Budget Formulation and Implementation in Zambia Essay

September 4, 2017 Management

What jobs would the curate of finance brush in the procedure of budget preparation and execution in Zambia?

The national one-year budget is a papers incorporating assorted authorities activities or work programmes expressed in pecuniary signifier. Therefore. the budget is an of import economic policy tool for macroeconomic direction and resource allotment. It provides a comprehensive statement of the nation’s economic precedences.

Consequently. the budget preparation procedure has four major dimensions viz. ( I ) Puting up the financial marks and the degree of outgos compatible with these marks. This is the aim of fixing the macro-economic model. ( two ) ?Formulating outgo policies.

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( three ) ?Allocating resources in conformance with both policies and financial marks. This is the chief aim of the nucleus procedures of budget readying. ( four ) ?Addressing operational efficiency and public presentation issues.

In Zambia the Minister of Finance spearheads the procedure of budget preparation and execution. There are a figure of jobs which the Minister of Finance brushs in the procedure of budget preparation and execution. To understand these jobs better. the procedure of budget preparation every bit good as execution is hereby briefly explained followed by high spots of the jobs the budget procedure undergoes.

I. Budget preparation ( Drafting ) Phase

The initial phase in the budget procedure is the drafting of the budget. Through this procedure. the Ministry of Finance ( MoF ) develops a national budget every twelvemonth. Normally. the drafting of the budget goes through the phases set out hereunder.

( a ) Preparation of a Consultation ( Concept ) Paper for Cabinet ( B ) Update of the Macro-Fiscal Framework for the Forthcoming three old ages and Draft Green Paper ( degree Celsius ) Cabinet Approval of the Green Paper and Dissemination of Budget Guidelines ( Call Circular ) ( vitamin D ) Budget Hearings on the Draft Budget Estimates of MPSAs

( vitamin E ) Cabinet Approval of the Draft Budget and Budget Speech

two. Enactment or Authorisation Stage

The 2nd phase of the budget procedure is the passage of the national budget. This starts from the point when the Minister responsible for finance nowadayss the budget statement to Parliament. The Fundamental law of the Republic of Zambia mandates the Minister of Finance to show the budget to Parliament.

three. Execution or Implementation phase

After the passage of the budget. the President marks a General Warrant empowering commanding officers in the budget units to get down implementing the budget. In order to supply for activities that are unanticipated. the Fundamental law of Zambia provides for auxiliary outgo

four. Accountability ( Audit phase )

The Audit is the last phase of the budget procedure. Section 10 ( 2 ) of the Public Finance Act of 2004 empowers the Controller of Internal Audits to be responsible for the internal audit of every Ministry. section and statutory corporation. In add-on. the Government histories and fiscal statements were audited by an independent audit establishment viz. . the Auditor General. This procedure is usually followed by the presentation of the audit study to Parliament and its consideration by the Public Accounts Committee ( PAC ) .


( a ) Enactment of the Budget and Planning Law

The Minister of Finance would confront increasing force per unit area from resistance parties and civil society administrations in recommending for the passage of budget Act. The Budget Act is an of import piece of statute law needed to steer the budget procedure in Zambia. This piece of statute law will heighten the advisory procedure among the assorted stakeholders involved in the budget procedure. Wide audiences will heighten ownership. engagement and answerability of budget execution.

( B ) Reappraisal of the Legal Framework Regulating the Budget Process in Zambia Some legal commissariats on the budget are non in maintaining with the rules of transparence and answerability. In this respect. Article 117 ( 4 ) of the Constitution provides for Auxiliary Outgo. it does non explicate the type of activities that qualify for such outgo and as such is prone to mistreat. Ideally. auxiliary outgo is supposed to run into unanticipated outgo such as catastrophes. but this has non been the instance in the yesteryear. Some outgos incurred in the yesteryear which were treated as auxiliary were strictly as a consequence of hapless budgeting as they should hold been planned for.

( degree Celsius ) Inadequate Time for Consideration of the Budget
The clip required by Parliament to analyze and O.K. the budget is limited. Limited clip coupled with unequal in-house expertness to supply proficient and indifferent advice on the budget to Members of Parliament adversely affects the quality of the arguments on the floor of the House.

( vitamin D ) Lack of Transparency
Again here the Minister of Finance would confront force per unit area from civil society from deficiency of transparence by the Ministry of Finance when pay outing financess. In other legal powers. the community would desire expenses by exposing relevant information on the notice board in several local countries for crystalline interest. Further. the Government would be expected to hasten turn overing out the execution of the Integrated Financial Management Information System ( IFMIS ) programme to other states and territories.

( vitamin E ) Improved Fiscal Management
The Government collects revenue enhancements on the footing that it will supply specific socio-economic benefits to the people. Therefore. misdirection of public resources which might be caused by corruptness. deficiency of willingness to contend corruptness. societal economic diminution and overall impairment in public service is a major job in implementing the budget. ( degree Fahrenheit ) The new budget rhythm

The budget rhythm is non needfully about holding it run from January. The budget rhythm should ever run its full class. In this instance. the danger remains that the budget execution procedure will be curtailed midstream to let for the beginning of another budget preparation procedure. It is possible that the budget devising procedure will better drastically on the period of execution but turn out a strong challenge on the preparation. The challenge will switch from execution bureaus to the exchequer to efficaciously pull off the procedure of implementing piece at the same clip explicating the budget for the undermentioned twelvemonth. In other words. there will be obvious oversights.

It is of import to cognize that the budget devising procedure normally takes longer in developing economic systems because of the assorted factors under consideration such those which are exogenic like donor support. public presentation of the cardinal industries like Cu. The preparation of the budget policy and resource projections by and large takes two to three months. This includes macro-economic reappraisals. How do you efficaciously reexamine these factors midstream ( when the other budget is still running ) ?

Then we have the other procedure of placing the chief activities and procedures for the new fiscal old ages. This includes resource projections and the budget model. Do we have capacity to do effectual and all embracing projections when we do non precisely cognize how the running undertakings will stop? In my position. it is really ambitious to do outgo and gross projections every bit good as puting up sectoral precedences and sector ceilings when some projections are still running. This procedure entirely takes several months. There is the extra challenge for publishing the budget bill of exchange to cabinet. inter-ministerial proficient commission reappraisals and concluding cabinet blessings before parliamentary commissions debate the budget. This procedure entirely is really ambitious.

Zambia is non a federal province. so. we besides have the challenge of integrating projections from other regional participants every bit good as local authoritiess. In other words. the exchequer will hold a batch of econometrics to make as this will intend doing a batch of premises in the budget devising procedure. This is all because while parliament is O.K.ing the budget for the undermentioned twelvemonth. the bing budget would still be in the current financial twelvemonth. There is therefore demand for extra capacity at the exchequer. In other words. force per unit area will travel off from the implementing bureaus to the exchequer. Therefore inefficiency and bureaucratism at the Ministry of Finance is a job the Minister of Finance would confront.

( g ) The demand for early determinations
Fixing the budget entails difficult picks. These can be made. at a cost. or avoided. at a far greater cost. It is of import that the necessary tradeoffs be made explicitly when explicating the budget. This will allow a smooth execution of precedence plans. and avoid interrupting plan direction during budget executing.

Political considerations. the turning away mechanisms mentioned below. and deficiency of needed information ( notably on go oning committednesss ) . frequently lead to proroguing these difficult picks until budget executing. The delay makes the picks harder. non easier. and the effect is a less efficient budget procedure. When grosss are overestimated and the impact of go oning committednesss is underestimated. crisp cuts must be made in outgo when put to deathing the budget. Overestimate of gross can come from proficient factors ( such as a bad assessment of the impact of a alteration in revenue enhancement policy or of increased revenue enhancement outgos ) . but frequently besides from the desire of ministries to include or keep in the budget an inordinate figure of plans. while understating troubles in financing them.

Similarly. while underestimate of outgos can come from unrealistic appraisals of the cost of unfunded liabilities ( e. g. benefits granted outside the budget ) or the impact of lasting duties. it can besides be a calculated maneuver to establish new plans. with the purpose of bespeaking increased appropriations during budget executing. It is of import non to presume that “technical”improvements can by themselves resolve institutional jobs of this nature.

An overoptimistic budget leads to accretion of payment arrears and clutters regulations for conformity. Clear signals on the sum of outgo compatible with fiscal restraints should be given to disbursement bureaus at the start of the budget readying procedure. As will be stressed repeatedly in this volume. it is possible to put to death severely a realistic budget. but impossible to put to death good an unrealistic budget. There are no satisfactory mechanisms to rectify the effects of an unrealistic budget during budget executing. Therefore. all-embracing appropriation “sequestering” leads to inefficiently scattering scarce resources among an inordinate figure of activities.

Selective hard currency rationing politicizes budget executing. and frequently substitutes supplier precedences for plan precedences. Selective appropriation sequestering combined with a mechanism to modulate committednesss partially avoids these jobs. but still creates troubles. since disbursement bureaus lack predictability and clip to set their plans and their committednesss. An ab initio higher. but more realistic. financial shortage mark is far preferred to an optimistic mark based on overestimated grosss. or underestimated existing outgo committednesss. which will take to payment holds and arrears.

( H ) The demand for a difficult restraint
Giving a difficult restraint to line ministries from the beginning of budget readying favors a displacement from a “needs” outlook to an handiness outlook. Annual budget readying must be framed within a sound macroeconomic model. and should be organized along the undermentioned lines: – A top-down attack. dwelling of: ( I ) specifying aggregative resources available for public disbursement ; ( two ) set uping sectoral disbursement bounds that fits authorities precedences ; and ( three ) doing these disbursement bounds known to line ministries ; -?A bottom-up attack. dwelling of explicating and bing sectoral disbursement plans within the sectoral disbursement bounds ; and – Reconciliation mechanisms. to bring forth a changeless overall outgo plan.

Although the procedure must be tailored to each state. it is by and large desirable to get down with the top-down attack. Execution of this attack is ever necessary for good budgeting. regardless of the clip period covered.

The Zambian national budget preparation and execution procedure passes through four phases viz. outlining. passage or mandate. execution and auditing. I have endovoured to labor on the jobs the Minister of Finance brushs in the preparation and execution of the budgeting procedure. These jobs are ; Enactment of the Budget and Planning Law. Review of the Legal Framework Regulating the Budget Process in Zambia. Inadequate Time for Consideration of the Budget. Lack of Transparency. Improved Fiscal Management. The new budget rhythm. The demand for early determinations and The demand for a difficult restraint


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