To Anthropology: Lecture 2 Fifth Subfield of Anthropology: -Applied Anthropology -Public Anthropology -Use of anthropological methods and theories to solve real world problems Rob Brooks: -Anthropology has the potential to change the world Methods: 1 . Feted -Anywhere that there is people, human behavior or culture 2.
Fieldwork -Activities that are done in the field typically with a purpose to answer a research question Arrival Story -Barker’s arrival among the Mains -Research question (field, fieldwork) -Impacts of Christianity on Mains beliefs Participant-observation Participating in and observing the activities of the participants of your research setting or your research field -When an anthropologist lives in and studies another culture or people in that culture over a long period of time -Process of learning, comes form involvement in the daily activities and routines of the participants in the field -Adoption and adopting many features of life in the place you are working/living -Long-term activity which produces lots of data, usually recorded in the form of notes/notes taking in the field Strengths: -Practicalities -Flexible -Produces lots of data -Behaviors Obvious visible behaviors -Non-verbal behaviors -Explicitly aware of surroundings -Experience -1st hand understanding -Empathy -Cultural Understanding -Produces a context for activities -Focus of things of local importance Limitations: -Produces false data -Not always easy to record of what you see and do -Exhausting -Subtle -Bias -Become part of the scene, become to close to everything, stop trying to understand because now everything seems normal to you; “growing nature” -People act differently when recorded -Participant-observation uses a very small sample Barbara Mousey -“Vending Machines: Order and Disorder” Results were comprehensive -Corporate anthropology Types of Information -Perspectives on data, Mimic & Etc Mimic Data -Local Data -What insiders know about their culture -Insider point of view, point of view form the anthropologist -Subjective perspective -Barker’s, Ancestral Lines -Ethnography: written description of a culture Etc Data -Theory -Analytical framework -Tool for understanding and comparison -Outsider’s point of view -Objective perspective -Cultural universals -Economics -Politics -Religion -Families and marriages -Ethnology Linguistics -Two ways of studying the sounds of a language 1 . Phonemics Study of the sounds of a particular language -How insiders in a language use a language, and how the use the sounds 2.
Phonetics -Studies of the sounds of all languages -Model of how language is physically produced Theory De Headman says, -Form of explanation -Make sense of data collected during fieldwork -Model to help explain findings -Help make comparisons with other studies Positivism Theory -Etc-based theory -Social world is pattern -Laws govern social world -Objective, real, can be measured -Not focused on variation Phenomenology Theory -Mimic based theory -Social action frequently in the perspective of individual’s experiences People create their own social realities -Interested in story of contexts in what someone does Cultural Evolution (19th Century/2nd half of the 1800) -Herbert Spencer -BE Tyler -All cultures pass through the same stages of development, all cultures evolve through similar stages -From simple to complex -Passage of time, and sometimes evolve into complex through luck Lewis Henry Mooring’s Theory Civilization- Agriculture, industry .