Work force may populate for 1000 of old ages without holding a life that may be called historical ; for history is formed merely where there are believable written records of events. Until we have these records. we have no evidences for historical survey. but leave the field to another survey. which we call Archeology. or Pre-historic Culture Barrows 12.
Theories. impressions. and guesss sing the beginning of Filipino people had been hiding the field of the Philippine history prior to the coming of the Spaniards and even before the Islamic infiltration in the state. Naturally. everything will get down in such a mode of detecting something. specially the beginning of something. until all ill-defined events of the yesteryear will go a clear grounds of the being of something in the present. Possibly the job of some historiographers and archeologists is that they have/had been constructing some kind of firewall between one work and the other or in some cases turn outing the work of some past historiographers as non-realistic or some sort of fable such as the narrative of “Marikudo and the Ten Bornean Datus” whom referred in the supposed subsequently findings as the “Legend of Maragtas” . which merely means of no realistic beginning being regarded merely as fable. for fable is something that is widely believed but can non be proved to be true ( Webster’s Dictionary ) .
In this paper. allow us seek to link the plants of some historiographers and/or archeologists or of some archeological finds in order to do at least a small effort to set up a narrative of the possible contingencies before and after the coming or constitution of Islamic civilization in the Philippines. The constitution of Islam is besides a really of import portion in the anchor of Philippine history as Dr. Renato Constantino asserted that no Filipino history can be complete without the survey of Muslim development ( 1990 ) . Whether it be an archeological finds. or possibly a narrative base on balls through by words of oral cavity authenticated by historiographers or non. linking them in one manner or another may give some kind of enlightenment or possibly will take one to do his ain probe and contribute to the constitution of world of a certain yesteryear. particularly the past that would beef up Filipino pride.
The docudrama of the Philippine Treasures. which was late initiated by GMA is really utile in this effort to organize the narrative of beginning of the Filipino people. wherein a immense portion of it would closely associate to the work of Fr. Francis C. Marigan in his “Early History of Cagayan de Oro” and the Asiatic history consisting the power passage between these two great Indonesian imperiums runing from the 7th until the fifteenth century before the coming of the western civilisation in southeast Asia. peculiarly the Philippines. A historical base Eskrimadors docudrama. which was created by the POINTSOURCE Film provides a realistic directional computation on the reaching of the Indonesians in the cardinal portion of the Philippines. which has all the possibility of spread outing their district to the Mindanao country. This short archeological base historical survey is aimed towards lending an effectual benchmark towards understanding the foundation of Filipino civilization. heritage. and educational development.
I. The First Settlers
Imagine a topographic point full of the premiums of nature with all the minerals and different species of animate beings from fouls in the air to land mammals down to the fishes and all that lives in salt and fresh Waterss. Yes. the first colonists in this state enjoyed all the gift of nature and lived as if they were non bothered by the maladies brought by scarceness. This people are the nomad groups who came to the topographic point through land Bridgess and live peacefully unifying with nature.
These nomads scattered all over the topographic point and. as the sea H2O grow in certain degree. were trap strategically in what was known as the topographic point of the 1000 islands. Then think of an ancient civilisation came go throughing through the topographic point where so would gave all the possibility of elating the lives of this people. They were the ancient Chinese people who think merely of commerce through some kind of bartering without any purpose of working of what others have for they already have enough in their topographic point. This Chinese bargainers might hold taught the nomads to do usage of the premiums of nature around them. but before they could flux out into some kind a development as a society. another group of people. which were identified as the dominant race in the state. discovered the topographic point and organize a society.
Maitum Anthropomorphic Potteries as presented by the GMA docudrama
In 1991. archaeologists discovered anthropomorphous secondary burial jars in Ayub Cave. Pinol. Maitum. Sarangani Province. in Mindanao. Philippines ( see figure 1 ) . Since this sensational determination. a figure of archeological diggings were conducted to retrieve these of import artefacts. These digging undertakings were either authorities or in private sponsored. GMA documental These burial jars are made of earthenware and characterized by their design and signifier that looks like or suggests human figures with complete or partial facial features. These are earthenware claywares with scratchs and cut-out foot-rings. These humanlike signifiers were associated with metal implements like watchbands. Some jars are decorated with glass beads and shell scoop. spoon. and pendents. Among the anthropomorphous vass are apparent nonanthropomorphic burial jars. GMA documental Harmonizing to scientists. these secondary entombment jars day of the month back to the Metal Age. The artefacts were dated to 830 +/-60 B. P. ( by a graduated day of the month of AD 70 to 370 ) and 1920 +/- 50 B. P. ( by a graduated day of the month of 5 BC to 225 AD ) . Scientists determined the age of the jars by making carbon 14 day of the month trials on the carbon black samples taken from a little earthenware vas. This little vas was found inside one of the larger burial jar. Beginning: wikipedia
Maitum Anthropomorphic Potteries and the mobile folk connexion The mobile folks as might had been influenced by the passing Chinese bargainers. learned to utilised simple applications and utilizations of natural resources similar claywares as clay and other minerals is merely within range. Surveies proved the emotionalism of human existences which connects to the simple show of love and regard to the passing love-ones. The profusion of nature transformed the lives of the nomads into a simple. decelerate but life transforming society.
II. The First Wave Malaysians and Indonesians ( 900-1200A. D. ) The first moving ridge Indonesian and Malayan races are believed to hold came to the state in pursuit of new land. Their being in the topographic point brought some kind of a system of society. This social being can be traced in 900 A. D. . as with the find of the Laguna Copperplate. The home base contains lettering. which harmonizing to Jyotisha ( a Hindu uranology ) identified the day of the month of its creative activity as the “year of the Syaka 822. month of Vaisakha. which correspond with the twelvemonth 900 A. D. . as deciphered by Anton Postman in 1989 at the National Museum of the Philippines. Such Cu home base proved the being of Hinduism in the state long before the coming Islam. Hinduism and its type of civilisation was possibly brought here by the first Indonesian and Malaysian races.
The lettering forgives the posterities of Namwaran from a debt of 926. 4 gms of gold. and is granted by the head of Tondo ( an country in Manila ) and the governments of Paila. Binwangan and Pulilan. which are all locations in Luzon. The words are a mixture of Sanskrit. Old Malay. Old Javanese and Old Tagalog. The capable affair proves that a extremely developed society existed in the Philippines prior to the Spanish colonisation. every bit good as rebuting earlier claims of the Philippines being a cultural isolate in Asia ; the mentions to the Chief of Medang Kingdom in Indonesia imply that there were cultural and trade links with assorted other attached imperiums and districts in other parts of the Fig. 2 LCI Malay Archipelago. peculiarly the Srivijaya imperium. Therefore. aside from clearly bespeaking the presence of composing and of written records at the clip. the LCI efficaciously links the cultural developments in the Philippines at the clip with the growing of a thalassocratic civilisation in Southeast Asia. ( Beginning: Wikipedia/History of the Philippines ) The First Indonesian and Malaysian races were non that legion as compared to the 2nd moving ridge and their concentration were in the northern portion of the archipelago. You could merely conceive of how their society could flux swimmingly and mutely against the race of clip. while basking the gift of nature. Such society could already flux with the being of Chinese trading and possibly with instruction. These people easy established their ain system of society that reach its choice at the coming of the 2nd moving ridge Indonesian and Malayan races.
III. The Second Wave Malaysians and Indonesians ( 1300-1500A. D. ) Srivijaya Empire of Java Indonesia ruled most of Southeast Asia and enjoyed its power long plenty to be able to set up its civilization on different parts of the part. On the thirteenth century they were overthrown by the Majapahit Empire from the southeasterly Java and its people were force to travel eastward directing the Philippines and settled chiefly in the cardinal portion of the archipelago ( delight mention to calculate 3 for the directional map ) .
This group of people is lager in figure compared to the first moving ridge and they were so cropped with a much richer civilization as they were the entireness of the opinion imperium before they were overthrown by the Majapahit. Most of them were warriors and therefore it is non far from the possibility for them to govern over the greater portion of the archipelago. Pointsource Film in the Eskrimadors documentary stressed out that the Srivijayans. who were largely warriors. settled in the island of Cebu equipped by their ability to battle. which subsequently turned to developing the art of stick combat.
The geographical status of the Philippine archipelago and the trailing war between the overthrown and the reigning imperium opened a realistic possibility for the two imperiums to hold met in the cardinal Mindanao for another possible brush. Please see figure 4 and figure 5. But due to the span of clip used in travel and the terrain in the wider land of Mindanao covered by thick wood followed by their find on the potency of the topographic point for good colony. These two groups of people became hibernating in their desire to subvert or get the better of each other. alternatively collaborated themselves with the older colonists to organize their new society. independent with each other but connected in some manner in affairs of trading. The status created some sort of a symbiotic relation as what described as needs base community relation. Fr. F. Marigan describes it that the people of the mountain needs the merchandises of the people from the low land like fishes and trades. while the low land people is besides in demand of the merchandises coming from the mountain like veggies. fruits. and animate beings. Imagine how these people collaborated with each other. sharing with the profusion of the topographic point and life in peace.
IV. Religions before Islam
The Srivijayans were trusters of Hinduism in which when detached from the centre of their religion would hold a bigger inclination of going Animists. while people of the Majapahit Empire were trusters of Buddhism who have the inclination of accepting another religion for the interest of peace as portion of their spiritual orientation. True. because the Srivijayans who were identified as Higaonons in Mindanao remained heathens and/or animists besides the presence of Islam when the recollects came to the topographic point. The Majapahities. identified as the Maguindanaos by a group of research workers as explained by Fr. Francis Marigan. were Buddhists before they open heartedly embrace Islam. The Golden Tara. which was found in Agusan was a factual grounds of Buddhism from among the Maguindanaos of Mindanao. Why was the Golden Tara. so. been discovered in the topographic point of the Manobo in Agusan? The reply lied within the coming of Islam and the credence of the Maguindanaos of the said faith. ( please see image of the Golden Tara in figure 6 )
Religions During Islamic Era
After encompassing Islam. the Maguindanaos learned to detest their brothers who remained Buddhists as they were affected by the virus-like-Islamic orientation. Other folks who did non encompass Islam were branded as Manobo. Teroray. Talaandig. and even B’laan which were discribed being enemies as the term b’laan connotes. who fled off from so and settled to the mountains and some in the river Bankss for the interest of peace. Therefore. the term manobo. terroray. b’laan and other known tribal individualities in Mindanao are non. really existent tribe names. but instead degrading trade names coined to by a group of Islamic people who arrogantly considered themselves superior. The Manobo folk so treasured their Vajryana Buddhism faith which was sensed in their animistic attack in esteeming the female parent nature. The Golden Tara is an grounds of the being of Buddhism in Mindanao as represented by the Manobo folk in Agusan and some other countries in it. The B’laan folk. well besides of an animist type may hold possibly started as portion of either Hinduism or Buddhism in southern Mindanao as reflected by their traditions which were preserved even unto this yearss. Aside from the Maguindanaos which were identified for their Majapahit beginning. all other smaller folks mentioned may belong to either the nomad groups or that of the first moving ridge Malaysians and Indonesians. These group were of Hindu and Buddhist origin in footings of belief.
The Coming of Islam
In Sulu archipelago. widening towards the E in Zamboanga was the infiltration of the Malayan race from Malaysia. merely parallel and possibly coincident with the coming of the Srivijayans. who settled in the cardinal Philippines to the northern and portion of cardinal Mindanao. Widening westbound from northern Mindanao some of the Srivijayans met and merged with these Malayans. Therefore. the people of Sulu are the combinations of the Malayan race and the warriors of the Srivijayans. Karim Macdum. considered as the first Muslim missionary. introduced Islam at around 1380 onwards in Sulu but. likely were non able to widen to northern Mindanao country due to the presence of the warrior category Srivijayans. which was coined to by Fr. Francisco Marigan’s book as the powerful people that occupies the upper pulangi river portion down to the Cagayan de Oro river and so to the Mount Apo. Islamic conquering from Sulu could hold passed straight through Luzon and non with the country infiltrated with Srivijayan warriors. However. at around 1480. the coming of Sharif Kabungsuan in the cardinal Mindanao changed the class of the Maguidanaos. which made them to hold embraced Islam
This warrior missionary happened to hold ducked at the Rio del Grande River’s oral cavity. the tail of which is what is known as the Pulangi river. As Islam grew strong from among the Majapahit-Maguindanaos they started to detest smaller folks who did non encompass their new religion and branded them as Manobo and terroray and in some manner an enemy as with the significance of the B’laan folk name. Their peace loving folks preferred to go forth the topographic point and settled in the mountains of Bukidnon and Davao. The Manobo folk was even able to set up their terretory in Bukidnon and every bit far as Butuan. peculiarly in Agusan. Sharif Kabungsuan prepared and gathered his work forces for another Islamic conquering. which consequently to fix for a peace talk instead than an existent war and if can non be carried through their intent. they will hold to acquire through even with a bloody conflict. Rushing towards the upper pulangi. Kabungsuan met the Buayans. the clip transitory tribal name derived from ‘Srivijayan’ . they were known as the powerful people.
Knowing their base for a possible conflict. Kabungsuan befriended the Buayan’s powerful leader “Ingud Mal-Ang” and offered his girls for married womans to this ferocious and possibly flesh hungry leader. This event made the Buayan’s of Northern Mindanao to pay one-year testimonial to the Sultanate of Maguindanao. which possibly touch the pride of the Buayan people that after their leader left for Islamic conquest drove off those who were converted to Islam and pressed them towards southwesterly Mindanao. near Lake Lanao. where their name subsequently transformed to Maranao.
The Pre-Spanish Tribes
Archaeological discovered artefacts had late proven the being of a civilised society prior to the coming of the Spaniards. merely that they were in front in some manner in footings of armaments. If we are to analyse what lies behind the advantage of the Spaniards with respects to armaments is merely really simple. In the middle-east and Europe there was a huge job of scarceness. therefore the construct of endurance for the fittest and riddance for the weak is really applicable. Every people in those topographic points are so challenged by the demand for endurance and the strengthening of their portals. boundaries. and power to conquer is severely needed. whereas here in the ancient Philippines. people of warrior nature like the Srivijayans had put in head for contending as no longer necessary for endurance. There isn’t any demand such as contending that requires them to last. They merely need to intermix with nature in order to last.
Everything was already provided for them by nature. It is besides of import to observe that Filipinos in those oldened yearss were amply splendid with golds. Ags. and other of import metals and stuffs for a epicurean and happy life. Think merely of the supposed gold earing of Lapu-lapu in Boljoon. Cebu or the 1980s ascertained hoarded wealth trove of ancient aureate jewelleries in Surigao del Sur. now on show at Fig. 7 the Ayala Museum and even the Golden Tara as presented by the GMA Philippine Treasure docudrama. And seek besides to calculate out the ability of our antediluvian tribal adult females with respects to humanistic disciplines as compared to other adult females in the universe. The workmanship of the B’laan adult females as shown by their plants. which were preserved in the National Museum of Chicago. This complex art is non merely within the circle of the B’laan folks but even to all folks in the Philippines. But still this people were branded by the Spaniards as indios. while basking what they have had stolen from them. and so baptized them with Christianity. Isn’t it pathetic?
Indios. are we… The term indio connote a individual of nonreader features. therefore considered as the lowest category in the society. But was this truly true? In the basic sense. literacy is the ability to read and compose. and therefore. a civilised society is one that posses a system of composing. And we Filipino so have a system of authorship in
which when the Spanish mendicants entered the socio-cultural scene of the early Filipinos in the sixteenth-century. they forcibly destroyed and burned in monolithic measures the shrines. equipment and gears used by the babaylans in their mission countries. In his extended study on the Jesuit missions published in 1604. Fr. Pedro Chirino mentioned about his success in firing the community shrines in the crossroadss of the Pintados. i. e. . Bisayans ( Chirino 1604. in B & A ; R Vol. 12. 268 ) . Borrinaga pg. 16. Figure 2 is a image of the Laguna Copperplate which was an Fig. 10 grounds of the being of composing in the Philippines. peculiarly in Luzon. The Filipino Treasure documental presentation of GMA revealed the being of the the system of composing in the Philippines in which the name has non been identified even into this twenty-four hours. since the term BAYBAYIN ( see figure 10 ) is merely the Tagalog term for spelling. and was merely usage to set an individuality of this system of composing. On the other manus the term ALIBATA was coined from the first three letters of the Arabic Alphabet i. e. Alif. Ba. and Ta. The Laguna Copperplate and the Monreal Stone contains the same system of authorship.
Another artefact that proved the being of a system of authorship was even discovered before the find of the Laguna Copperplate and the Monreal Stone. and was considered the oldest cultural artefact with pre-Hispanic authorship was the Calatagan Pot discovered in Calatagan. Batangas. The lettering wad inscribed around the shoulder of this celebrated Calatagan Pot. Please see the image in figure 10. The countries where the artefacts of our system of composing were all in the Luzon country. Does this mean that this topographic point merely in this state posses a Fig. 10 system of composing? And how approximately Visayas and the Mindanao countries? The celebrated Calatagan Pot which was discovered in Clatagan Batangas is non of Tagalog beginning. neither of any other folks in the Luzon country. but instead a Visayan trive beginning. peculiarly the Cebuano folk as it is as “Pag-uli Ritual” as deciphered by Rolando O. Borrinaga. Ph. D. a Professor of the School of Health Sciences in the University of the Philippines Manila. Palo. Leyte.
It now appears that the Calatagan artefact was a ritual pot peculiarly used as native incense burner for the pag-uli ( return ) rite to recover the psyche of a stagnant individual during the pre-Hispanic epoch. The lettering basically provides the lineation of a threestage soliloquy. presumptively elaborated by a babaylan ( native priestess ) in a enchantment during the pag-uli rite. The pot was likely besides used for ceremonials to recover victims of bugkut. disappeared individuals believed to hold been abducted by inhabitants of the spirit universe. Borrinaga Pg. 1. This Pag-uli Ritual System was besides practiced amongst the Higaonons of the Central and Northern Mindanao as being narrated by the Higaonon tribal Chieftain in Pagalongan country of Cagayan de Oro City.
Tribal Name Transformed The word Visayas may hold evolved from Srivijayan which was besides the possible beginning of the word Buayan of the great folk of the Central and Northern Mindanao. When the Spaniards ruled the state other folks in the Visayan part which were already converted to Christianity. penetrated Mindanao most specifically the low land country. These Christianized folks manifested the more beforehand system of warfare as compared to the buayan folk in which the later were forced to travel to the mountain countries peculiarly and were branded as people of the mountain or people populating in the mountain. as evident in the word Bukidnon. The folk name Higaonon is the same as the word Bukidnon. Higa is another term for Higda. which means to put down where in the word connotes to settle or populate. The 2nd word is Gaon is an old word which means mountain and wood and the last word is Onon. which is besides connected to the non of Bukidnon. and that which means people.
Therefore the word Higaonon means people populating in the woods or moutains. The Buayans was branded as tagabukid of tagalasang and later may hold forgotten their original Buayan folk name. which the same besides of Srivijayan beginning. and now known as the Higaonon Tribe. The word Mindanao may hold evolved from the name of the dominant folk of Southern Mindanao which are the Maguindanao Tribe that were able to retain their original tribal name. All other tribal minorities except possibly. that of Samboanga and the Tausugs countries of Sulu. Julu and even Tawi-tawi. were kind of trade name name or merely a name called to them by the Maguindanao Muslims. The Maranaos which were of Buayan beginning was branded as people populating besides the lake. as they were pressed in the country and settled beside Lake Lanao. Lanao is the Bisayan word for Lake and Ranao is the Maranao equivalent for Lanao. Thus. the folk Maranao so were being identified.
1. Filipino History by David P. Barrows 2. Fr. Francis C. Marigan “Early History of Cagayan de Oro” 3. GMA docudrama on Filipino
Treasures 4. POINTSOURCE Film. Eskrimadors documental 5. The Calatagan Pot: A National Treasure with Bisayan Inscription by Rolando O. Borrinaga. Ph. D. 6. Filipino History. Wikipedia 7. Webster’s Dictionary