In an effort to develop programs for doing Education for All a world, four bureaus of the United Nations brought together over 150 authoritiess in 1990 to Jomtien, Thailand, and besides in 2000 in Dakar, Senegal, with the purpose of doing instruction every bit accessible to all. Nigeria is one of the states that signed the Jomtien declaration in 1990, and one of those with the highest figure of out-of-school kids in the universe with about 10.5 million out-of-school kids in 2010. This figure represents 42 % of its primary age population and 3.6 million more kids out of school than ten old ages ago. Nigeria is now committed towards bridging the spread particularly with the effort towards set uping unfastened schools, but sing the legion jobs facing the bing public primary and secondary schools and other educational programmes, there are certain barriers that may impede the successful execution and smooth running of the proposed unfastened schooling system. This paper examines the awaited barriers that include ; corruptness, deficiency of consistence in programmes, job of electricity, deficiency of entree to Internet, deficiency of fund, unequal work force and job of acknowledgment. For unfastened schooling system to see the visible radiation of the twenty-four hours, some recommendations were suggested which, if taken into consideration will be utile to policy shapers towards the successful launching and smooth running of the unfastened schools and other commendable educational programmes in Nigeria.
With the current consciousness on the importance of instruction for national development, the sector is greatly spread outing and is turning from strength to strength, thereby going one of the greatest societal services in many developed and developing states. The rapid growing in instruction can be seen practically in the immense resources invested in the sector, the proliferation of schools and the addition in pupil ‘s registration, every state invests in instruction because of the enormous benefits to persons, administrations and the society in general ( Yusuf 2006 ) .
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Education is a universal phenomenon which allows all human societies to develop the necessity cognition, experience and accomplishments for their self-preservation and growing, this implies that instruction is an built-in constituent of the procedure of socialisation and its nature and range is suited to every society comparatively to its province of development. One may foster argue that instruction develops single mentally, emotionally and socially, giving him a sense of self-pride, a sense of worth and self-respect necessary to liberate him from the clasp of poorness by geting the necessary competency, abilities and accomplishments to work in all domains of the economic system.
Therefore, supplying instruction for all to 1000000s of kids has been one of the battles between states in the universe, which resulted to the coming together of Governments of over 150 states in 1990 at Jumtien, Thailand and ten old ages subsequently in Dakar, all with the purpose of supplying assorted agencies through which instruction will be accessible for all irrespective of gender, faith or cultural background.
A Brief mentality on Education in Nigeria
Before the debut of western instruction in Nigeria, history has revealed that Nigerians had their traditional or autochthonal system of instruction which was tied to the peoples ‘ business, spiritual pattern and other facet of civilization. In the southern portion of Nigeria whose people are preponderantly Christians, the traditional instruction was functional and participatory as the kid and stripling were involved in the pattern of farming, trading, craftwork, cookery, brushing, Proverbs, morale erectness and traditional values ( Fafunwa 1995 ) .
In the Northern portion of Nigeria which is preponderantly inhabited by Muslim, their educational system was somewhat different because of their contact with some Arabian districts. Two types of schools were operated viz. : Makarantan Allo ( Slate School ) and Makarantan Ilmi ( Advanced School ) . The Islamic system of instruction was aimed at supplying a balanced development of the person and the society. It besides provided religious and moral preparation and encouraged the acquisition of cognition and accomplishments which could ease worldly/material chase ( Usman, 2008 ) .
The debut of western signifier of instruction in Nigeria was spearheaded by Rev. Thomas Birch freewoman assisted by William De Graft. They launched the run in Badagry, Lagos in September 1842. Those that followed later were Church Missionary Society ( CMS ) , the Roman Catholic Mission ( RCM ) , and Church of Scotland. The Missionaries established schools in countries such as Lagos, Badagry, Abeokuta, Onitsha and Calabar ( Fafunwa 1995 ) .
The colonial decision makers adopted British signifier of instruction in Nigeria, they introduced the primary, secondary, 6th signifier and higher instruction. Although, after the independency in 1960, Policy shapers discovered that this system of instruction did non run into the aspiration of Nigerians so the 6-3-3-4 educational policy was introduced in 1977.
From independency to day of the month Nigerian educational system has witnessed a batch of transmutations, so many Torahs were promulgated with the purpose of doing the system relevant and functional. Such Torahs include ; Education edicts of 1966-1979, the educational Torahs of 1979-1983, the instruction edicts of 1983-1999 and the instruction Torahs of 1999-2004 ( Ezikiel-hart 2011 ) .
Constitutionally, both Federal and State authoritiess legislate on the planning, organisation and direction of instruction. Primary instruction, secondary instruction, grownup and non-formal instruction are managed by the local authorities governments and the provinces. The Federal authorities is responsible for policy devising and the enforcement of criterions at the primary and secondary degrees but besides owns and manages many third establishments ( Theobald et al 2007 ) .
With the independency of 1960, many primary and secondary schools were established across every part in the state. At present there are more than 50,700 primary schools every bit good as 10,349 secondary schools in Nigeria, the school registration was reported as 22.3 million for primary schools and 6.4 million for secondary schools ( Federal Ministry of Education 2005 ) .
The demand for Open Schooling system in Nigeria
The thought of unfastened schooling system has yielded fruitful consequences in some underdeveloped states. In India for illustration, the National unfastened school was established in 1989. As at present the state has the largest unfastened schooling system in the World, with more than 1000 survey centres located in the district of India. Its client groups include the misss, the adult females, the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, the rural people, the urban hapless, the unemployed, the partially employed, the under employed, the immature, the grownup, and the partly handicapped, the system has cumulative registration transcending over half a million pupils ( Ambasht, Access 2012 ) .
Other Countries that benefitted from unfastened schooling system include Botswana, Namibia Trinidad and Tobago etc.
Open and Distance instruction is non new in Nigeria, it has been in pattern since 1976 particularly with the constitution of National Teachers ‘ Institute, Kaduna by the Federal Government of Nigeria with the purpose of bring forthing qualified instructors needed to run into the demands of the so Universal Primary Education ( UPE ) . The Institute was charged with the duty of supplying classs of direction taking to the development, up-grading, and enfranchisement of instructors as specified in the relevant course of study utilizing distance instruction techniques. Therefore NTI was the first establishment officially established in Nigeria to offer classs via ODL methods ( Ojo, 2006 ) .
Second, the National Open University was established in 1983, but was suspended in 1984 by the so military authorities. In 2002 the National Open University ( NOUN ) was re-established by the Obasanjo Administration, with its central offices in Lagos. The NOUN has a campus in Kaduna, an office Annex in Abuja, and 36 survey Centres scattered all over the state. It has the purpose of guaranting equity and equality of chances in instruction specifically in university instruction, and supplying a broad entree to education by and large but specifically university instruction in Nigeria ( NOUN 2004 ) .
There are other establishments of larning that besides supply distance instruction programme which make it easier for pupils to obtain makings runing from Bachelor grades, Diplomas and Nigeria Certificate of Education ( NCE ) , but the programmes are so expensive that non all pupils can inscribe in them, and none of the establishments offers a programme to provide for those that were unable to finish their secondary instruction.
There is an pressing demand for unfastened schooling system in Nigeria, for the fact that the rate of illiteracy and figure of kids out-of-school is dismaying. There were 17 states with more than 500,000 out-of-school kids in 2009, and nine of these states are located in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria entirely has about 9 million out-of-school kids or 37 % of its primary school-age population in 2007. Ethiopia had the 2nd highest figure of out-of-school kids in the part with 2 million in 2009 ( UNESCO Institute of statistics, 2009 ) .
Furthermore, the Nigerian Punch Newspaper reported that about 10 million kids of school age are out of school in Nigeria, the paper broke down the figure as follows: about 4.7 million were of primary school age, while 5.3 million were of secondary school age. 62 per cent of the kids out of school were misss while the staying 38 per cent were male childs ( Punch 25th March 2008, pg. 14 )
Luffman ( 2012 ) revealed that Nigeria being the state with the largest population on African continent, the Country entirely had 10.5 million out-of-school kids in 2010. This represented 42 % of its primary age population and 3.6 million more kids out of school than ten old ages ago.
Alechenu ( 2012 ) attributes most of the state ‘s societal frailties such as: harlotry, kid trafficking, the armed battle in the Niger Delta, and the current Boko Haram insurgence in Northern Nigeria, to miss of literacy. Majority of the young person partaking in most of this unwanted Acts of the Apostless, are those that are either school bead outs or could n’t acquire entree to school at all.
Nigeria needs unfastened schooling system so as to provide for the high figure of out-of-school kids, cut down the figure of bead outs, and do secondary instruction accessible for those who for one ground or the other could non go to regular school.
In fact the end of Nigeria for run intoing its mark of Education For All by 2015 may be far from being achieved, although there is a program already by the Federal authorities of Nigeria to supply educational chances for kids, young person and immature grownups whose acquisition demands are non being met by formal conventional schools and complement conventional schooling in the important decrease and obliteration of gender, regional and societal inequalities in instruction through the Open Schooling system.
Harmonizing to Gidado, Alabi & A ; Bakri ( 2008 ) the purpose of the unfastened Schooling system is to research, develop and set up a broad scope of educational classs at post-literacy and pre-tertiary degree and to put up effectual Open and Distance Learning constructions and systems to do those classs available throughout Nigeria to kids, immature people and grownups non presently reached by formal or non-formal instruction. It will besides research all possible ways to help, support and expand attempts to significantly raise passage rates from Primary to Junior Secondary School ; and supply basic instruction to out-of-school kids and young persons, nonreader grownups, primary and secondary school drop-outs, marginalized groups such as migratory groups, the girl-child and adult females.
Gidado et Al ( 2008 ) explained further that the proposed unfastened school system will hold survey Centres across the state and to expeditiously advance the disposal of the programme each and every province will hold an office while the Zonal and National offices will function as Centres for co-ordination.
Although non all classs will be taught at the school degree but based on the proposed pilot trial, basic and secondary instruction will be for adolescent misss and immature adult females who have become early school departers. Technical/vocational instruction combined with remedial formal instruction will be for immature men/adolescent male childs while go oning instruction for grownups at post-literacy degree, and learner instructors in mobile schools.
The programme will aim out-of-school young persons and grownups who can be considered as early departers, but non pre-literates work forces and adult females, specifically primary school drop-outs ; alumnuss of primary schools who could non pass through to JSS ; alumnuss of JSS who due to miss of topographic points could non pass through to SSS ; Secondary school dropouts ; and marginalized groups e.g. migratory groups and adult females. The age bracket will be about between 15 and 25years.
Barriers to Open Schooling
In malice of the wonder and enthusiasm to set up the Open schools in Nigeria, certain barriers may hinder the successful execution and smooth running of the programme, sing how other educational programmes suffered from one obstruction to the other. The awaited jobs are discussed below
Corruptness: This is one of the greatest jobs destabilizing the full Nigerian educational system. Several attempts by the authorities to run a commendable educational programmes but collapsed as a consequence of the corrupt nature of those in charge of the programme. For illustration, few months ago, authorities launched the integrating of Quranic schools with the western schools. A system where the Almajiris ( Quranic Students ) will larn western type of instruction alongside with their Quranic instruction, but in less than one twelvemonth a batch of complains related to corruptness hold started emanating. In fact, money earmarked to construct schoolrooms and inns in some selected provinces for pilot trial, was diverted by few persons in charge. If rigorous steps are non taken, the unfastened schooling system may endure the same modus operandi wonts which will do it hard for the programme to see the visible radiation of the twenty-four hours.
Lack of Consistence in programmes: It is a known fact in Nigeria that as authorities alterations about all programmes alterations every bit good, no affair how good a programme is, the succeeding authorities may barely go on with it because harmonizing to them the recognition will be accorded to their predecessor who launched it. Open schooling system may probably be affected by frequent alterations in educational policies peculiarly if the subsequent authorities is non interested in the programme, which is really common with our leaders.
Problem of Electricity: As other states of the universe tackled the issue of electricity supply, in Nigerians it is still an issue. The state is unable to undertake deficient power supply therefore the megawatt generated is still unequal. Open schooling system can barely be successful without equal power supply. Adequate power will ease communicating and the usage of electronic device such as computing machines, telecasting, wireless, etc. which are the critical constituents in unfastened schools.
Lack of entree to Internet: The cyberspace has become a good educational tool that easiness and facilitate acquisition but is really expensive in Nigeria, non merely for the citizens but even some establishments of higher acquisition can barely afford it, some even suspend their monthly subscriptions to the service suppliers because they could non afford to get by with the cost. World Bank study ( 2005 ) stated that most of the less developed states in Africa do non hold entree to the Internet, which will add to their slow development and this exacerbated by hapless telecommunications substructures and low teledensity. Lack of internet entree may give unfastened school in Nigeria a large blow, because the rate at which the programme will take topographic point may be slow and sing the population of out-of-school kids in Nigeria, there is the demand to hold installations on land that will rush the take-off so as to cover a batch of mark population.
Inadequate support: A batch of educational programmes in Nigeria suffer from unequal support from authorities which consequences in low criterion and failure to accomplish the specified purposes and aims of the programme as a consequence of deficiency of qualified teachers/resources individuals and deficiency of installations. This can besides be observed in the budget allotment to instruction which, in 2012 the sector received merely 8.43 % of the entire budget, although, the allotment increased to 8.67 % in the 2013 proposed budget ( Federal Ministry of Finance 2012 ) . This is contrary to UNESCO criterion of apportioning 26 % of the entire budget to instruction. Open schooling system as other practiced educational systems in Nigeria may meet deficient support sing the sort of authorities in Nigeria who are non willing to decently put in Education.
Poor Man power to manage the programme: In Nigeria learning profession is considered as the least occupation and is no longer pulling hardworking and gifted persons. Peoples prefer other moneymaking occupations where the wage bundle is attractive. Open schooling system would be confronted with the crisis of unequal adult male power, because cipher will be willing to remain in a system where the earning may non be attractive, merely those with no option or who term instruction to be as their stepping rock will accept to go teachers/facilitators in the programme.
Problem of acknowledgment: Another job that is likely to face the Open schooling system in Nigeria is the issue of acknowledgment. Many sectors may non recognize their merchandises and this will present a challenge to them at the labor market. Some establishments will besides doubt the credibleness of their certifications, as the instance with the alumnuss of National Open University of Nigeria. In fact some establishments do n’t recognised certifications of Open University for admittance while some universities discourage their staff from go toing such classs.
Based on the observed awaited barriers that may impede the success of the proposed unfastened schools in Nigeria, this paper itemised some recommendations that could function as a manner out
For unfastened schools to win in Nigeria, certain steps need to be taken peculiarly in naming those that will defend the execution of the programme. Government must take believable, honest and sincere people whose characters are non questionable. This will assist in doing a solid foundation for the programme.
Government should ordain a jurisprudence sing unfastened schools as so to do it hard to be scrapped by any succeeding authorities.
The federal authorities should better the status of power supply through other agencies of power coevals such as ; solar system, wind Millss or an oil based power bring forthing Stationss.
Having entree to cyberspace has a batch of benefits, peculiarly to a programme like unfastened schooling system. It will better the research tendencies of the facilitators by updating them with the new thoughts in the universe, and it will besides ease acquisition among pupils. Therefore, authorities should do cyberspace accessible and low-cost to all unfastened schools.
Government should allow certain sum of money in her annual budget to all unfastened schools and besides seek for aid from International Organizations.
Apart from wages, extra inducements should be given to facilitators/teachers partaking in the programme so as to pull best encephalon and industrious staff.
Government should use alumnuss of the programme and entreaty with other administrations to make so in order to undertake the issue of acknowledgment.
There is no uncertainty that many developing states were able to cut down the rate of their out-of-school kids through the proviso of unfastened schooling system. If Nigeria were to be committed and dependably concentrate on set uping unfastened schools in different parts of the state, the high rate of their out-of -school kids will be reduced and their mark of supplying Education for All may be actualised, although the mark of doing it possible by 2015 is far from world, but it may be achieved in some old ages to come.