Aspects of Cross Cultural Communication;
1. Meaning and Origin of Cross Cultural Communication:
The Cold War, the United States economy was largely independent because the
world was diverged into two separate and challenging powers: the east and west.
However, changes and progressions in economic relationships, political systems,
and technological choices began to collapse old cultural barriers.
2. Interdisciplinary Orientation of Cross Cultural Communication:
Cross-cultural communication attempts to bring together such comparatively
unrelated areas as cultural anthropology and recognized areas of communication.
Its core is to form and understand how people from different cultures
communicate with each other. Its responsibility is to also produce some guiding
principle with which people from different cultures can better communicate with
each other.Cross-cultural communication, as in many scholarly fields, is a
combination of many other fields. These fields include anthropology, cultural
studies, psychology and communication.
3. Global Rise of Cross Cultural Communication:
Active communication with people of changed cultures is mainly
challenging. Cultures provide people with habits of thinking – habits of seeing,
hearing, and understanding the world. Thus the same words can mean different
things to people from different cultures, even when they talk the “same”
language. When the languages are different, and translation has to be used to
communicate, the possible for misunderstandings rises.
The study of cross-cultural communication is fast becoming a global research
area. As a result, cultural variances in the study of cross-cultural communication
can already be originate. For example, cross-cultural communication is usually
considered to fall within the larger field of communication studies in the US , but
it is developing as a sub-field of applied linguistics in the UK .
As the application of cross-cultural communication theory to foreign language
education is gradually appreciated everywhere in the world, cross-cultural
communication classes can be found within foreign language departments of
some universities, while other school are placing cross-cultural communication
programs in their departments of education.
4. Incorporation of Cross Cultural Communication into College Programs:
With the increasing forces and prospects of globalization, the
incorporation of international networking associations has become an “essential
mechanism for the internationalization of higher education”. In general,
university techniques circle around four major dimensions which include:
organizational change, curriculum invention, staff development, and student
Ellingboe stressses these four major dimensions with his own specifications for
the international progression.
His specifications contain:
(a) College leadership;
(b) Faculty members’ international involvement in activities with colleagues,
research sites, and institutions worldwide
(c) The availability, affordability accessibility, and transferability of study abroad
programs for students
(d) The presence and integration of international students, scholars, and visiting
faculty into campus life and
(e) International co-curricular units (residence halls, conference planning centers,
student unions, career centers, cultural immersion and language houses,
student activities, and student organizations).
The main theories for cross-cultural communication are constructed on the work
done looking at value differences between different cultures, especially the works
of Edward T. Hall, Richard D. Lewis, Geert Hofstede, and Fons Trompenaars.
Clifford Geertz was also a contributor to this field. Also Jussi V. Koivisto’s model
on cultural crossing in internationally operating organisations expands from this
base of research.
These theories have been applied to a variety of different communication
theories and settings, including general business and management (Fons
Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner) and marketing (Marieke de Mooij,
Stephan Dahl). There have also been several successful educational projects
which concentrate on the practical applications of these theories in cross-cultural
Cross-cultural management is increasingly seen as a system of knowledge
management. Cross cultural communication gives chances to share ideas,
experiences, and different perceptions and insight by interacting with local
5. Aspects of Cross Cultural Communication:
There are several factors that may be supposed differently by people of
These may contain:
i. Perception of Time:
In some countries like China and Japan, punctuality is considered important and
being late would be considered as an slight. However, in countries such as those
of South America and the Middle East, being on time does not carry the same
sense of determination.
ii. Perception of Space:
The concept of “personal space” also differs from country to country. In certain
countries it is measured respectful to continue a distance while interacting.
However, in other countries, this is not so important.
iii. Non-verbal Communication:
Cultures may be either Low-context or High-context: Low-context cultures trust
more on content rather than on context. They give value to the written word
instead of oral statements. High-context cultures suppose information from
message context, instead of from content. They trust heavily on nonverbal signs
and favor indirectness, politeness & ambiguity.
All communication is cultural – It draws on ways we have learned to speak and
give nonverbal messages. We do not always communicate the same way from day
to day, since factors like context, individual personality, and mood interact with
the variation of cultural influences we have internalized that influence our
Communication is interactive, so an important influence on its success is our
relationship with others. Do they hear and understand what we are trying to say?
Are they listening well? Are we listening well in response? Do their responses
show that they understand the words and the meanings behind the words we
have chosen? Is the mood positive and receptive?Is there trust between them
and us? Are there differences that relate to ineffective communication, divergent
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