Augustus Essay, Research Paper
Octavian Augustus ( 63 B.C 14 A.D ) is known as the first, and one of the greatest Roman emperors of our clip. Octavian enables the long, peaceable clip of the Pax Romona by altering Rome from its fragile province, to one of the most powerful imperiums. At this clip, Rome is utilizing the method of a republican authorities, but Augustus comes up with an wholly new method of regulating the imperium. This relies on the traditional ways of political relations, which his granduncle Caesar ignored. Octavian s authorities is strong plenty to defy weak emperors who mismanage the Empire. In the words of biographer Fergus Millar, His alterations proved to be the basis of the greatest imperium the universe has of all time seen ( Millar 17 ) . Augustus becomes such a successful emperor due to his intelligence, bravery, and finding, every bit good as the ground forces he creates, and the fact that he realizes the importance of the traditional republican signifiers of authorities. He was both a apogee of the old order, last of the mighty generals, and the beginning of something wholly new ( Scarre 16 ) . Because of this, Augustus succeeds in an about impossible undertaking, and manages to be the greatest emperor of Rome, every bit good as the first.
The wisdom and personality of Augustus helps him derive his popularity with the people. He was remarkably fine-looking and extremely graceful at all periods of his life, though he cared nil for personal adorement. He was so far from being peculiar about the dressing of his hair, that he would hold several Barbers working at the same clip, and as for his face fungus he now had it clipped and so shaved, while at the really same clip he would either be reading or composing something. He is greatly involved with the humanistic disciplines, and literature, and contributed a batch to the Roman civilization. One of his architectural parts is the Temple of Mars. He promised to do this offering to the Gods one time he tracks down his great-uncle s liquidators. When the temple is finished, Augustus uses the temple as his military central office. After all, Mars is the God of war. The temple besides serves as a public meeting topographic point in the centre of Rome. Here the people of Rome can shop and dish the dirt while they besides admire their emperor s generousness. Augustus generousness is besides seen through his love for the game of die. He frequently provided his invitees with the money to put stakes ( Clarke 13 ) . Augustus is besides really tolerant of unfavorable judgment. Many criticize Augustus as he attempts to convey back the old manner of authorities. But, without his forbearance and tolerance, he would non be able to win as an emperor of such a big imperium.
Chris Scarre, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors ( London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1995 ) 16.
He besides has a good sense of temper, and a liking for phrases such as quicker than you can cook an Asparagus officinales ( Clarke 29 ) . Unlike following emperors, such as Tiberius, Augustus on a regular basis attends senate meetings, every bit good as societal assemblages. Augustus has set a theoretical account for many shortly to follow emperors such as Titus. One of the keys to his success is to win the popularlity of the people. He did this by hosting games, and societal events. Besides, on juncture, Augustus distributes gifts to the people of Rome. He besides has a fancy for authorship. Harmonizing to Daniel Cohen, We know that he wrote an autobiography in 13 volumes, taking his life narrative up to the times of the Cantabrian War ( 26-25 B.C ) , but nil of it has survived ( Cohen 23 ) . Because of his wisdom and cognition, and his parts to society and civilization, Augustus was able to be a well- complete emperor.
Augustus has no desire for military glorification, although he wishes
to stabilise Rome, after many old ages of civil wars. So, he creates the official boundary lines of the imperium, and so reduces the size of the ground forces. With the ground forces non every bit big as it one time was, Rome is non as intimidating. The intent is to set an terminal to the combat, alternatively of making more wars. So, Augustus creates a lasting and professional ground forces, which is ever ready for action. Since the Roman imperium is so big, it needs excess military personnels incase of surprise onslaughts. Traditionally, these excess military personnels were sent place when they are non needed. Augustus realizes that this is inefficient and unsafe. It s inefficient because all of the preparation is put to blow one time they are dismissed ; and it is unsafe because these work forces have military preparation and are armed. Therefore they could merely as easy attack the Romans as defend their imperium. Augustus military success can be seen in the conflict between him and Marc Antony. Antony s eastern expedition fails when he is defeated by Augustus. Much of Augustus military cognition comes from his granduncle, Julius Caesar. Once Caesar becomes the master of the first triumvirate, he goes on to suppress the Asia Minor. When he arrives from his triumph, he says the three celebrated words which sums up his triumph, Veni, Vidi, Vici. Which is Latin for I came, I saw, I conquered ( Charlesworth 56 ) .
Traditionally, Rome is ruled by two consuls, together with representatives of the ordinary people. The consuls are elected each twelvemonth from the senate a system intentionally designed to halt one adult male from going excessively powerful. Julius Caesar has ignored this system. Augustus, nevertheless prefers the old ways which wins him the support of many of his granduncle s enemies. But Augustus remembers the fact that Caesar is assassinated because of the sum of power he had. So by 31 B.C, Augustus resigns. Four old ages subsequently, faced by war and famishment, the Senate chosens Augustus as Consul for life. Although this went against all of Rome s traditions of authorities, the Romans recognize merely how much they need his wisdom and political accomplishments. This exemplifies the importance and position that Augustus holds. Unlike Caesar who had 900 members in the senate, Augustus reduces the figure down to 600 to guarantee that all senators who are present deserve their topographic point in the senate. He receives the name Augustus, a word significance sacred or revered. This became the rubric used by all ulterior emperors. Augustus preferred the term Princeps or first citizen, although he retained the rubric Imperator to underscore his place as supreme commanding officer.
Augustus is non merely the first emperor of Rome, but the greatest. He created a vision A new Rome with the virtuousnesss of the old ( Cohen 54 ) . He brings Rome from changeless civil wars into the Golden age of Rome, known as Pax Romana. Pax Romana didn Ts end when he died, it continued many old ages to come. The construction which Augustus physique is so strong, that it is able to last through weak emperors such as Caligula and Nero. Octavian successfully turns himself into an emperor without enduring the destiny of his granduncle Caesar. He controlled the ground forces, and was able to delight the people of Rome. Once he was in a place of power, he changed the authorities non merely to profit himself, but besides to profit the Empire.
M.P Charlesworth, The Roman Empire ( New York: Oxford University Press ) 66.
Augustus is besides so influential that finally, most Romans did non mind that they were no longer a democracy. But like every imperium, earlier or subsequently the great Roman Empire would fall every bit good. But none of the imperiums will compare to impact Rome has left us the Rome which Augustus created.