Q. 1. Discourse the attitudes of ancient Greece and China toward the person in society. See the different functions of people in each society. What kinds of extra paperss would you necessitate to measure the affects of these attitudes on society? Religion played a large portion and of import function in the lives of the persons within the Grecian society. Harmonizing to Hamilton the Greeks had really created their Gods that represents the human image. These Gods represented all human worlds that they went through in day-to-day footing in all aspects of life. Every age group had a God that represented the issues that they were confronting right from birth to decease that shaped the heads and behaviours as they grow up and go through through all phases of life. For the Greeks, religion encompassed and directed all their idea forms and life styles, art, instruction, moral values and public issues ( Document 1 ) .
Therefore, the manner an single behaved in the society was all tied up with religion. Individual ‘s ideas and behaviour in the society was to be directed by the Gods. The person in the Grecian society was challenged by the Gods and the Torahs of the state to populate a virtuous life. The Torahs of the state regulated the behaviour of an single to populate harmonizing a offense life, while religion challenged an single to populate a moral life style. Every organic structure was obliged to stay and subject under the authorization of the King. Therefore, every one in the society was to be governed by the regulations of the land and godly authorization in all aspects of their relationships. White claims that morality was a paramount factor in the ancient Greece.
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Morality and jurisprudence frequently went manus by manus. And single ‘s character, thought forms and life style had to reflect by moral values. The early Grecian philosophers emphasized the construct of virtuousness as every person was obliged to populate a virtuous life. However, this accent frequently produced struggle within an person ‘s thought and behaviour ( White 69 ) . Populating a virtuous life was seen as the precursor for person ‘s well being and felicity ( White 74 ) . By and big, staying by the ethical regulations of the society was considered as being godly because the Greeks ethical values were derived from the Gods. Therefore, each and every person was obliged to populate a godly by following the moral values and Torahs of the land. Furthermore, following the ancient moralss was non a affair of duty, responsibility or regulations, but it was equated with goodness and worth ( White82 ) .
Every person was a member of a certain metropolis or a citizen was hence obliged to obey the Torahs of authorization that metropolis. The citizens were to act and move harmonizing to the regulations of the authorization even if struggles with their personal involvements or single beliefs. These struggles frequently led to wars metropoliss as apparent in papers 2 whereby Theseus organizes rebellion against the dwellers of Attica. He promised his protagonists that he would give them greater freedom from the powers of the male monarch and offer them a commonwealth metropolis. In other words, they live a life that does non include excessively many regulations and duties ( Dryden 12 ) . The ancient Greeks argued that when persons are non restricted by authoritiess so the persons would be able to bask more freedom and live an ordinary life style with non intervention ( document 4 ) . The sort of democracy practiced in Athens really provided many persons with tonss of freedom, but merely to move harmonizing to unwritten Torahs ( Harris1 ) .
Merely as it was in ancient Greece, faith excessively played an of import function in the formation and development of ancient China. Religion was practiced even among the Chinese even as early the clip of the Shang Dynasty between 2256-2000 BC ( Singer land 248 ) . Every person was obliged to idolize these Gods and particularly that God called Ti as portion of their life style in the society. Those who did non idolize these divinities or indulged in incorrect workss were punished and those who did good were rewarded. In the ancient Chinese societies, there was clear line between the authorization and topics, persons were to act consequently. The higher-ups exercised power over the inferiors and that how the society needs to run ( document 5 ) . The Chinese emphasized the demand for household worship off of linking the persons with their ascendants.
One of the most celebrated Chinese personalities who have contributed to the Chinese ways of thought is Confucius. He was born at clip when there was a diminution of Chou dynasty around 551BC, when moral values are eroded. Confucius discovered that people “ around him in the society had the true Way because of its compulsion with outwardnesss ” ( Slingerland xxiii ) . Confucius believed that person ‘s moral qualities, good repute and societal award can merely come if they devote their lives to the Way of Eden ( Singerland xxiii ) .
Both the swayers and the topics are obliged to follow spiritual religion and detect moral values which exemplify their religion depending on one ‘s faith Taoism, Confucius or Buddhism ( document 7 ) . These means that spiritual religion played an of import in determining persons ‘ life style and societal values ancient China. Priests played an of import function of interceding between human existences and the Gods ( singerland xxiii ) . He used his political place and philosophical thought to resuscitate the scoured moral values that were in diminution at the clip. This made him to hold many followings as the Chinese sought to travel back to following faith.
Q2. Cities were an of import portion of the spread outing universe trade in the period 600 to 1450. Discourse the major similarities and differences between Timbuktu and Baghdad affecting their economic every bit good as non-economic features.
Timbuktu is one of the oldest towns in Africa. It really situated in Mali West Africa which is portion of the Sahara Desert. It started as trading centre founded by merchandisers from Djenne who descended here to interchange assorted goods back in the eleventh Century. These merchandisers besides erected lasting edifices and used the centre as their meeting topographic point and topographic point of feeding their camels after a long desert journey ( Spielvogel 254 )
By 12 century this town was already inhabited and established as a major trading path of the celebrated tran-saharan trade. This town flourished with the enlargement of Malian Empire and tran-saharan trade in 13th century which incorporated the exchange of slaves, salt, tusk and gold. Due to the thriving concern in the country, assorted tribal groups contended for it until the fifteenth century when it was eventually captured by the Tuaregs. It continued to spread out farther under the Tuaregs making the Songhai Empire ( Spielvogel 256 )
More significantly, Timbuktu was a major trading Centre that connected the North Africa with the Sub-Saharan Africa and Middle East. It besides offered many bargainers freedom to merchandise their goods as they meet with different sorts of people. Unfortunately, its diminution was brought by internal wars and struggles. It was captured by the Moroccan swayers followed by other invasions from and eventually the colonial business by the Gallic killed it wholly ( Spielvogel 280 )
Baghdad is besides one of the oldest metropoliss in the universe. It is sandwiched between River Tigris and Euphrates in the present twenty-four hours Iraq. It was founded in 762 A.D Caliphate capital of the major Muslim group. Traditionally, it was chosen because of its fertile land due its geographical location situated along two of import rivers in universe history. Originally, Baghdad was non created as a commercial but as a brooding topographic point of Caliph Abu Jafar Al Mansur ( Spielvogel 340 ) . He used it an official Centre for his disposal and military station. However, with clip, the metropolis began to spread out with the debut of a mosque which attracted many colonists. With clip, the economic system of bahdad begun to turn as a major trading path fall ining other metropoliss in the Middle East due to the demands of goods and services. Many bargainers besides used these two of import Rivers to transport their goods and services to different parts of Middle East ( Spielvogel 2 90 )
Both town towns started from a low background as a Centre puting topographic point turning to a major trading path. They all become of import centres for trades in their several parts.
Both towns become centres for Islamic scholarships whereby assorted Muslim bookmans came to analyze Islam. Timbuktu became a centre for Islamic scholarship between the old ages 13th to seventeenth Century, following the debut of Arabic linguistic communication and Islamic faith in the eleventh century.
Timbuktu relied much on the desert trade paths for its success and development, where as Bagdad relied on the Waterss ways for commercial trade.