A Case Study Of Copenhagen City Marketing Essay

Over the clip research workers have focused on two Fieldss of idea – one of those is the emerging impression of topographic point or state, state, metropolis stigmatization and another field of idea is ‘country-of-origin ‘ image ( Papadopoulos, 2004 ) . Due to intense planetary displacement in resources, capital and people ( Zhang & A ; Zhao, 2009 ) , topographic points have considered a demand to place themselves distinctively to accomplish any economic, political or socio-psychological aim ( Kavaratzis & A ; Ashworth, 2005 ) with an purpose to heighten topographic point ‘s export, protect domestic concern, motivate factors of development and besides to place the topographic point well in both domestic and international market ( Papadopoulos, 2004 ) . Therefore to vie and last in the new unfastened market economic system, assorted communities, metropoliss, states, provinces and parts have understood the importance of developing and advancing their alone characteristics as competitory advantage through strategic selling and trade name direction construct ( Gertner, 2007 ) .

Cities are viing within ferociously competitory sphere for money, attending, endowment, invention and creativeness both within and across national boundaries ( Konijnendijk, 2010 ) and as a effect metropoliss across the universe usage several channels to advance their alone characteristics toward relevant audiences such as investors, visitants and occupants through dramatic metropolis logo, appealing motto and advertisement runs in national and international media, as an built-in portion of metropolis direction ( Kavaratzis & A ; Ashworth, 2009 ) . Like merchandise ‘s trade name, the metropolis ‘s trade name has become valuable plus for urban development and besides is considered as an effectual tool to show typical place of the metropolis ; which have motivated the metropolis decision makers to accept stigmatization as a development scheme for their metropoliss every bit good as the lone manner to face ferocious planetary competition ( Kavaratzis & A ; Ashworth, 2009 ) . Cities are branded based on the types of activities they are good at ; for illustration – New York and London metropolis branding concept focal point concern activities ; Vancouver, Vienna and Melbourne metropoliss are good branded for high ranked in ‘liveability index ‘ or Cannes is promoted for hosting large event like Cannes movie festival ( Ooi, 2010 ) . Each metropolis is branded based on a narrative or message which is expressed through metropolis trade name ‘s motto or catchy phrase ( Ooi, 2010 ) ; for example- ‘I Amsterdam ‘ , ‘I a™? NY ‘ and ‘Uniquely Singapore ‘ , ‘Stockholm- The Capital of Scandinavia ‘ , ‘Johannesburg- a universe category African metropolis ‘ , ‘Hong Kong – Asia ‘s universe metropolis ‘ ( Ooi, 2010 ; Konig, 2011 ) . As a portion of constructing metropolis trade name, metropoliss need to specify the scheme for the trade name consisting nucleus trade name message, aims and the mark audience and therefore a metropolis ‘s trade name can be of several types such as – the to the full architectured trade name, a propositional trade name with the placement of the metropolis or the bare trade name where metropolis itself is the trade name and trade name direction squad influence people ‘s perceptual experience of the trade name ( Eurocities, 2010 ) . City governments throughout Europe are progressively using the construct and techniques of merchandise stigmatization to suit in metropolis selling within urban development direction every bit good as within European integrating procedure ( Kavaratzis & A ; Ashworth, 2005 ) . During economic crisis across Europe, metropolitan metropoliss are taking disputing ambitious lead to the economic recovery ; where invention, endowment and trade have been considered assets of these European metropoliss to advance them and to confront the planetary challenge set the urbanisation of China, Asia and Latin America ( Eurocities, 2012 ) . City stigmatization is an on-going exercising in which procedure metropolis ‘s branding place can be negative ; but can draw high spot on it for farther growing within the context of social alteration ( Ooi, 2010 ) . The 2009 UN Climate Summit ( COP15 ) was hosted by Copenhagen metropolis and was considered by the local governments as a stigmatization scoop for the Danish capital metropolis ; who dubbed the metropolis as ‘Hopenhagen ‘ ( Ooi, 2010 ) . Though the result of acme defeated governments and international media dubbed the metropolis as ‘Borkenhagen ‘ or ‘Nopenhagen ‘ ( Ooi, 2010 ) , the metropolis got the exciting positive promotion in The Times ( UK ) , the New York Times and BBC for being a modern green metropolis beyond its historical chances and societal openness ( Astrup 2009 as cited in Ooi, 2010 ) . Then, the metropolis stigmatization procedure continues.

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‘OPEN Copenhagen ‘ is the official metropolis trade name of Danish capital metropolis – Kobenhavn ; which is the lone unfastened beginning metropolis stigmatization and besides a value based trade name ( Nicholls, aˆ¦ ; Copenhagen ‘s new trade name, .. ) . The construct of trade name openness in topographic point of trade name ownership ( Nicholls ) has been chosen to trade name the metropolis with a tagline – ‘OPEN Copenhagen, Open for you ‘ which is flexible for all stakeholders to acquire entree in trade name edifice procedure. The thought behind this unfastened beginning stigmatization is to construct span between selling and communications for both Copenhagen and for the single user of the logo. In 2009, the non-profit organisation – OPEN Copenhagen was established jointly by two other regional organisations – Fantastic Copenhagen ( touristry organisation ) and Copenhagen Capacity ( investing bureau ) with a slogan to establish Copenhagen ‘s new trade name individuality to battle lifting competition with other European capitals and besides to pull people from all mark groups – for illustration, locals, concerns, organisations, alien visitants, and educational and cultural establishments through its alone unfastened beginning branding construct. Though unfastened beginning branding scheme encourages stakeholders ‘ self-generated engagement, it is really ambitious in footings of pull offing stakeholders to advance positive characteristics of the metropolis. Here in this proposal, this unusual construct of metropolis stigmatization works as the chief motive to take ‘open beginning ‘ metropolis stigmatization as research country every bit good as Copenhagen metropolis as a promising instance of metropolis stigmatization.

Research aims and inquiries:

In position of the treatment above, the aim of this research is double – 1 is to measure the challenges of unfastened beginning metropolis stigmatization scheme and to measure the success factor of this scheme as a beginning of competitory advantage for the metropolis of Copenhagen. Then in visible radiation of this analysis, the 2nd aim is to develop a comprehensive theoretical account consisting trade name edifice and direction mechanism in coaction with stakeholders to put to death the metropolis stigmatization scheme.

Following research inquiries have been developed aiming the research aim:

Question 1: What are the ambitious dimensions of unfastened beginning metropolis branding scheme? And how does this scheme work as a beginning of competitory advantage for the metropolis ‘s trade name?

Question 2: How does ‘OPEN Copenhagen ‘ involve stakeholders to advance the metropolis positively?

Question 3: What is the mark groups ‘ perceptual experience about ‘OPEN Copenhagen ‘ stigmatization scheme? Does it follow with metropolis ‘s reliable individuality?

Question 4: How is the success of Copenhagen metropolis stigmatization measured/evaluated for farther growing?

Question 5: How does ‘OPEN Copenhagen ‘ stigmatization work within the context of social alterations?

Theoretical model:

City branding refers to the strategic action to advance a metropolis ‘s competitory advantages based on its history, quality of life and civilization for chances, repute or power in capital accretion within a planetary competitory environment ( langer, 2001 ; Morgan et al. , 2002 ; Berci et al. , 2002 ; Evans, 2003 as cited in Zhang & A ; Zhao, 2009 ) ; which is driven by three economic factors – endowment, invention and creativeness ( Florida, 2008 ) . From the beginning of 1990s, research workers have taken several efforts to calculate out a typical attack for topographic point selling ( Ashworth & A ; Voogd, 1990 ; Berg et al. , 1990 ; Kotler et al. , 1993 as cited in Kavaratzis & A ; Ashworth, 2005 ) and as a effect, the theoretical development in selling subject has facilitated topographic point selling to understand the deduction of marketing theory in urban development and direction ( Ashworth & A ; Voogd, 1990 as cited in Kavaratzis & A ; Ashworth, 2005 ) . The passage from metropolis selling to metropolis stigmatization is aided by the extended usage of merchandise branding construct every bit good as uninterrupted development in corporate stigmatization theory ( Balmer, 2001 ; Balmer & A ; Greyser, 2003 as cited in Kavaraztis & A ; Ashworth, 2005 ) ; but a particular type of marketing demands to be devised to acquire an equal success from the application of nomenclature, techniques and doctrines of selling in metropolis selling ( Ashworth, 1994 ) . Schemes and theories of merchandise stigmatization are non ever applicable in instance of metropolis stigmatization since metropolis stigmatization is more complex sing the dimensions of trade name ownership and stakeholder engagement ( Kavaratzis, 2009 ) . Maping the image of a metropolis in the head of mark audience is much more complex than that of a merchandise or service ( Hankinson, 2005 ) which reinforces the gaining control of all properties possessed by the metropolis to supply stakeholders with strong and favourable associations ( PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2005 ) . The success of metropolis branding resides in fiting the outlook and perceptual experience of mark group with their experience in the metropolis ( Kavaratzis & A ; Ashworth, 2007 ) . The get downing point of metropolis trade name edifice is the communicating of metropolis ‘s image which is better understood from a theoretical model dwelling of metropolis selling mix ( Kotler at el. , 1999 as cited in Kavaratzis, 2004 ) and other elements of metropolis trade name direction ( Kavaratzis, 2004 ) .

Harmonizing to American Urban Development bookman, Joel Kotkin ( 2005 as cited in Konijnendijk, 2010 ) , the success of the metropolis depends on three cardinal functions of the metropolis such as – historical function, function theoretical account of high quality life, function as the busy Centre of commercialism and civilization. Besides success of the metropolis branding relies on the strong engagement of stakeholders such as representatives from private sector, civil society and touristry through partnership, leading, continuity, shared vision and action oriented execution ( Eurocities, 2010 ) . Anholt ‘s ( 2007 ) hexagon ‘City Brand Index ‘ theoretical account and Kavaratzis ‘s ( 2004, 2008 ) 3-level communicating model, both work to measure metropolis stigmatization scheme.

From this theoretical point of position, the full research work will give more accent on the old research works on stigmatization, corporate trade name direction, metropolis trade name edifice and rating procedure, metropolis stigmatization schemes coupled with bing ‘open beginning ‘ trade name scheme in Copenhagen metropolis stigmatization pattern ; which will determine the concluding empirical findings.

Research design and methodological analysis:

Since the purpose of this research work is exploratory in nature, qualitative attack will be chosen as the research design model. Harmonizing to Strauss and Corbin ( 1998 ) , a qualitative research attack is chiefly equal for exploratory purposes and this research work will develop cognition on complex metropolis branding procedure of Copenhagen metropolis based on ‘open beginning ‘ branding scheme in coaction with different stakeholders ; which implies that a qualitative attack is favourable.

The end of an explorative research is to derive penetrations as new information emerges which in bend favours research workers to follow the instance survey methodological analysis affecting intensive survey of selected instances of the phenomenon under probe ( Churchill & A ; Lacobucci, 2005, p. 80 ) . Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) states that “ the instance survey is a research scheme which focuses on understanding the kineticss within individual scenes ” . Thus, instance survey methodological analysis will be applied to be guided by multiple-case surveies logic. Harmonizing to Eisenhardt ( 1991 ) , the chief statement for taking multiple-case surveies as a possible manner to make theory is that “ they permit reproduction and extension between single instances ” . Under this multiple-case surveies method, each member organisation of ‘OPEN Copenhagen ‘ will be considered as a individual instance to understand ‘open beginning ‘ metropolis stigmatization procedure.

As an built-in portion of this research work, both primary and secondary informations will be analyzed. For secondary informations analysis, information will be collected from different books, relevant literatures and studies published by research workers, industry analysers, research institutes. Then, primary informations will be collected through ethnographic observation ( Angrosino, 2007, p.4 & A ; p.8 ) and in-depth interviews ( open-response format ) with influential stakeholders from different private and public organisations.

Work program:

A likely work program for this research work has been proposed in the undermentioned flow-diagram where clip program at each measure will be decided on the footing of nature and deepness of this research undertaking.


During economic fluctuation, while Europe is confronting image crisis in the universe economic system, European metropoliss have emphasized metropolis branding procedure to get the better of this crisis through advancing alone characteristics of the metropoliss to pull foreign investors and visitants. The instance of Copenhagen metropolis stigmatization is a really interesting and a possible country to be explored due to its challenging and distinguishing ‘open beginning ‘ stigmatization scheme. This research work will set high spot on this quite untapped field of research within metropolis stigmatization and will besides demo way for future development in metropolis stigmatization theory.



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