This essay will supply a principle ; an account of the cardinal grounds, for learning the foundation topics within Early Old ages and Primary Education, with specific mention to P.E. The Early Years foundation phase ( EYFS ) statutory model ensures ‘that kids learn and develop good and are kept healthy and safe. It promotes learning and larning to guarantee kids are ready for school and gives kids the wide scope of cognition and accomplishments that provide the right foundation for good hereafter advancement through school and life. ‘ ( Department for Education, 2012, 2 lines ) . The National Curriculum ( NC ) , which is presently under a reappraisal launched by the Government, is a set of criterions that schools use to guarantee all kids learn the same things and that make certain certain degrees of attainment are achieved in each topic ( GOV.UK, 2012 ) . The National Curriculum includes nucleus topics and foundation topics, and all of these are compulsory. English, Mathematics, Science and ICT are all nucleus topics, and the foundation subjects include Art, Design and Technology, Music, Geography, History and P.E. Religious Education is taught in add-on to these topics although it does non organize portion of the National Curriculum. It is, nevertheless, included in the basic course of study and is lawfully bound to be taught. The National Curriculum gives a chiseled and elaborate usher to larning for all kids, which shows what should be taught and sets marks for acquisition and the attainment degrees for students. It besides includes ways in which public presentation will be assessed and reported ( Department for Education and Qualification and Curriculum Authority, 1999 ) . The foundation topics and R.E. are merely every bit of import as the nucleus topics as they all teach an implicit in accomplishment or let kids to develop their ain sentiments and picks. Every foundation topic has a intent behind it, some are less focussed on than others, but they all have really good grounds for being in the course of study. Boys and Spink ( 2008 ) believe the foundation topics and R.E. ‘have the possible to be the most powerful, most meaningful and most relevant countries of larning for all scholars ‘ ( p. 12 ) , this is supported by Rose ( 2008 ) who remarks that the foundation subjects stimulate kids ‘s desire to larn and widen their deepness and comprehensiveness of idea, cognition and capableness. Within this essay I will debate the principle for why we teach the foundation topics, concentrating my attending on Physical Education across the 3-11 age groups. I will be looking at P.E. in the EYFS every bit good as the intent, nature and importance of P.E. in the Primary Curriculum, throughout Key Stages 1 and 2. Besides, justification refering the inclusion of P.E. in the course of study will be explored, every bit good as statements for and against P.E. being taught in schools. Finally I will compare the similarities and differences between the Early Old ages and Primary Education, followed by a concluding analysis and decision of the statements mentioned.
Wickstrom ( 1970 ) states that:
Where there is life there is motion ; where there are kids there is about ageless motion. Children usually run, leap, throw, gimmick, boot, work stoppage, and execute a battalion of basic accomplishments.
Physical Education involves the physical development of the whole kid, right from birth to the Early Old ages ( ages 3-7 ) so followed through to Primary Education ( up to age 11 ) , which so continues throughout the teenage old ages and into maturity. Children learn through physical activity, whether it ‘s numeration, picture, speaking, edifice, or mounting, singing and leaping. Physical activity is highly of import for kids ‘s development particularly in the Early Old ages. Most kids are really agile, strong and imaginative, and by the age of 7 should be able make all the basic motions involved with mundane life. They can so travel on to develop coordination, control and balance, and larn to use these accomplishments throughout their lives ( Manners and Carroll, 1995 ) .
Harmonizing to the Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage ( 2012 ) , every bit good as coordination, control and motion, physical development in the EYFS besides involves understanding the importance of physical activities and doing healthy picks in relation to nutrient. By the terminal of the Early Years Foundation Stage, kids should:
Move with assurance, imaginativeness and in safety. Move with control and coordination. Travel around, under, over and through reconciliation and mounting equipment. Show consciousness of infinite, of themselves and others. Recognize the importance of maintaining healthy, and those things which contribute to this. Recognize the alterations that happen to their organic structures when they are active. Use a scope of little and big equipment. Handle tools, objects, building and ductile stuffs safely and with increasing control.
( Department for Education, 2012a )
Physical Education holds a alone place within the Primary school course of study in that it promotes physical, emotional and societal development through a chiefly active attack. Some of its key purposes are to promote the development of healthy life styles and motion ability through the encouragement of positive attitudes towards activity and physical challenge. The Physical Education course of study at Key Stages 1 and 2 should hence affect a broad scope of exciting and disputing experiences which enable kids to develop and hone basic motion forms within the context of an interesting and entertaining larning environment. During Cardinal Stage 1 kids focus on constructing their ‘natural enthusiasm for motion ‘ ( DfEE and QCA, 1999, p. 130 ) and utilize this develop their apprehension about the universe. By Key Stage 2 kids focus more on new accomplishments, uniting actions, phrases and sequences of motion and they ‘develop an apprehension of how to win in different activities and larn how to measure and recognize their ain success ‘ ( DfEE and QCA, 1999, p.132 ) . Physical Education in the National Curriculum is divided into six chief countries of activity ; dance activities, games activities, acrobatic activities, swimming activities and H2O safety, athletic activities and outdoor and escapade activities. Children must be taught five of these, with swimming being compulsory ( DfEE and QCA, 1999 ) . The chief course of study purposes are to make:
Successful scholars who enjoy larning, do advancement and achieve. Confident persons who are able to populate a safe, healthy and fulfilling life style. Responsible citizens who make a positive part to society.
( Department for Education, 2012b )
Primary Physical Education is the best clip for students to set up cardinal motion accomplishments ( FMS ) ; basic motor accomplishments and motions of different organic structure parts. This phase is important for kids to develop basic motions learned in the Early Old ages. Children develop cardinal motion accomplishments within locomotor activities such as running and jumping, balance activities, and ball activities e.g. catching and throwing. Cardinal motion accomplishments provide the footing for complex motion with scope and flexibleness, whilst developing communicating, emotional and logical acquisition chances ( Griggs, 2012 ) .
Equally good as being taught by things in the National Curriculum, kids besides learn from a concealed course of study. The concealed course of study indirectly teaches accomplishments such as behavior, regard, promptness and obeying regulations. These things are non stated in the course of study but are subconsciously developed throughout a kid ‘s clip at school. In relation to Physical Education, kids will larn how to work suitably as a squad and what is acceptable featuring behavior. However, the concealed course of study can besides reenforce gender pigeonholing in Physical Education. For illustration, misss who are good at or bask athletics will sometimes be called ‘tomboys ‘ . Sport can be seen as masculine and for male childs to larn how to be ‘real work forces ‘ ( Laker, 2002 ) .
Classroom-based topics such as R.E. , Music, Maths and English are really of import constituents of the course of study and offer great sums to kids ‘s acquisition. However Pickup ( 2012 ) argues that certain facets of P.E. are alone and supply important chances to make ‘interactive, dynamic, multi-sensory and gratifying lessons ‘ . Making P.E. gratifying, exciting and relevant for students within the 3-11 age groups is of topmost importance. Interaction is paramount for maintaining kids engaged in physical activity and by making competition or puting ends to assortment of activities that allow the kids to utilize different equipment will assist to maintain their learning diverse and merriment.
Technology is going of greater usage in today ‘s society and The National Association for Sport and Physical Education ( NASPE ) ( 2004 ) believes that the usage of engineering can be a productive manner to heighten and enrich direction when used appropriately. For illustration, usage of pictures can add an excess dimension to presentations and utilizing entering equipment can assist kids to detect and measure their ain work. The Rose Report ( Rose, 2009 ) and the Cambridge Primary Review ( Alexander, 2009 ) both endorsed that ICT should be embedded in the instruction of all topics, with the inclusion of Physical Education. The usage of engineering does n’t merely halt at video equipment and ICT, the choice is huge and can include stop watchs, bosom proctors and analysis package. If decently planned and used suitably, chances to prosecute with engineering can back up and heighten instruction and acquisition by enthusing kids and hiking their motive. Ofsted ( 2009 ) claimed that effectual utilizations of ICT had a ‘positive impact on the well-being and personal development of students ‘ , every bit good as ‘contributing significantly towards their ability to work both independently and hand in glove ‘ .
However, we should admit that there is more to the successful execution of ICT in Physical Education lessons than merely being given entree to equipment. Learning must be improved by the usage of these resources by spread outing on bing cognition in an in-depth, more important, inventive and effectual manner. Whilst ICT has the possibility to supply strength to acquisition in Physical Education there are besides possible failings. There are disadvantages with the usage of ICT, for illustration it can on occasion neglect to work and instructors need to be able to set to the challenges this brings. ( Williams and Cliffe, 2011 )
Harmonizing to the Health Survey for England ( HSE ) ( 2010 ) , 31 % of male childs and 29 % of misss aged 2 to 15 were classed as either corpulence or corpulent ( p. 23 ) and this has been steadily increasing since 1995. Besides, merely 32 % of boys 24 % of misss were classified as run intoing the authorities ‘s recommendations for physical activity in 2008 ( p. 38 ) . To bask a healthy, active and fulfilling lifestyle kids must be taught the importance of attention for the human organic structure including diet, exercising and hygiene. It is the function of schools and instructors to do kids cognizant of the effects that exercise has on the organic structure, how to fix for physical activity e.g. warming up by stretching their musculuss and raising their bosom rate, and the importance of chilling down after exercising ( Robinson, 2000 ) . With the increasing concern about wellness and inaction in primary schools, the value of healthy life styles and exercising should be conveyed clearly to kids throughout their clip spent in school. Robinson ( 2000 ) notes that Physical Education is an of import subscriber to wellness and fittingness and should be used in add-on to wellness instruction to advance an overall positive attack to the cognition and apprehension of wellness and fittingness.
Williams ( 1989 ) points out that Physical Education faces some jobs with its inclusion in Primary Education. In old decennaries, the position of P.E. was frequently considered lower than the other topics in the course of study and in the past instructors have been systematically criticised for their ‘failure to learn the capable properly ‘ ( Physical Education Association, 1987 ) . However, in today ‘s society, the position of physical activity has been suggested to be at an ‘all-time high ‘ with politicians going interested in recognizing the significance of athletics and the recent exhilaration of the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games, which was the ‘biggest sporting event of all time to be staged in England ‘ , supplying function theoretical accounts for the kids of today ( Pickup, 2008, p. 72 ) .
To reason, the inclusion of Physical Education within Early Old ages and Primary Education is highly of import. P.E. provides the foundation for the development of cardinal motion accomplishments which builds on accomplishments from the Early Old ages through to Primary Education. Use of equipment, games, competition and peculiarly the geographic expedition of engineering within lessons and activities has shown how P.E can be made relevant and exciting for students within the 3-11 age groups. Besides, issues about the old position of Physical Education have been argued by the increasing benefits that have come with recent events such as the Olympics. Physical Education helps with the concerns about childhood fleshiness and inaction by learning the value of healthy exercising and showing how to populate a healthy life style. Overall, the cardinal grounds for learning Physical Education in the EYFS and NC includes physical, emotional and societal development, the growing of assurance, the development of physical accomplishments and literacy and personal accomplishment within the bounds of single difference and equal chance.