Abyssal Zone

April 11, 2018 General Studies

Abyssal Zone Steven Jevan 10. 2 Located deeper than 2000 meters underneath the ocean surface, lies a biome that we have barely seen and realize. This unbelievable and incredible biome is called the abyssal zone. With a depth reaching down to 6000 meters, it is impossible to inhabit this biome. Conversely, certain organisms have managed to keep their survival in this very biome through particular processes. Initially, the abyssal zone and the living organisms inside it, suffers the extreme conditions. The word “abyss” is taken from a Greek word, which means “bottomless sea”.

The abyssal zone itself is located between 2000 and 6000 meters underneath the ocean surface. It is located under the bathyal zone and above the hadal zone. In this depth, sunlight is unable to penetrate through. Therefore, this zone is filled with complete and perpetual darkness. At the same time, in a location this deep, the pressure is unbearable to humans. It is written that, “Because water pressure increases one atmosphere every 33 feet in depth, animals in the abyssal zone must be able to withstand tremendous amounts of pressure. ” (Abyssal). Therefore, animals must be able to withstand up to 11,000 psi.

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It is incredible how certain organisms are able to survive in this depth, since this amount of pressure would crush a human immediately. Moreover, since the depth oh this biome is extremely deep, the temperature varies from 0 to 4 degrees Celsius. In addition to that, the salinity of the water in the abyssal zone range between 34. 6 and 35. 0 parts per thousand. We do no realize it, but the abyssal zone covers 60% of the earth and 83% of the oceans. So with these abiotic factors and harsh conditions mentioned, we tend to ask the question, “How is it possible for organisms to inhabit this biome? ”

As mentioned before, it is almost impossible for organisms to inhabit this biome, but through particular process, it is possible. Generally speaking, fish that lives near the bottom of a sea is categorized as demersal fish. However, demersal fishes are then divided again into two types based on their habitat, coastal and deep-water. As you can see, the fish th at lives in the abyssal zone are categorized as deep-water demersal fish. Examples of these fishes are the: deep-water angler fish, giant grenadier, giant squid, viper fish, etc. There are two ways in which organisms can survive in this biome.

First of all, the predators could find their prey. In the abyssal zone, it is extremely dark. However, some fish posses a luminous object to act as bait. For instance, the deep-water angler fish owns a luminous object in its spine. Since the biome is extremely dark, the only luminous object will attract the other fish’s attention. The second way to survive this biome is through the process of chemosynthesis, rather than photosynthesis. Chemosynthesis is a process in which carbon molecules and nutrients are converted into organic materials using the oxidation of inorganic molecules.

Rather than using sunlight as the source of energy, chemosynthesis uses the oxidation of inorganic molecules as the source of energy. In the abyssal zone, there is a steady and much higher concentration of nutrient salts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica compared in the waters above. Britannica states that, “This is because abyssal and hadal waters are the reservoir for the salts from decomposed biological materials that settle downward from upper zones, and the lack of sunlight prevents their uptake by photosynthesis. (Abyssal Zone). Also, there is a special term given to the leftovers of animals, plants, and non-living matters that drift down to the lower zones of the ocean, it is called marine snow. In the abyssal zone, the primary producers are bacteria. These bacteria can also be referred as chemotrophs, or chemosynthetic autotrophs. Therefore, the process of chemosynthesis plays a vital role in the survival of those organisms in the abyssal zone. I have to admit that the abyssal zone is a remarkable and incredible biome in this earth.

Under those harsh and extreme circumstances, the abyssal zone is able to maintain its own organism richness. I find it very hard to believe, but it is what exists in this world. Based on research, the abyssal zone is relatively safe from the harmful effects in the upper part of the earth. The abyssal zone is located so deep and shallow under the ocean surface that it is not affected by the problems associated in the ocean surface. In the long run, certain organisms have managed to keep their survival in this very biome through particular processes.

The abyssal zone, which is almost inhospitable, turns out to be a habitat for certain organisms. I must say that this biome is phenomenal and implausible. Works Cited • Abyssal. Web. 1 Sept. 2009. . • Abyssal Zone. Wikipedia. Web. 1 Sept. 2009. . • Abyssal zone. Britannica. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . • Autotroph. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . • Chemosynthesis. Wikipedia. Web. 1 Sept. 2009. . • Chemosynthesis. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . • Demersal fish. Wikipedia. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . • Marine Snow. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . • Pelagic fish. Wikipedia. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . • What is Chemosynthesis? Web. 2 Sept. 2009. .

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