H2O salvaging both for grownups and kids. ( URL 9 )
METROPOLITAN WATER RECLAMATION DISTRICT OF GREATER CHICAGO
Wastewater Management: In the Chicago territory 1,4 billion gallons of wastewater/ twenty-four hours is produced. To give better intervention service, the part was devided into seven countries and for handling each country ‘s effluent, there are seven intervention installations were constructed. Their capacities are altering between 1,2 gallons/ twenty-four hours at the Stickney Plant, to 2,3 million gallons/ twenty-four hours at the Lemont Plant. For each installation have two intervention workss these are effluent intervention workss ( primary, secondary, third interventions ) and biosolid use. These workss are ;
The Stickney Water Reclamation Plant: This intervention works is the biggest wwtp in the universe. The service country of this works is 260 mile2 which is included 2,38 million people. Its design capacity is 1,200 million gallons/ twenty-four hours. The sum of H2O is 786,9 MGD.
Calumet Water Reclamation Plant: This wwtp which 300 mile2 dainties is the oldest installation of the Chicago territory. This installation supplies both primary and secondary intervention. Furthermore, Calumet Tunnel helps to command pollution and eliminates 85A per centum of the combined cloaca floods. The sum of H2O is 286,6 MGD.
North Side Water Reclamation Plant: This wwtp is a theoretical account for modern sewer systems. Service country of this installation is 141 mile2 and sum of approaching effluent is 245,5 MGD.
Kirie Water Reclamation Plant: This wwtp is the newest installation of the distict and it is to the full automated. The coming effluent sum is 46,1 MGD.
Egan Water Reclamation Plant: It includes two-stage secondary procedure and third intervention for taking of water-borne pollutants. The coming effluent sum is 29,5 MGD.
Hanover Water Reclamation Plant: This works includes the first third effluent intervention technique. The coming effluent sum is 9,4 MGD.
Lemont Water Reclamation Plant: This is the smallest wwtp of this part. The coming effluent sum is 2,5 MGD.
( URL 10 )
Biosolid Management: Biosolid applications are considered as an operation for many old ages. Chicago District concerts the biosolid issue excessively much. Biosolids are used for many countries because of the rich mixture of sludge and dirt such as ; many country golf classs, turf farms, tollway Bankss and Parkss are green and fertile. The sludge is enriched with all essencial foods such as ; P, N, C etc, and these biosolids are used in the agricultural countries for fertilezer. Therefore, the otiose sludge is converted to valuable merchandise. Furthermore these, Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has a comfirmation Illinois Environmental Protection Agency ( IEPA ) biosolids direction program and they operate these installations under an IEPA controlled biosolids distribution license. In other words, the local people utilizing these biosolids do non take any excess permission to Illinois Environmental Protection Agency in orted to use biosolids. Main concerrs of the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago is supplying the safety of biosolids. Furthermore, in order to run into rigorous standarts of USEPA related to biosolids, industrial waste discharges into the system is restricted by Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago ‘s Research and Development Department. To supervise composing of biosolids, there are more than one million analyses are done. Metropolitan Water Reclamation District suppliessome proficient services to biosolid users which are related to proving of dirt, site reappraisals, organizing of users and Sellerss, necessary application techniques, make up one’s minding to outdo direction patterns to obtain successful use and to obey ordinances, etc. With these undertakings including instruction plans increase populace ‘s attitude in a good manner. Therefore, people can look at biosolid issue in a safe and cost effectual manner. ( URL 11 )
Stormwater Management: The purpose of stormwater direction plan is to cut down the possible stormwater amendss into the life, public wellness and the environment by obeying the related ordinances. The territory has 19 srotmwater direction ends. These ends are aimed to forestall inundation events and lessening of H2O quality. In the Chicago District cloaca stormwater and sewerage are collected into the separate systems. But in the old parts or the metropolis combined sewer system is still utilizing. In these countries, with the aid of Tunnel and Reservoir Plan ( TARP ) inundation and pollution. There are 30 reservoirs to roll up combined cloacas. Furthermore this, The District is working with the other communities which provide communicating between public, local authoritiess to Metropolitan Water Reclamation District for making Watershed Planning Councils. The District has six watershed planning councils. In add-on these, lifts will be checked and controlled to cut down extra implosion therapy and bypassing of untreated sewerage to Lake Michigan ( URL12 ) .
The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has an unit called The Office of Public Affairs ( OPA ) which provides connexion between public and the District. the responsibility of this office is related to instructions, media relationships of the District, set uping public actities. The purpose of Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago is besides obtaining unfastened relationship with the populace ( URL 12 ) .
Washington Distrcict of Colombia Water and Sewer Authority:
Wastewater Management: District of Columbia cloaca system and the H2O of Maryland and Virginia suburbs are treated in the DC Water. Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant which is the 1 of the largest advanced wwtp treats 330 million gallons/ twenty-four hours effluent that comes from these political parts. The treated H2O is discharged to the Potomac estuary. Besides, it is required to run into H2O intervention ordinances of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System criterions ( NPDES ) . Their purpose is supplying beter H2O service to the populace, protecting the environment and guaranting sustainability of H2O. Goals of the DC Water related to effluent are ;
Continuing H2O quality of the receiving organic structure ( Potomac River ) ,
Guaranting the intervention both for current and future demands,
Reducing odor coming from biosolids,
Developing of biosolids intervention in a cheaper manner
( URL 13 )
Biosolid Management: Biosolids are used for agricultural use. But, before this use, the biosolids have been riched with the necessary foods in order to better dirt quality. 1,200 tons/ twenty-four hours biosolids are used for the both application plans and olso other agricultural undertakings. After the stabilisation procedure, they can be used as a agricultural fertiliser which is included high sum of N. DC Water is the 1 of the well recognized biosolid direction installation ( URL 14 ) .
degree Celsius ) Stormwater Management: Sewer substructure of the DC is rather old and they have to be renewed. The cloaca system of the the territory of Columbia is by and large separate system. In other words, sewerage and stormwater are collected with the different pipe lines. However, combined cloaca system is besides used, and this causes some jobs, since one pipe system can non manage with the such a heavy rain event. Hence, both economic and environmental harm is observed, because of CSO. The flood is risen since the combined cloaca system sends the extra H2O to the local waterways. Current state of affairs is, DC Water uses 1,800 stat mis of separate and unite sewer system, 22 flow-metering Stationss, 16 storm cloacas, storm cloaca lines and gimmick basins and nine off-site effluent pumping Stationss to roll up effluent ( URL 15 ) .
In the web site of the DC Water hereafter programs are besides mentioned. One of the most improtant hereafter programs is creative activity of new stormwater outfalls on both Anacostia and Potomac Rivers. Besides, they hope to diminish CSO sum in the these rivers and Rock Creek by 96 % overall and CSOs in the Anacostia will be reduced by 98 % by the twelvemonth 2025. Furthermore, DC Water is giving information to the populace about their undertakings from their web site ( URL 15 ) .
In decision, from these researches it can be clearly seen that Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has the best direction system, because all the subjects of HW-3 can be easy found from their web site. Then, Washington Distrcict of Colombia Water and Sewer Authority ‘s services come. The web site of the DC Water is rather complicated and non every bit clear as the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago. After these two, Ankara Water and Sewer Administration is coming, eventually the last 1 is the Konya Water and Sewer Administration. There are many grounds why the US Authorities are better than Turkey ‘s 1. First, they are innovators of the effluent intervention issue. That means, they have started to see effluent intervention or more by and large the environmental sustainability construct for a really long clip. Therefore, both their engineerings and point of view are beyond the Turkish Autorities. When the web site of Turkish Administrations are opened, it is impossible to see biosolids and stormwater applications. Actually, wwtp of the Konya was put into the service in the 2009. I think it is sensless to compare US Authorities and the Konya ‘s. But it is possible to compare Chicago and Washington. Web site of Chicago District gives all the necessary information and they are really clean. However, in the Washington instance it is rather difficult to happen needed information. Furthermore, DC Water have about the same jobs with Ankara Administration ( ASKA° ) , since they both have immense stormwater job but of class Washington has a better logic than the ASKA° . And eventually this survey shows that US Authorities and Turkey Authorities are every bit different as chalk and cheese.