Acetic Acid Iontophoresis Myositis Ossificans Health And Social Care Essay

Does acetic acid ionic medication has any consequence in the decrease of the fossilized mass in myositis ossificans traumatica? Design: pretest posttest, individual group, Quasi experimental design Participant: 30 persons with type 2 Myositis ossificans diagnosed by clinicians utilizing radiographic imagination. Intervention: 30 topics will be selected based on the diagnosing and refereed by a clinician, Based on the inclusion and exclusion standards the topics one time selected will have the acetic acid ionic medication.10 session will be administered for a period of 4 weeks.Outcome Measures: pre and station echography in mm2 will be taken to mensurate the size of the fossilized mass. Duration: The expected continuance of the survey is 8 months including ethical clearance, sample aggregation, informations analysis and publication. Budgeting: An appraisal of Rs 50,000 is made including the probes, stuffs, equipment ‘s and refreshment


Myositis ossificans ( MO ) besides called as heterotopic ossification is an extra-osseous non neoplastic growing of bone seen in skeletal musculus, more often in musculuss of appendages including anterior thigh ( Beiner et al, 2002 ) , ( Kim SW & A ; Choi, 2009 ) . The status occurs due to muscular injury and seldom due to antecedent injury ( Jackson and Feagin, 1973 ) , The procedure occurs with a incidence evaluation between 9 % -20 % in jocks ( King JB, 1998 ) 10 % -20 % with unfastened decrease and internal arrested development of fracture,20 % in elbow break, ( Bruno & A ; Petrina,2008 ) .MO commonly occurs in grownup aged between 30 to 40 old ages and common in male ( Li et al, 1991 ) .Studies has shown happening at quadriceps and hamstring musculus ( Miller et al,2006 ) , masseter musculus ( Geist et al,1997 ) , quadratus lumborum ( Karam et al, 2008 ) , chest wall ( Nisolle et al, 1996 ) , elbow, carpal and metacarpals countries o ( Chadha & A ; Agarwal,2007 ) Psoas major ( Kim SW & A ; Choi,2009 ) .

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Diagnosis can be made based on clinical history, radiographic observation, ultrasound and will be confirmed by elevated fractionated serum alkaline phosphatase ( Grechenig et al, 1996 ) , ( Pettrons P, 2002 ) . The happening at these following sites leads to protract hurting in the injured country for an norm of 1.1 twelvemonth, swelling with tangible mass more than 90 % of the clip, reduced scope of gesture at

the articulations ( Miller et al, 2006 ) anchylosis, vascular compaction, environing nervus paralysis ( Jones & A ; Ward,1980 ) etc. Rest, ice, lift, compaction dressings are the intervention given for the initial happening of the status i.e. for type 1 MO ( Nalley et al, 1985 ) . Conservative intervention includes NSAIDS Indocin ( Moed et al 1993 ) , Bisphosphonate ( Sadallaoui et al 2004 ) , Etidronate Disodium ( Didronel ) ( Subbarao et al,1987 ) is nevertheless some of the drug of pick, Indomethacin and Bisphosphonate use lacks satisfactory consequences for the bar or fade outing the mass.Didronel on the other manus has good clinical effectivity but surveies reveled side effects including achalasia and hypersensitivity ( Barthel et al, 2000 ) . Apart, from conservative drugs, acetic acid ionic medication with ultrasound ( Deborah L Wieder, 1992 )

Iontophoresis is the technique that enhances the conveyance of ions across tissue barrier, the technique was foremost described by Pivati in 1747, tardily, it was improvised by Galvani and Volta in 18th century, it was merely the work by Leduc in late 1900 that the thought to present drugs via the tegument became popularized. He formulated rules and Torahs for this procedure. ( Leduc S, 1900 ) .

Acetic acid ionic medication ( AAI ) is the debut of acetic acid Trans dermally, that uses bipolar electric field to present ions across tegument and into implicit in tissue, which in assorted surveies suggests, helps in fade outing the calcified mass, every bit good as it appeared in handling redness and hurting ( Kahn, 1977 ) . There is no difference in the response between ethanoate, nitrite, azotic oxide or chloride hydrogen carbonate in the incursion of the ions through the tegument ( Grossmann et al, 1995 ) the acetate ion of acetic acid being being negative in mutual opposition is introduced through the negative cathode. This is cited to be effectual for the soaking up of Ca. The Ca carbonate which is non soluble in normal blood gets replaced to Calcium ethanoate which in bend is easy soluble. ( Wieder, 1992 )

CaCO3 + 2H ( C2H3O2 ) = Ca ( C2H3O2 ) 2 + H2O + CO2

However, the deficiency of equal grounds in the literature for the effectivity on myositis ossificans, fails to place any clinical or statistical significance of this attack entirely without the influence of added intercessions. Hence, because of the deficiency of groundss for effectivity of acetic acid ionic medication in the intervention of myositis ossificans the purpose of the survey is to measure the clinical and radiological effects of acetic acid ionic medication in the intervention of myositis ossificans which helps in quicker and cheaper intervention alternate and consequences in Restoration normal scope of gesture, cut downing of hurting, bar of progressive musculus failing and other disablement.


Deborah L Wielder ( 1992 ) conducted a instance survey for myositis ossificans on a 16 year old male association football participant, who suffered a deep quadriceps bruise, and complained hurting and puffiness in the right anterior thigh. The progressive hurting resulted in inability to play association football. On scrutiny, the articulatio genus flexure was merely 80 grades, no marks of redness noted. Radiologically, a mass of 7.1 centimeter in length, 4.2 centimeter in breadth, and 2.1 centimeter thickness was revealed.

Treatment included acetic acid ionic medication 3 times a hebdomad for 3 hebdomads with ultrasound therapy for 8 proceedingss of 1.5 W/cm2 pulsed at 50 % responsibility rhythm with couple medium. The writer found that after the fifth session the mass was progressively compressible and the scope of gesture improved from 80 to 110 grades. Reasoning the decrease the mass to 2.8 centimeter in length,0.3 centimeter in breadth and 0.8 centimeter thickness cut downing the mass up to 98.9 % .

This survey was one of the first surveies that showed consequence of acetic acid ionic medication and ultrasound therapy combination intervention for myositis ossificans but this survey had a few restrictions. First, being a individual instance analyze the decrease of the mass could hold been a mere opportunity. Second, the decrease could hold been due to any of the intercession. Third, this survey did n’t hold adequate clinical signifance and was non supported by any statistics grounds.

Perron & A ; Malouin ( 1997 ) conducted a randomized controlled test which investigated the consequence of acetic acid ionic medication and ultrasound therapy consequence on calcifying tendonitis of shoulder and determined the relation between alterations in the radiological steps of Ca sedimentation and shoulder map. The survey recruited 22 grownups ( 7 work forces and 15 adult females ) .Participants were randomized and allocated to an intercession group and a control group.The result step used was country and denseness of Calcific Tendinits, inactive shoulder abduction ROM, and hurting strength.

The strength of intercessions used in this survey was 5 ma ( Glass et al, 1980 ) , With 5 % acetic acid to a current strength of less than 1 ma for 20 min. ( Hassan et al,1992 ) following which uninterrupted ultrasound which was set at 1 MHz and was delivered during 5 proceedingss at an strength of.8W/cm2 ( Byl NN,1995 )

Consequence of this survey showed that there was statistically no important difference between the group, but at that place was a clear decrease of the country and denseness between the average baseline measuring pre and station intercession. The ROM of inactive abduction tend to increase and trouble somewhat reduced.

There were a few restrictions in the methodological analysis as writer did n’t keep the homogeneousness for the age group, both type 1 and type 2 in both the group received the similar intervention.Secondly, there was no power justification for the sample size used in the survey. However, sing this restrictions further survey for is required to look into the effects of merely acetic acid ionic medication on myositis ossificans without the use of any other independent variables to indicate out entirely the acetic acid effects

A similar survey done by Tremblay et Al, ( 2003 ) look intoing merely the effects of AAI on Calcific Tendinitis and measuring the shoulder Pain and Disability Index ( SPADI ) , shoulder scope of gesture, and radiographic alterations, They recruited a sample size of 36 and indiscriminately allocated to 1 among the 2 groups of experiment and placebo, among which 9 topics dropped out, merely 27 samples were analyzed.

Harmonizing to writer, ions base on ballss through the hair follicles and perspiration secretory organs canals, and that the direct ( voltaic ) current triggers the migration of the ions from the negative electrode towards the positive electrode and on the procedure the calcified hydroxyapatite crystals are expected to fade out. Consequences of the survey showed that the average figure of calcification decreased dramatically in the experimental group but the size had no important alterations

The restriction of this survey are that the sample size were reduced well set uping the outlooks of the writer and besides the tool used for measuring the calcification was non gilded criterion and a dynamic echography or MRI could hold interpreted the consequences better.

Shetty et Al, 2005 conducted a pilot survey to look into the effects of acetic acid ionic medication and ultrasound in the intervention of systemic induration – related calcinosis, 3 female patient were selected and each of them underwent 9 intervention for 3 hebdomads. 2-5 % acetic acid at 100 Aµa for 20 min, followed by ultrasound at 1.5 tungsten /cm 2 for 8 min at each visit. The patient were reported to hold calcinosis in the palmar facet of the interphalangeal phalanx of the left index finger, and metacarpophalangeal articulation of the right pollex. Radiographic imagination was done pre and station intercessions. After the 3 hebdomad intercessions the average radiographic strength fell in all the three patients, but merely one patient had dramatic decrease of the denseness and country of the calcinosis. The functional benefit nevertheless was non reported.

The restriction of the survey is nevertheless the figure of samples they have chosen out of which the homogeneousness is non maintained as 2 out of three underwent surgical deletion and was enduring return of the status. The phases of the calcinosis were non highlighted good, but on the footing of the decrease in the average radiographical imagination suggests some sum of effectivity of either acetic acid or ultrasound.

Therefore, from this surveies we can deduce that acetic acid ionic medication has a ensuing consequence on the soaking up of abnormally ossified/calcified mass. The histopathology of myositis ossificans revealed that the fossilized mass contains a low class crystalline apatite, which is similar to that of hyroxylapaptite crystals except that the mineral were a nevertheless finer than that as seen in calcific tendonitis ( Pinter et al, 1980 ) So, on the footing of the undermentioned findings the effectivity of acetic acid on myositis ossificans should be investigated with statistical groundss


Does acetic acid ionic medication reduces the mean size of the fossilized mass in myositis ossificans?


Acetic acid ionic medication reduces the mass of myositis ossificans.


There is no consequence of acetic acid ionic medication in decrease of myositis ossificans.



A Pretest Posttest Single group, quasi experimental design. . The intercession will be experimental with the debut of acetic acid ionic medication to patients enduring from myositis ossificans. Outcome step will mensurate the length and breadth of the fossilized mass in mm2, which will be measured by a High Resolution Color Ultrasonography ( Toshiba Sonolayer 340 ECCOCEE, Toshiba Power Vision

6000 ; Tokyo, Japan ) . The country will be measured by a Manual Planimeter and will be performed by the radiotherapist and the informations will be than collected.


The survey will be conducted by enrolling a convenience sample of 30 topics. The topics will be diagnosed with myositis ossificans traumatica and referred by the degree Celsius after a radiological imagination was performed.

The topics will be recruited based on muscular traumatic history and diagnosing made by clinician at the undermentioned centres

1. SAI ( athleticss authorization of India, Bangalore )

2. Mention from authorities infirmaries, Bangalore

3. Mention from assorted section M S Ramaiah Hospital, Bangalore

The diagnosing could hold been made on the footing on history and radiological findings by the radiotherapists and orthopaediean


Patient diagnosed with myositis ossificans with an established analysis of standard radiogram.

1. History of muscular injury

2. Both male and females Aged between 15 – 40.

3. Swelling, hurting in the musculus when used, restricted scope of gesture, tenderness etc

4. Patient with type 2 myositis ossificans.


1. Patient will be excluded if they have type 3 myositis ossificans

2. Diabetic Patient

3. Patients will be excluded if they have systemic disease associated with an increased hazard of calcification ( urarthritis, hypercalcemia of any cause, and assorted arthritic disease ) or due to head and spinal hurt.

4. Subjects who underwent interventions including transdermal needle aspiration, ultrasound therapy, daze moving ridge therapy, NSAIDS, Bisphosphonate derived functions or recent surgeries.

5. If the patients had a history of cutaneal annoyances to acetic acid

6. Patients with pacesetters, and patients with broken or amendss skin surface.


Ethical blessing will be obtained from the Ethical Board of M S Ramaiah Memorial Hospital. Subjects will have an informed consent with inside informations about the survey.Permission from the governments of SAI Government, and M S Ramaiah memorial infirmary, Bangalore will be taken.The topics can retreat at any phase of the survey if they wish to stop.


The survey will be conducted in the Department of Physiotherapy ( Electrotherapy opd ) and probe will be performed in the Department of Radiology under the counsel of a Radiologist, M S Ramaiah Memorial infirmary, Bangalore


A Pilot survey will be conducted on 3 patients to find the consequence of AAI and to look into the feasibleness of the methodological analysis designed. The technique of the intercession will be standardized and finalized during this survey, side effects and any other mistakes in the intercessions will be noted and rectified.


After taking the needed demographic informations and elaborate history, the patient will be assessed farther for scope of gesture, hurting, swelling, and any other disablements. 30 topics who will be selected are given an informed consent and the intervention processs will be explained. A high declaration echography will be done prior to the intercession followed by a manual integrator and the baseline measuring of the involved country will be collected.

The acetic acid ionic medication intervention will be administered to the patient in the best comfy place depending on the site on ossification. The chosen ionic medication equipment is the available Phyaction drug bringing system, The 5 % acetic acid will be administer at the site of ossification utilizing a ductile cathode electrode of 5 cm2 and presenting a voltaic current of 5mA for upto 15-20 min ( Tremblay et al,2003 ) .Anode will be placed on the affected portion. The 5 % acetic acid will be introduced by soaking it into gauze and a coupling medium or gel will be poured between the gauze and ductile cathode electrode which will be administer to the experimental group, The ionic medication stuff will be prepared and administered by the research worker. The intervention will be administered for 10 posings, 3 Sessionss per hebdomad for 2 hebdomads and so 2 Sessionss each for 2 hebdomads. Post intercession the measuring of the country of the mass will be collected with the aid of a echography and mensurating it with the manual integrator. The radiotherapist will mensurate the country by the manual integrator and the informations will be than collected and analyzed by the research worker.


Role of colour echography ( Toshiba Sonolayer 340 ECCOCEE, Toshiba Power Vision

6000 ; Tokyo, Japan ) in the appraisal of musculoskeletal soft tissue multitudes has been good established ( Belli et al, 2000 ) and shown to hold a good Inter perceiver dependability ( Noredo et al, 2005 ) since, echography can easy distinguish solid from unstable multitudes, and is hence used often for benign or malignant tumour. Ultrasonography will be selected over MRI or CT because MRI on scan could observe several clinically unrelated abnormalcies, US can be used for dynamic survey and it can be imaged in existent clip, detecting diseased motion in musculus, sinew, articulations or Bursa and immediate lineation for the intervention scheme can be decided. . Based on the country and size of the fossilized mass, curved array ( 3. 5 MHz ) or additive investigations ( 7.5 MHz ) will be used, any irregular surfaces will be examined by use

of a built in H2O way annulate investigation ( 7.5 MHz ) , the frequence is proved to heighten imaging upto the deepness of skeletal musculuss ( Belli et al, 2000 ) Manual Planimeter has shown to hold a good concurrent cogency and interrater dependability to mensurate the surface country of multitudes and lesions ( Thawer et Al, 2002 )


The average country of the mass will be measured. The ultrasonography image will be examined by the radiotherapist the country will be measured by utilizing a Manual Planimeter and the informations will be collected. The information will show a parametric distribution with country in mm2, being a parametric distribution the Related T trial will be calculated for the dependant samples to compare the difference between the fossilized mass before and after the intercession. The degree of significance will be set at. 05, the chance will be calculated based on the T value with the grade of freedom tabular array. The assurance interval will be adopted to 95 %

Undertaking TIMELINE:

The overall estimated clip required for the survey will be 8 months.The inside informations are as follows:

Ethical clearance is estimated to take 1 month. Pilot, informations aggregation tools and informations aggregations will take

2-4 months, Data analysis will take 1 month, composing up and presentation consequences will take another 1 month. Estimating a overall 7 – 8 months for the full survey to reason



















Monetary value


600 ten 30 ten 2



1 LITRE – 1 Bottle








54,580 / –


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Informed consent signifier is given to a topic who wishes to take part in a research survey

Please read the informed consent really carefully or you can inquire your relation to do you understand of the content of this consent in the linguistic communication you wish to understand, to hold a clear thought of the survey and the importance of your engagement in this survey.

Any inquiries that you have in your head should be asked by you freely.

If you wish to take part in the survey, you will have this informed consent signifier with your signature and day of the month on it.

Engagement will be approved merely after you have understood the full research process and merely when you have decided to take part without any force per unit areas from the administrations or your relations.


Consequence of Acetic Acid Iontophoresis in the intervention of myositis ossificans.

Research worker:

Sandeep Dhar

Msc in clinical Physiotherapy,

Coventry University, GEF ( m ) Bangalore


Myositis Ossificans is a procedure of unnatural pathological bone formation in musculuss and other soft tissues. Iontophoresis is the debut of assorted ions/medications into the tegument by agencies of electricity. Iontophoresis is expected to cut down redness, fossilized mass, etc. This survey is to happen the effectivity of acetic acid ionic medication for the decrease of fossilized mass in myositis ossificans


After being diagnosed by the orthopaedican on the footing of radiographic imagination, you will be sent to the physical therapy section, the research worker will inquire you few inquiries sing your past history and disablements that you are confronting. The research survey will be introduced to you and a informed consent will be provided, based on your determinations your engagement will be decided You can either go on the regular intervention that will be given to you or if you agree to take part that we can get down with the acetic acid ionic medication intervention. This intervention will non be given with any other modes that are otherwise given for the intervention in the physical therapy section.

If you wish to take part, a colour high declaration echography will be performed to look into the size and form of the mass prior to the intervention utilizing iontophoresis.. After a 4 hebdomad intervention of 10 sitting, once more the same echography will be performed to measure the alterations if any on the mass.

The entire continuance of the survey is about 8 months and any alterations if there is you will be informed in anterior.


The Iontophoresis requires a min of 5mA of voltaic current for about 10 – 15 min and which in rare instances causes skin annoyance, erythema, and other side effects have been noted as of yet.


If you are non satisfied with the intervention you will be provided with the conventional intervention free of cost.


The disbursals like going charges, echography, x -rays, interventions and refreshments will be provided for free.


Your safety is our premier concern hence in any instance of side effects you will be provided with the needed intervention for the same, and farther engagement with your respects can be terminated.


You have the right to confidentiality sing the privateness of your medical information

( personal inside informations, consequences of probe, and your medical history )


The engagement is strictly voluntary and you have the right to retreat from this survey at any clip during the class of the survey. However, the information of the backdown from the survey to the research worker is advisable.


For farther information / adverse reactions / inquiries you can reach:

Research worker:

Name: _____________________________________

Dept of: ____________________________________

Telephone: _____________________________________

Hospital: ____________________________________


I, ________________________________ have read the information in this signifier ( or it has been read to me ) .I was free to inquire inquiries and they after they have been answered I decided to take part in this survey _________________________________________________________


Hereby giving my consent for this engagement and understand the right to retreat from the research at any clip without in anyhow impacting my medical attention in the same section.

Signature of the Participant ______________________________

Date ________________________________________________

If nonreader:

I __________________________________ have witnessed the accurate reading of the consent signifier to the possible participant, and the person has, had the chance to inquire inquiries, I confirmthat the person has given consent freely.

Thumb print of the participant.__________________________________

Signature of the informant ___________________________________

Date: ______________________________________________________

Research worker Certificate:

I certify that all the information reference in this informed consent including the nature, intent and possible hazards of the survey has been good explained to the topic, and that the participant possess the legal rights to retreat from the survey in any fortunes he/she wants to and is voluntarily and wittingly giving the informed consent to take part.

Signature of the Investigator _____________________________________________________

Name of the research worker ________________________________________________________

Date: _______________________________________________________________________



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