Anxiety can be caused in response to

February 24, 2019 Health

Anxiety disorders contain the major group of mental disorders, which is serious cause of disability, and
can lead to cost the society a great amount of money; one of the studies that has been estimated in
2010, results as 60 million of Europeans had experienced anxiety disorders and led to a cost of 74 billion
Anxiety is a normal emotion or feelings that can be uncomfortable such as worry or fear. It can be
caused in response to extreme or long period of stress and internal threat that can danger the patient’s
Literature Review

An estimated 40 million adults in the U.S., or 18%, have an anxiety disorder.*

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* Source: National Institute of Mental Health

Anxiety – the most common of all mental disorders – currently affects about one in 13


* Source: The University of Queensland, Australia

It is commonly ranked as mild, moderate, severe, or panic. It is believed that a mild
amount of anxiety is a normal part of the human being and that mild anxiety is
necessary to change and develop new ways of coping with stress. Anxiety is a reaction
to an internal threat, such as an unacceptable impulse or a repressed thought that is
straining to reach a conscious level or a real, threatened, or imagined threat to the
patient’s self-esteem. 

Psychoanalytical theory says that anxiety is a conflict between the id and the superego,
which was repressed in early development but which emerges again in adulthood
(Smeltzer and Bare, 2000). Biological theory looks at this situation differently. Biological
theories consider the sympathoadrenal responses to stress and observe the blood
vessels constrict because epinephrine and norepinephrine have been release (Smeltzer
and Bare, 2000). Blood pressure rises. If the body adapts to the stress, hormone levels

adjust to compensate for epinephrine-norepinephrine release, and the body functions
return to homeostasis(Smeltzer and Bare, 2000). If the body does not adapt to the
stress, the immune system is challenged, lymph nodes swell, and risk for physical illness
increases (Smeltzer and Bare, 2000).

Many researchers agree that gender role socialization begins at the time of an infant’s birth
(Haugh, Hoffman, ; Cowan, 1980; Honig, 1983). Most parents are extremely interested in learning
their newborn infant is a boy or a girl, and intentionally or not, this knowledge elicits in them a set of
expectations about sex role appropriate traits (Rubin, Provenzano, ; Luria, 1974). Empirical research
suggests that these initial expectations, which form the basis of gender schemas (Leone ; Robertson,
can have a powerful impact on parents’ perceptions of and behavior toward infants (Fagot, 1978; Lewis,
1972). Gender contributes to the initial context within which adults respond to an infant and may
become an
influential agent in the socializing process and the development of the child’s sense of self (Berndt ;
Stereotyped expectations may influence gender role socialization and the acquisition of sex-typed
behavior through a self-fulfilling prophecy process (Darley ; Fazio, 1980). Preconceived gender-based
expectations may cause the parent to elicit expected behavior from the infant and to reinforce expected
behavior when it occurs; this would confirm the parents’ initial expectations.


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