Analysis Study Of Colonial Discourse In Literature English Literature Essay

August 8, 2017 English Literature

Colonial discourse has been defined by many authors such as Diniz ( 1996:126 ) who points out hat “ Colonial discourse normally refers to the authorship which runs from five hundred old ages, through the yearss of European mercantile enlargement, to our ain clip ( 1996:126 ) .

This definition suggests that the epoch of Colonialism in literature began in the seventeenth C. with the publication of Shakespeare ‘s The Tempest ( 1611-12 ) . In this paper, nevertheless, the term is used to mention to the literature written in English, but confined to the century of British Colonialism and the decennaries of anti- or post colonial activity which followed.

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Said ‘s Orientalism ( 1978 ) uses the construct of colonial discourse to re-order the survey of colonialism. So it can be said to kick off a new sort of survey of colonialism. Said ‘s Orientalism examines how the East, including the Middle East, is represented in the history and the literature written by the West. The West ever looks at the East as inferior people without faith or ethical motives.

Said ‘s projecttries to demo how cognition about the non-Europeans was portion of the procedure of keeping power over them. In short, Orientalism is chiefly concerned with how the Orient was constructed by Western Literature and non with how such building was received by colonial topics. It examines the Western attitudes toward the East. Said concludes that the Western authors depict the Orient as “ irrational, ” “ hebdomad ” and “ feminised other ” . This word picture can be contrasted with the word picture of the West as “ rational ” , “ strong ” and “ masculine ” .

Said ‘s Culture and Imperialism ( 1994 )

Colonial discourse is a construct popularized by Edward Said. In this paper, it refers besides to the cognition of Africa constructed by the West ( colonial authors: as Defoe and Conrad ) to bolster its colonizing involvements, and the reaction of the East ( colonised authors as: Achebe ) . Colonial discourse has non been the merchandise of a certain age and it has attracted the attending of several authors and critics. Those famed writers as Conrad and Defoe created singular plants out of the topic of Colonialism. Nowadays, Colonial discourse is one of the most current issues in literary unfavorable judgment.

1.2. Life and Works of Defoe, Conrad and Achebe

1.2.1. Life and Works of Defoe:

Danial Defoe was born about 1660 in London. His male parent, James Foe, was hapless but difficult working meatman. Defoe was non able to go to traditional establishments like Oxford and Cambridge because of his male parent ‘s resistance. Defoe is frequently considered the male parent of English novel. He is a maestro of simple prose and powerful narrative with a love of realistic item. He is a great inventive author who creates one of the most familiar resonating myths of modern literature. He is influenced by the Hagiographas of Addison, Steel and Swift. Defoe ‘s of import plants are: Robinson Crusoe ( 1719 ) , Moll Flanders ( 1722 ) , Capitan Singleton ( 1720 ) and The History of Peter the Great and Colonel Jack ( 1722 ) . Defoe died in London on April 24, 1731.

1.2.2. Life and Works of Conrad

Joseph Conrad was born in December 3, 1857. His childhood was affected by his fatherland ‘s battle for independency. He is a Polish novelist and short narrative author. Conrad is one of the English linguistic communication ‘s greatest stylists. He becomes one of the greatest authors in the universe. His major plants include Heart of Darkness ( 1902 ) , Lord Jim ( 1900 ) , The Secret Agent ( 1907 ) , Under the Western Eyes ( 1911 ) and Nostrome ( 1904 ) . He died of bosom failure on August 3, 1924.

1.2.3. Life and Works of Achebe

Chinua Achebe was born in Ogidi in eastern Nigeria on November 16, 1930. His parents transfuse in him many of the values of their traditional civilization. He is one of most well-known station colonial authors. He has become renewed as a male parent of modern African literature. After printing Things Fall Apart, he became one of the laminitiss of the new Nigerian literature.

Achebe ‘s of import novels are: Thingss fall Apart ( 1959 ) , No Longer at Ease ( 1960 ) , Arrow of God ( 1964 ) and A Man of people ( 1966 ) . His novels are chiefly directed to an African audience, but their psychological penetrations have gained them cosmopolitan credence. His instruction in English allows him to capture both the European and the African positions on colonial enlargement, race, faith and civilization.

1.3. The Relevance of the Study

There are many authors who have tackled the construct of colonialism in their plants. It is customary to read Shakespeare ‘s The Tempest as the first of import major work to show colonial discourse: the manner the coloniser and the colonised portrayed in the characters of Prospero and Caliban. In The Tempest, Shakespeare ‘s major add-on to the narrative is to do the island inhabited before Prospero ‘s arrived. That individual add-on turns the escapade narrative into an fable of the colonial brush.

There are two ways of stand foring colonialism in literature. The first 1 is represented by the coloniser ‘s point of position ; the European authors. Those colonial authors are Shakespeare, Defoe, Conard and J.M. Cotezee. Those authors have written dramas and novels which deal with the subject of colonialism as Defoe ‘s with the them of colonialism as Defoe ‘s Robinson Crusoe ( 1719 ) , Corad ‘s Heart of Darkness ( 1902 ) , Cary ‘s Mister Johnson ( ) and Cotezee ‘s Foe ( 1986 ) .

Those authors give a negative image of Africa in peculiar and the East in general. Africans are depicted as “ primitrue ” , “ barbarians, barbarian ” , inferior and nescient. As a consequence of this negative representation of Africa in peculiar and the East, including the Middle East, which is seen as sub-human in general several critics criticized this topic. Among the critics who criticized this topic are Edward Said, Achebe and other African critics like Ngugiwa, Chinwerza and Nkruma. Those African critics provide a theoritcal frame work to analyze the representation of the colonized in the literature produced by the authors belonging to the states of the coloniser. They have re-written the representation of the colonized from non-Euro. centric position.

So their authorship is a mean of re-writing the history, the civilization from their cultural position which is called Afro-centric point of position.

Said ‘s Orientalism ( 1978 ) one of the first works which examines how the East, including the Middle East, is represented in the history and the literature written by the West. The West ever looks at the East as an inferior people without faith or ethical motives. Said ‘s undertakings tries to demo how “ knowledge ” about the non-European was portion of the procedure of keeping power over them. It besides examines the Western attitudes toward the East.

In short, Orientalism is chiefly concerned with how the Orient was constructed by Western literature and non how such building was received by colonial topics. Said concludes that the Western authors depict the Orient as “ irrational ‘ , “ weak ” and “ feminized other ” . This word picture can be contrasted with the word picture of the West as “ rational ” , “ strong ” and “ masculine ” .

Said ‘s Culture and Imperialism ( 1994 ) is another work to explicate the composite and the on-going relationships between the East and the West, the coloniser and the colonized, the white and the black. Said specifically addresses the manner in which subjugated people are represented within literature and how it has affected non merely these people but besides the civilizations in which they live.

Achebe ‘s Things Fall Apart ( 1959 ) is one of the first books to stand for the African image from an Afro-centric position. This novel is ever seen as a response to the image created by Conrad and Cary.

In this novel, Achebe writes the narrative of colonisation of the Ibo society from an African point of position. In his essay “ An Image of Africa: Racism in Heart of Darkness, ” Achebe positions that Conrad ‘s intervention of native Africans in Heart of Darkness as racialist. Achebe focuses on Conrad ‘s intervention of Africa as an “ other universe, ” an antithesis at Europe and hence at civilisation ” ( 9th. In Achebe, 3 ) .

Achebe specifically criticizes Conrad ‘s racism which is expressed through the pick of words, ignorance, fiction, comparing and imagination of the author. Achebe argues that the pick of words Conrad uses is really limited. He repeats words like “ cryptic ” and “ craze ” excessively many times and at several occasions. Conrad changes these for their equivalent word. ( Ibid ) .

Harmonizing to him, the image of darkness pointed in the book is merely the stereotypic position of Europeans towards African as whole. Achebe believes that Conrad is merely delighting the readers by stating them what they want to hear. In his decision, Achebe calls Conrad a bloody racialist who mock both African land and African people.

1.4. The Method of the Study

This term paper is based on an analytical method. The analysis includes the subjects, the characters and the techniques of each novel.

Chapter Two:

2.1. The Purpose of the Study

The rule aims of this research are as follows:

To analyze the them of colonialism and how its effects are reflected through Defoe ‘s Robinson Crusoe, Conrad ‘s Heart of Darkness and Achebe ‘s Things autumn Apart.

To analyze how three different authors of two different civilizations, races, states and faiths represent the coloniser and the colonized in these three novels.

To compare and contrast literary pieces written from the point of position of European imperialists and the African/colonized positions.

To compare and contrast these two “ negative and positive ” representations of the colonized ( Africa ) [ both as land and people ] as it was presented in these three novels.

2.2. The Significance/ Importance of the Study

Chapter III: subdivision 1

( Defoe ‘s Robinson Crusoe )

3.1.1. Plot Summary of Defoe ‘s Robinson Crusoe from the position of Colonial Discourse

Defoe ‘s Robinson Crusoe ( 1719 ) takes topographic point in the 2nd half of the 17thC. when European companies vied for control and development of colonised lands around the universe. Crusoe, the cardinal character, appears to stand for his imperialist spirit: foremost when he goes to Guniea, following when he travels to Brazil and opens plantation, and eventually when he becomes male monarch of an island.

Crusoe colonizes the island by edifice houses, taking Friday as his retainer after run intoing him and umpiring to the mountain climbers as his topics.

3.1.2. Understanding Colonialism in Defoe ‘s Robinson Crusoe: Analysis of the Theme and the Fictional characters

Defoe ‘s Robinson Crusoe ( 1719 ) was written when the people of the 18thC. were going abroad, detecting new lands and distributing Christianity. They were colonising lands and enforcing their civilization and linguistic communication at that place. The powerful state controls the economic system, and the district of a hebdomad state. Africa was one of the chief settlements of the British Empire and the British were at the Centre of power whereas the “ Other ” were at the border of power. In other words, the coloniser suppressed the Other, his linguistic communication and his civilization excessively.

Robinson Crusoe is the 2nd of import work to show colonial discourse ; the manner the coloniser and the colonized are portrayed in the figures/ characters of Crusoe, Friday, non whiteman, and Xury, a retainer of Crusoe. The functions of Crusoe, Friday, Xury and the mountain climbers have been discussed in footings of regulations and topics in close connexion to the intervention of those people by Crusoe. Defoe ‘s Robinson Crusoe is frequently read in modern times as an fable of colonialism, and there is much in the last chapters to support this position.

Friday ‘s “ subjugation ” , “ servitude ” and “ entry ” to Crusoe reflects colonial race dealingss ( Defoe: 185 ) . This is clear when Crusoe thinks that he is assisting Friday by doing him his retainer. Furthermore, Colonial footings appear when covering with the host he mountaineers. Crusoe and the Captain terrorize them by mentioning to a fictional governor of the island who will penalize Hem badly. This fiction of governor for shadows the really governor who will no uncertainty be installed on the island finally. Because Crusoe has claimed the district for England.

Indeed, Crusoe refers to this community as ‘my settlement ‘ in the island, which makes us, the readers, wander whether he truly see it his ain or it is officially a settlement or figuratively so.

As the fresh sheds light upon the subject of colonialism, the reader observes the manner the coloniser and the colonized are portrayed in it. In the novel, Crusoe, the cardinal character, is the representative of colonialism whereas Friday is the symbol of the topics races. Friday is instructed, given linguistic communication and converted to Christianity, Crusoe ‘s faith.

Crusoe ‘s instructions on Friday are illustrations of his attitudes towards human existences who he trained to make his work. As a coloniser, Crusoe wants to distribute his faith. He refers to Christianity and to the Bible in order to change over Friday to Christianity. Crusoe Teachs Friday the word “ maestro ” even before learning him “ yes ” or “ no ” and lets him cognize that was to be Crusoe ‘s name ( Defoe:185 ) .

Crusoe refers to himself as male monarch over the indigens and Europeans, who are his topics. Furthermore, Friday is an illustration of the “ ego ” and the “ other ” . Crusoe instructs him, gives him linguistic communication, in order to assist him to run his Empire on the island. He is an illustration of the “ Other ” because he is merely servant.

Pennycook suggest that “ Colonialism is likely the context without equal of contractions of Self and Other ‘ ( 2002:10 ) . We can detect the procedure of this building in the duologues between Crusoe and Friday:

Maestro: Well, Friday, and what does your state do with the work forces they take? Do they transport them a manner and eat them, as these did?

Friday: yes, my state eat mans up excessively ; eat all up.

( Defoe: P.192 ) .

In such duologues, we can see the relationship non merely between Self and Other as constructed by colonialism but besides between these and English. Friday has been given a really peculiar, colonising English words to disbursals his cultural background, besides his speech production in Crusoe ‘s ain linguistic communication.

Phillispson ‘s treatment ( 1992 ) of Crusoe ‘s lessons to Friday is one of the earliest cases of English lingual imperialism which he calls as “ the locus-classical ” of the start of English lingual imperialism to Crusoe, and he has no right to disobey him.

Phillipson states that Crusoe’s-Friday ‘s relationship reflects the “ racial construction of Western society at the hey twenty-four hours of bondage ” ( P.109 ) . Phillipson sees Crusoe as the prototype of imperialist bondage, i.e. a cardinal figure in the European effort to derive political and economic command over the big countries of the universe. Harmonizing to Brantlinger, “ what Crusoe buzzword ‘s master- or acquire to name him “ maestro ” – he sees merely as savageness and desert island. ” ( 1990: P.2 ) .

Crusoe ‘s relationship with Friday comes in several beds. At one point in the novel, Crusoe refers to Friday ‘s people as “ blinded, nescient heathens ” ( Defoe:170 ) . The relationship between them is like that between Crusoe and Xury. Earlier, Crusoe has told Xury that if he will be faithful to him, he will do him a great adult male. Equally shortly as the Captain offers 60 pieces of gold for Exury, Crusoe accepts it and sells him for the interest of economic addition. Crusoe stands for the coloniser who occupies the other states under the stalking-horse that he educates and develops the state.

Crusoe, as a coloniser, alterations Friday ‘s linguistic communication, faith, wonts, civilization and even his name. This is how the coloniser imposes his ain linguistic communication, faith, civilization and individuality on the occupied states. The ostracism of Friday ‘s faiths beliefs emphasizes the colonisation subject.

Crusoe ‘s attitude towards Friday is reflected in his description. His attitude is that of a master-servant. He requires a complete subservience and faith comprehensiveness from Friday. Crusoe looks upon Friday as a animal when he will care for, giving him H2O, nutrient and vesture. Crusoe does non even seek to larn Friday existent name which shows the European domination subject in the novel. Crusoe gives Friday his name as he has done with his parrot, Poll.

Sing the Euro-centric attitude of the clip, Defoe ensures that Friday is non Crusoe ‘s equal in the novel. Friday is clearly a retainer and inferior in rank, power and regard. Crusoe ‘s vocabulary reveals much about how he imagines his function on the island. He starts to depict himself as “ commander in chief ” of an ground forces with Friday as his “ lieutenant-general. ”

At the really gap of the novel, he is a mere outcast but towards the terminal, he openly refers to himself as a national leader of military forces. We sense how profoundly deep-rooted Crusoe ‘s imagined national function as a male monarch of this island when he refers to his new invitees as his topics.

Friday is likely the first non white character to be given a realistic, individualised and human portraiture in the English novel. Friday has a immense literary and cultural importance. If Crusoe represents the first colonial head in fiction, so Friday represents non merely a Caribbean folk adult male but besides all the indigens of Asia, Africa, and America who would subsequently be oppressed in the age of European colonialism.

When Crusoe teaches Friday to name him maestro, Friday becomes an digesting political symbol of racial unfairness in modern universe and critical of imperialist enlargement. Recent revisings of the narrative of Crusoe, like Cotezee ‘s Foe and Tournier ‘s Friday, stress the effects of Crusoe ‘s failure to understand Friday and propose how the narratives might be told really different from the indigens ‘ position. In any instance, Crusoe has turned his narrative of one adult male ‘s endurance into a political narrative replete with its ain thoughts about imperialism.

In short, it is non surprising that modern-day readers regard Defoe ‘s novel as the archetypal colonial novel of the 18thC. if non in all of English literature. To reason, this novel is non merely a contemplation of colonialist patterns, but portion of big discourse concerned with the colonial imposts of the British Empire.

3.1.3. Analysis of the Narrative Techniques in Defoe ‘s Robinson Crusoe

Defoe combines many narrative methods in Robinson Crusoe to do the fresh reliable and realistic. These techniques are narration ( point of position ) , the usage of sarcasm, attending to inside informations, symbols and the usage of day of the months and names of topographic points. Robinson Crusoe is both the storyteller and the chief character of the novel. He narrates the narrative in both the first and the 3rd individual, showing merely what he himself observes. He describes his feelings on occasion but merely when they are over overpowering. He normally favors a more factual narrative manner focused on actions and events.

Another of import narrative device is the usage of symbols and sarcasm. As for the symbols, the writer uses three symbols like the pes print, the cross and the arbor. The pes print stands for Crusoe ‘s conflicted feelings about human company in whole he interprets it negatively as the print of all the Satan. The cross symbolizes Crusoe ‘s new being on the island and the power stands for the extremist betterment in Crusoe ‘s attitude toward his clip on the island.

As for the sarcasm, it is a literary device for Defoe. There are several illustrations of its usage in the novel, but the best illustration are the find of the pes print and the warning of Crusoe ‘s male parent. First, Crusoe ignores his male parent ‘s advice ;

“ aˆ¦if he goes abroad, he will be the most suffering wretch that was of all time born, ” ( Defoe. P.4 )

Second, Crusoe wishes for human existences to come because he was entirely, but when he sees the pes print of a bare adult male, he is afraid. Crusoe remarks on this sarcasm:

“ How unusual a checker work of Providence is the life of a manaˆ¦ . Today we love what tomorrow we hate ; today we seek what tomorrow we shun ; today we desire what tomorrow we fear. ” ( Defoe: P140 ) .

The 3rd narrative technique is the usage of a circumstantial method which tells us non merely what Crusoe did but how he did it. There are legion illustrations of the utilizations of inside informations such as Crusoe ‘s undertaking in raising of the harvests of barley and rice on the island, killing the urarthritiss and doing a screen, and the description of the ship wrecks and Crusoe ‘s escapades. Such inside informations produce the consequence of pragmatism. The last method is the usage of day of the months and geographical place-names. All of these devices add to the realistic consequence of the novel.

Chapter Three: Section Three: Achebe ‘s Things Fall Apart

3.3.1. Plot Summary of Things Fall Apart from the position of Colonial Discourse.

Achebe ‘s Things Fall Apart ( 1959 ) traces the life in the Ibo small town of Umuofia merely earlier and after its initial contact with European colonialists and their Christian faith. The novel is divided into three parts: the first portion trades with the life of the Ibo people before the reaching of the piece adult male, exemplifying assorted facets of Ibo ‘s manner of life.

The 2nd portion trades with Okonkwo ‘s expatriate and the reaching of the missionaries and the consequence of their reaching, including the conversation of Nwoye to Christianity. The 3rd portion trades with the effects of the white adult male ‘s faith, instruction, power, Torahs and economic sciences on the folk ‘ civilization.

The first marks of colonisation come to Abame when the first white adult male appears. He is killed by the people of Abame on the order of the Oracle who tells them that the white adult male would be shortly followed by others and he would destruct their manner of life. As a consequence, the small town has been destroyed by other white work forces. During Okonkwo ‘s expatriate, the white adult male comes to both Umuofia and Mbanta and wins many converts. When Okonkwo returns to Umuofia, he finds that life begins to alter. Therefore, he stands up to the colonisers in an effort to protect his civilization. When he kills a British courier, Okonkwo realizes that he stands entirely, and he hangs himself.

3.3.2. Understanding Colonialism in Things Fall Apart: Analysis of the Theme and the Fictional characters

Achebe ‘s Things Fall Apart relates the narrative of decomposition falling apart of an African society that came in contact with Western values as a consequence of the colonisation. The fresh explores the coming of the white adult male and its effects on the civilization of the people of Umuofia.

The coming of the white adult male brought about civilization struggle which affects the people of Umuofia ‘s faith, their agribusiness, their judicial system and their societal life. The prostration of a society that was strongly united is told through the narrative of Okonkwo and the small town Umuofia. The novel shows the general decomposition of this civilization when it is attacked by another civilization.

The incursion of the coloniser is altering every facet of the Ibo society such as faith, household construction, gender functions, dealingss and trade. The colonisers bring linguistic communication, faith, instruction, commercialism, authorities and jurisprudence to Umuofia which are unimpeachably riotous. Okonkwo, the representative of the Ibo civilization, realizes that the white adult male has been excessively successful in his ways to alter the folks ‘ ways. He grieves the loss of his folk and the life he one time knew.

Okonkwo feels betrayed by his boy who joins the white missionaries and his elan who have non stood up against the white interlopers. The reaching of the white adult male and his civilization heralds the decease of the Ibo civilization. The piece adult male does non honour the folk ‘s imposts and strives to convert the folks ‘ work forces that their ways are better. As a consequence of colonialism, the folk is split, opposing brother against brother and male parent against boy. Many of the folk ‘s leaders have joined the missionaries and the tribal beliefs and imposts are being ignored. Okonkwo ‘s concluding act of opposition exemplifies how Africans and other colonised people have bravely resisted colonialism alternatively of passively accepting it.

In Things Fall Apart, the representatives of the coloniser are Mr. Brown, Mr. Smith and the District commissioner and the colonized are Okonkwo and the full Ibo society.

Achebe gives the reader a dramatic contrast between the first white missional Mr. Brown and Mr. Smith who replaces him. As his name suggests, Mr. Brown is able to voyage successfully the racial division between the coloniser and the colonized. Mr. Brown appears sensible, respectful, sort, patient and an open-minded adult male who is willing to do attempt to esteem and understand the Ibo beliefs. Mr. Brown succeeds in winning a big figure of converts because he listens to the villager ‘s narratives, beliefs, and sentiments. He be friends many great work forces of the elan and discusses spiritual beliefs with them. He accepts the converts unconditionally. Mr. Brown is the most influential character in the novel who does non promote the struggle between the old and the new religion.

Mr. Brown realizes that the direct onslaught with Ibo is useless. Therefore, he adapts a really cagey policy by constructing a school, infirmary and eventually a church. Achebe provinces:

“ In this manner Mr. Brown learnt a good trade about the faith of the elan and he came to the decision that a fro natal onslaught on it would non success ” . ( Achebe: 163 ) .

Then he asks the people to direct their kids to the school and argues that the leaders of Umuofia will be work forces and adult females who can read and compose. It is Mr. Brown who warns them that aliens like the District commissioner will come from other topographic points to govern them.

Actually, Mr. Brown is a adult male who loves peace and respects the traditional civilization. So there was no struggle between the Ibo civilization and the Western civilization during his period. He has a existent involvement in the public assistance of the Ibo people. As an person, he is a good representative of his society. Mr. Brown stands for the bright side of the coloniser.

Another representative of the coloniser is Reverend Smith who replaces Mr. Brown as the new caput of the Christian Church. Mr. Smith is rigorous and sturdy, the antonym of Mr. Brown who was sort and compassionate. Unlike Mr. brown, Mr. Smith encourages people to detest the traditional people and their faith. Mr. Smith is the stereotyped white settler. He has no regard for the civilization or the traditions of the Ibo.

Mr. Smith remains nescient of all the traditions and therefore has no hope of being respected plenty. Mr. Smith thinks he is superior and others are inferior. Mr. Smith sees things as “ black and white and black [ is ] evil ” . ( Achebe: 166 ) .

Smith ‘s black and white thought leads to the devastation of the church and the clang between both civilizations. As a consequence of this new missional, the Christians attack the Ibo belief and civilization and abuse the folk ‘ traditional imposts. One of their victims Okonkwo, whose return co-insides with the reaching of Mr. Smith, the new religion divide male parent from boy. Smith ‘s policy and intervention of the Ibo people show that the colonialist system is more crude than the Ibo system.

The District Commissioner is another figure of the coloniser. He seems more inhuman because he takes involvement in Okonkwo ‘s self-destruction merely because it will give him a new stuff for his book. He decides to title his book The Pacification of the Primitive Tribes of the Lower Niger.

This determination demonstrates his cognition approximately African as primitive and his inability to acknowledge how he has brought force alternatively of peace to the Lower Niger. By reasoning his novel with the District Commissioner ‘s misunderstanding and misunderstanding authorship of the scene of colonial brush, Achebe suggests that his novel is non merely about the colonial brush between two different civilizations. By pulling the attending to the District Commissioners ‘ erroneous sense of history. Achebe reminds the realer that the Western descriptions of Africa have mostly been written by work forces like the District Commissioner. Consequently, Things Fall Apart seek to rectify such erroneous historical records by reciting African history from an African position.

In brief, Achebe ‘s Things Fall Apart illustrates what happened to the Ibo society at the clip of its colonisation by the British and how the colonialism affects the Ibo in many different ways ; their faith, household, kids and their dead. Achebe describes what happens when different civilizations plants against each other.

“ aˆ¦ Now he [ the white adult male ] has won our brothers, and our kin can no longer move like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us tpgether and we have Fallen apart ” . ( Achebe: 160 ) .

In this lines Oberika seems to voice Achebe ‘s ain idea on colonialism. Okonkwo ‘s self-destruction at the terminal of the fresh represents the terminal of the Clan ‘s ancient manner of life because he represents the clanswoman.

3.3.3. Analysis of the Narrative Techniques in Achebe ‘s Things Fall Apart

Achebe uses a figure of techniques un Things Fall Apart such as the mixture between English linguistic communication and Ibo vocabularies, usage of Proverbss and common people narratives, symbolism, usage of similes and metaphors, comparings and contrasts and the displacement from present tense to past and once more to show.

The first method that Achebe uses is to develop a intercrossed linguistic communication that mixes Ibo and English words by presenting legion African footings thought the novel like Chie ( personal God-Fate ) , Obi ( hut ) , Agbala ( a adult male without rubric ) and Osu ( castaway ) . Achebe uses English linguistic communication as a theoretical account of communicating between people and to convert the Europeans that Nigeria is a state with great possible. Achebe uses his linguistic communication to pull the reader ‘s attending to his ain linguistic communication. Another of import method is the usage if Ibo Proverbs every bit good as traditional common people narratives which bring to life the unwritten civilization of Ibo and indicate their intelligence, cognition, ethical motives, the strong faith and the civilization of the state.

Early on in the novel, Achebe says: “ if a kid washed his custodies, he could eat with the male monarchs. ” Mentioning to Okonkwo ( Achebe:8 ) . This implies that if Nigerians washed their custodies, the state could be merely every bit of import as Britian.

The 3rd method is Achebe ‘s usage of similes and metaphors to convey the narration to life and his usage of different sorts of comparings that are related to the Ibo experience as “ Proverbss are the palm oil with which words are eaten. ” ( Achebe: 6 ) . The novel is developed in footings of comparing and contrast between the characters like the comparings between male parent and boy ; Unoka and Okonkwo and between friends like Nwoye and Ikemefuna, Unoka and Okoye Oberika and Okonkwo.

Fourth, Achebe provides considerable item about many facets of traditional African life like household and kin relation, ceremonials and rites, societal construction ( gender dealingss ) , political and faiths patterns and the function of nature in their universe.

This aside helps the reader to understand the day-to-day activities and spiritual beliefs of the Ibo people. Achebe displacements from present to past so to show while depicting the events and the characters.

The best method is the narrative voice. May critics see Things fall Apart as a book with two narrative voices: the traditional which dominates the first two/third of the book, and the modern which takes over the last 3rd. Other critics see the book as narrated by a individual storyteller, whose tone alterations and adopts overtime. The storyteller mediates between the person and the community, between the present and the yesteryear. All the old devices make the fresh reliable and realistic.

3.3.4. Comparisons and Contrasts between these three texts

Conrad ‘s Heart of Darkness, Defoe ‘s Robinson Crusoe and Achebe ‘s Things autumn Apart portion many similarities and differences. One difference is that in Robinson Crusoe and in Heart of Darkness the Europeans were already settled into Africa while in Things autumn Apart the Europeans do n’t settle until subsequently.

Another difference is that Robinson Crusoe and Heart of Darkness tell a narrative from Euro-centric position while Things fall Apart tells one from Afro-centric position. One similarity is the manner that Europeans treat the Africans as inhuman and inferior. Another similarity is that these three novels are written by different authors of different races, linguistic communications, civilizations, states and different faiths excessively. The three novels are about one facet that is Africa and how Africans are represented in each text written by authors belonging to different ages.

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