Recession refers to “ a period of important diminution in entire end product, income, employment and trade that normally lasts from 6 months to a twelvemonth ” ( Carbaugh, 2010, p.248 ) . Over the decennaries, the universe experiences one of the most tragic recession since Great Depression – the Great Recession of 2007-2009 ( Kaar, 2009 ) . It is the longest and deepest recession over the decennaries ( Kwoh, 2010 ) whereby it lasted for 18 months and had a 3.66 % lessening in end product from extremum to trough ( Harding, 2010 ) . The crisis started in United States ( US ) and originated in the lodging and subprime markets ( Nicholas, 2008 ) . As the crisis deepened in 2008, particularly the autumn of Lehman Brothers, it turned into planetary crisis where planetary stock market collapsed and liquidness on legion recognition markets dried out ( Cheung et al. , 2010 ) . Now the universe economic system has entered into 2010, while the tragic has ended, the economic system still fraught with great grade of uncertainness due to miss of consensus of the crisis ‘s causes ( Verick and Islam, 2010 ) .
2.0 Causes of Great Recession
Great Recession is claimed to be caused by US lodging bubble, subprime mortgages and securitisation.
2.1 Housing Bubble
The cardinal cause of Great Recession is lodging bubble ( Takayasu, 2010 ; Pollock, 2008 ; Shiller, 2008 ) . It is an unsustainable status where plus monetary values raised beyond the cardinal ratings ( Roberts, 2008 ) . From 1998 to 2006, US experienced the biggest lodging bubble in history with rising prices adjusted house monetary value raised by 80 % and nominal house monetary value raised by 130 % ( Takayasu, 2010 ; Fernandez et al. , 2008 ) ( Figure 1 ) . It had resulted into misallocation of resources ( big sum of resources in lodging market ) and raised consumer perceived wealth. When the lodging bubble busted in 2007, activity in lodging reduced, many resources were released from lodging and more significantly consumers feel less affluent and later reduced their disbursement, hence led to negative effects on US economic system ( McKibbin, n.d. ) .
Figure 1. US House Price Index
Beginning: Takayasu, 2010
2.2 Loose Monetary Policy
Low involvement rate was the chief ground for lodging bubble ( Murphy, 2008 ) . Low involvement rate implied that there is low mortgage payment, therefore the attempt of the old pecuniary governments led by Greenspan in stamp downing involvement rates from 6.5 % in late 2000 to 1 % in June 2003 to promote debt-financed ingestion, to hike economic growing and house ownership ( Gourinchas, 2010 ; Hossain, 2009 ) had strong impact on lodging affordability which resulted into the spike in lodging demand and monetary value ( Eddlem, 2010 ) . Harmonizing to Taylor ( 2008 ) and Ahrend and fellow economic experts ( 2008 ) , the involvement rate was excessively low during 2002 to 2004 with big divergence with “ Taylor regulation ” ( Figure 2 ) , therefore led to pecuniary surpluss and finally lodging bubble ( Verick and Islam, 2010 ) . However, Greenspan argued that low involvement rate did non do lodging bubble ( Adam and Wittenstein, 2009 ) . But, happenstance of high per centum of house monetary value grasp rose and house monetary value over-valuation appeared after 2002 when involvement rate was remarkably low ( Figure 3 ) has drawn a causal nexus between low involvement rate and lodging bubble ( Dokko et al. , 2009 ) .
Figure 2. Actual Federal Fund Rate and Taylor Rule
Beginning: Taylor, 2008
Figure 3. Nominal House Price Growth and Over/Undervaluation
Beginning: Dokko et al. , 2009
2.3 Subprime Mortgage
Subprime mortgage is another cause of Great Recession ( Mayer et al. , 2009 ) . It is a type of loan made to those with hapless recognition history ( Zandi, 2009 ) . At the beginning of twenty-first century, federal fund rate was low, house monetary value spike, mortgage funding rose and later encouraged investors to look for higher-yield assets ( Verick and Islam, 2010 ) . To take advantage of the emerging pool of clients, loaners went in front offering new types of mortgage ( eg. NINJA mortgage, Alt-A ) to weak recognition borrowers ( Hoffinger, 2009 ) . This patterns raised the place ownership rate to 69.2 % in 2004, and boosted the house monetary value in some countries to duplicate digit growing ( United State Census Bureau, 2008 ; Lander et Al, 2009 ) . However, with big sum of subprime mortgage which amounted of $ 600 billion in 2006 ( 20 % of the place loan market in US ) ( Sabry and Schopflocher, 2007 ) , the hazard of default was high. As estimated by Chomsisengphet, Souphala and Anthony ( 2006 ) , the opportunities of default for subprime loans is six times greater than premier loans. Therefore, when lodging bubble busted in 2007, foreclosures and delinquencies rose enormously ( Figure 4 ) which finally collapsed a batch of US mortgage loaners.
Figure 4. House Price Growth and Subprime Foreclosures and Delinquencies
Beginning: Taylor, 2008
2.4 Regulatory Deregulation
Regulatory deregulating reduced the control over “ marauding ” loaners which led to subprime mortgage growing ( Weissman, 2008 ) . The deregulated act include Gramm-Leach-Bilely Act which was introduced in 1999. This act uncorked a big sum of capital from nest eggs sedimentations for Bankss and investing establishments to put into net income devising vehicles, therefore fuelled assorted types of subprime mortgage ( Lounsbury and Hirsch, 2010 ) . Although many claimed that Gramm-Leach-Bilely Act did non do the crisis ( White, 2010 ) , in fact, without the addition in recognition supply, subprime loaning will non hold grown quickly ( Wachter, 2008 ) .
2.5 Poor Underwriting Procedure
Mortgage underwriting process is responsible to analyze the hazard associated with mortgage cross subdivision foreclosure and delinquency rates ( Gorton, 2008 ) . However, in 2004, when involvement rates for subprime mortgage fell, net income borders for subprime loaners fell, some loaners started to loosen their underwriting criterions to obtain higher inducement ( Demyanyk and new wave Hemert, 2008 ) . This appears to hold caused competition ( Peterson and Dias, 2008 ) which later drove lower quality subprime mortgage loaning.
Despite the delinquencies in subprime mortgage, it is impossible that the whole fiscal system will fall in. An of import elaboration procedure was the securitisation of mortgages and off-balance sheet vehicles introduced by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac ( Taylor, 2008 ) . Securitisation is a procedure where mortgage conceivers free up liquidness and capital by switching mortgages off the balance sheet which finally ended up in a concatenation ( Criado and Rixtel, 2008 ) . As the concatenation went longer and more complex when it was sold into planetary market, it resulted into a low transparence and deficiency of information status where hazards finally end up ( Gorton, 2008 ) . The deficiency of information created the pre-crisis mispricing of plus backed securities ( ABS ) and later closed down the Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene market because most market participants lacked information to monetary value these securities after June 2007. In the terminal, it overhang the planetary concatenation of Bankss ‘ balance sheets ‘ illiquid assets and resulted into recognition crunch ( Brunnermeier and Pedersen, 2009 ) .
2.7 Rating Agencies and Securities Issuers Failure
Harmonizing to Pagano and Volpin ( 2010 ) , both evaluation bureaus and securities issuers are accountable for the deficiency of transparence in the securitisation procedure. The prospectus merely gave small statistics about the mortgage backed securities. Therefore, most investors ended up dependent on evaluations given by both establishments which do non hold comprehensive appraisal of the default hazard and neglect to supply appraisal of the systematic hazard of collateralised debt duties ( Coval et al. , 2008 ) .
To summarize, lodging bubble, loose pecuniary policy, subprime mortgage, regulative deregulating, hapless underwriting process, securitisation and, evaluation bureaus and securities issuers failure are the joint causes of Great Recession.
Great Recession has caused two of import economic system effects to US and states around the universe: economic system contraction and unemployment.
3.1 Effectss to US
3.1.1 Economy Contraction
As a effect, US fell into a 18 months long recession and experienced a 3.66 % diminution in existent GDP from extremum to trough ( Table 1 ) . It is normally viewed as the most tragic recessions since Great Depression ( 1929-1933 ) ( Kwoh, 2010 ) . Comparison between the recessions shows that Great Recession ( 18 months, -.3.66 % ) was much centrist in magnitude when compared to Great Depression ( 43 months, -36.21 % ) . This was due to US authorities aggressive move in loosening the pecuniary policy this clip in order to restrict the fiscal crisis impact on the existent economic system ( Politi and Mackenzie, 2010 ) . When compared to postwar recessions, Great Recession is about twice every bit long as the mean continuance of postwar recessions ( 10.4 months ) and about twice every bit terrible as the mean existent GDP from extremum to trough of postwar recession ( -1.15 % ) ( Table 1 ) . Therefore, the economic effects of Great Recession was severe but non every bit terrible as Great Depression.
Table 1. Real GDP Growth and Duration Across US Recessions
Correction: Harmonizing to the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis ( 2010 ) , current recession ended in June 2009, therefore the continuance for 2007-2009 recession is 18 months.
Beginning: Wheelock, 2010
As an reverse consequence of economic system contraction, US experienced a terrible occupation crisis where 15.6 million Americans in October 2009 were unemployed ( Eidelman, 2010 ) and experienced a 4.7 % unemployment rate addition from 2007 to 2009 ( Bureau of Labour Statistics ( BLS ) , 2011 ) . However, the unemployment rate addition during Great Recession were lower compared to Great Depression in 1930s ( Figure 5 ) . But, when comparison to postwar recessions ( Figure 6 ) , unemployment rate for Great Recession had already exceeded the norm of all. International Labour Organisation ( 2009 ) further emphasised that 1000000s of labor could go unemployed or long-run unemployed unless equal recovery action is taken. As estimated by Congressional Budget Office ( 2010 ) , full employment can merely be achieved in 2015. This terrible status was due to US corporations moves in outsourcing the fabrication, selling out for inexpensive worker abroad and purchasing metric tons of goods overseas in recent decennaries, therefore doing it hard to excite US employment ( Roth, 2009 ) . Therefore, it is indispensable to re-introduce concern and fabrication in US, to be advanced to vie with inexpensive labor states and to promote citizen to purchase US merchandise.
Figure 5. Unemployment for Unemployed Civilian Workforce ( U3 ) and Non-Farm employees ( U6 ) [ 1900 – 2009 ]
Beginning: New Deal Democrat, 2009
Figure 6. Unemployment Rate for Current and Previous Post World World 2 Recessions
Beginning: Garcia and Koech, 2010
3.2 Effectss to European Union ( EU )
3.2.1 Economic Contraction
Great Recession hit EU badly with an norm of -4.2 % of economic system contraction in 2009, a higher rate than US ( -2.7 % ) ( Table 2 ) . This was caused by a larger write-off of Bankss in Europe compared to in US ( European Commission, 2009 ) . Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia are the most contracted states with at least 13 % diminution in GDP in 2009 ( Table 2 ) . This was resulted by the greater economic system trust of these states on lodging activity ( European Commission, 2009 ) , lodging bubble and big current history shortage ( Lesova, 2009 ) . While most states in the part registered GDP contraction, merely Poland ( 1.7 % ) experienced GDP growing. Among the EU most developed states, UK experienced the longest economic contraction ( 18 months ) despite the lower entire economic system contraction as compared to Germany and Italy ( Table 3 ) . This was due to UK economic system ‘s trust on fiscal services despite the authorities ‘s “ aggressive action ” in restricting large economic system contraction ( Katt, 2009, Schifferes, 2009 ) . Overall, the more unfastened, more trust a state economic system on fiscal and lodging markets and the greater domestic instability, the harder hit it experienced.
Table 2. GDP Growth ( % ) For EU states
Beginning: European Commission, 2010a
Table 3. Depth and Duration of Recession Among The Most Developed Economies in EU
Beginning: Chand, 2010
In response to economic system contraction, EU unemployed amounted to 21.5 million in May 2009 and experienced 1.7 % unemployment rate addition from 2007 to 2009 ( BLS, 2011 ; Hijman, 2009 ) , a lower increase rate compared to US ( 4.7 % ) . It was due to EU members ‘ authorities sponsored reduced working hr strategies which act as a shock absorber to employment consequence ( European Commission, 2010b ) . From state position, Latvia ( +15.7 % ) , Lithuania ( +11.6 % ) , Estonia ( +11.3 % ) , Spain ( +11.2 % ) and Ireland ( +7.6 % ) experienced the sharpest additions in unemployment rate from 2007Q4 to 2009Q4 ( UN/DESA, 2010 ) , at rates which are higher than the Okun ‘s Law appraisal ( European Commission, 2010b ) . It may be due to the trust of these states on industries ( eg. services and building ) which were severely affected by the crisis and the sharper fiscal restraint they experienced ( UN/DESA, 2010 ) . While Germany faced reduced unemployment rate over this period ( -1.1 % ) showing the consequence of Kurzarbeit strategy in extinguishing dismissals ( UN/DESA, 2010 ) .
3.3 Effectss to Developing States in Asia
3.3.1 Economy Contraction
In contrast to US and EU experience, developing Asia ‘s economic system experienced lag but still turning at 6.6 % in 2009. Most notably, China and India, despite their integrating in planetary economic system, show 8.7 % and 5.7 % of GDP growing severally ( IMF, 2010 ) . In China, this was due to authorities attempt in implementing a better designed stimulus bundle to increase fixed and substructure investing ( McKibbin, n.d. ) . India on the other manus had avoided invested greatly in US subprime mortgage, service export ( eg. computing machine package ) maintained high, foreign direct investing maintained high ( at $ 27.3 billion in 2008-2009 ) and easy pecuniary and financial policy aid to buffer the consequence of Great Recession ( Chawla, 2010 ) .
While developing Asia enjoyed stronger GDP growing than US and EU, it exhibits lower unemployment rate addition. From 2007 to 2009, China experienced 0.3 % unemployment rate addition as a consequence of reduced exports to US and Europe ( Trading Economicss, 2010 ) while India experienced 0.6 % lessening in unemployment rate as a consequence of occupation creative activity from IT-driven growing ( ITA, 2009 ; Bartlett, 2009 ) .
To summarize, Great Recession is the most tragic postwar recession. Economy contraction and unemployment varies across boundary lines, exemplifying the consequence of country-specific factors.
Analysis of Great Recession pull two decisions: 1.various interlinked causes have caused Great Recession, and ; 2.Great Recession has planetary impacts. Therefore, to forestall similar crisis in the hereafter, fiscal regulative reform plays a important function because it was the failure of US regulative authorization to update their system in response to fiscal invention surpluss which resulted into Great Recession. Mentioning to the regulative reform measure signed by US President Obama, capital demands were adjusted to a higher degree for largest and most interrelated fiscal establishments, bailouts were eliminated, higher transparence demands were set for derived functions and consumer fiscal protection bureau were enforced ( Goodwin Procter LLP, 2010 ; Council of Economic Advisers, 2010 ) . These enterprises are reasonable to guarantee that fiscal establishments do non take up unreasonable hazards, behave responsibly and maintain good working to increase fiscal stableness. Therefore, to forestall another tragic recession, reasonable and up-to-date ordinances like what President Obama is crafting is required.