Citi Group Inc is one of the major American fiscal services company with Citi Financial as a trade name in Global Consumer Group ( GCG ) division runing in India. Citi Financial, India has a head count of 3000 fulltime employees. Although there were regional Human Resource for all the four parts North, East, South and West but HR Administration maps like Confirmations, Background Verification, Transfers and Relocations, etc were managed centrally from North which was besides the caput office. An employee is confirmed after six months of probation and after holding cleared the background confirmation study. Since the enlistings were regular, at an norm of 20 a month before recession hit the market, it was hard to treat all the verifications, may be because of unqualified resources, which had led to a immense backlog of 350 verifications. To work out this issue, a new experient resource was hired as a replacing to pull off all the current occupation duties and clear the backlog within a timeframe of 3-4 months.
Subject 1: Motivation
It is extremely de-motivating for a new employee to larn about the backlog he is expected to unclutter, which is non included in the occupation description. Every new employee feels out of topographic point for the first few hebdomads in the new administration irrespective of their past occupation experiences. Induction plays an of import function in familiarizing a new employee with the administration but it takes clip in happening and going a member of group or community, an employee feels comfy with. When the new Human Resource executive, Allen came to cognize about the backlog, it was extremely de-motivating for him every bit good. He expected support in-terms of apprehension of system and processes from his equal group but alternatively of back uping Allen, they started envying him as he was youngest in the HR section and besides because of his enriched yesteryear experience, he had received a nice remuneration-highest in his equal group. Allen had high degrees of enthusiasm and had dynamic attitude toward work due to which everyone in his equal group felt insecure and believed that supervisor will increase their work force per unit area besides to convey everyone at para, which was the chief ground for enviousness against him. Everybody in the equal group, which he felt he could be portion of, started to strategize to increase Allen ‘s work load so that he would underachieve and would non present his deliverables. And since he was besides new, he did non hold any other group with which he can portion and pass on the mental force per unit area and emphasis he was traveling through. As a ground of these issues, Allen felt more and more de-motivated and after a certain point, he lost his involvement towards work but he still kept working for the administration.
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Since every new employee who looks for a alteration from his old employment has already achieved the esteem demand as per Maslow ‘s content theory of Motivation ( 1943, 1954, 1971 ) as shown in figure 1, he following wants to accomplish ego realization province where he can develop to his full potency. Allen had besides already achieved physiological demands, safety demands, association and Esteem demands. Safety and association demands – his demands for nutrient, H2O, shelter, security, freedom for fright, menace from environment, fond regard, love, belongingness and fondness – were already being fulfilled as he was populating at his household house with his household and friends in the same metropolis. Esteem needs such as assurance, strength, accomplishment, independency, repute, acknowledgment, attending and grasp were achieved in the old administration and was endeavoring for ego realization where he can acquire self satisfaction.
To accomplish the ego realization demand, Allen decided to travel to a different administration, Citi Group. But when he joined Citi, he found that the backlog was assigned to him, he lost his involvement and was de-motivated and once more had to work on accomplishing esteem demands such as deriving back assurance after a unsmooth start, self-esteem, acknowledgment, attending and grasp. But since he had already fulfilled his regard demands in the old administration, it was non hard to derive back his assurance and self-pride.
Figure: Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs [ Adapted ] From: Dick, P and Ellis, S. ( 3 Ed. ) pg.85
And portion of esteem demands like attending, acknowledgment and grasp were achieved at the same time along with the ego realization because Allen was confident and had already achieved repute of a immature and dynamic employee within the new administration due to his attitude towards the undertakings assigned to him. He non merely finished his undertaking rapidly but besides improved the procedure of making it, which saved a batch of clip, duplicate of work, human attempt and his this attitude was besides appreciated by the top direction.
To derive back his motive, he had to work on Relatedness demands ( which includes association demands & A ; esteem demands ) and Growth demands ( which include esteem demands & A ; self realization ) at the same time. This arrested development hypothesis is described by Clayton Paul Alderfer in ERG Theory in 1972. The other demands viz. Existence needs including physiological and safety demands which are described earlier were already achieved and were non once more worked on and were non affected by the alteration in administration.
The motivational factor which helped in acting and uncluttering the backlog were involvement, accomplishment, acknowledgment, self development, construction, physical status and accomplishment. All these factors has helped in bettering the Allen ‘s attitude toward work and in developing the head frame that the work is interesting and is utile for administration every bit good as him and will add to his personal accomplishments. These factors have besides led to increase the productiveness of Allen.
Subsequently, a new HR executive, Joshua was hired merely a month after Allen was hired. Joshua was hired at higher wage than Allen, holding same occupation description and about same experience. This made Allen aware of unfairness state of affairs. As described in the Equity Theory, a procedure theory of work motive by J. Stacy Adams ( 1963, 1965 ) an employee restores back the unfairness by perceptual experience of unfairness, sing the tenseness, motive to decide and action to decide as shown in figure 2. Similarly Allen besides followed the same construct to reconstruct equity get downing with the perceptual experience of equity. He found that Joshua is paid more than him for the same occupation description and attempt. Then he experienced the tenseness by happening it unjust and felt annoyed by this unfairness. This led to motive to decide by working hard, uncluttering the backlogs within the timeframe and taking inaugural like proposing new procedures. Finally he expected that he will acquire the coveted consequence of addition in wage or higher degree of acknowledgment which could assist in reconstructing back equity.
Figure: Equity theory – insouciant ironss [ Adapted ] From: Huczynski, A and Buchanan, D ( 2007 ) Organizational Behaviour ( 5th Ed. ) . J Stacy Adams
The anticipation theory was non applicable in this state of affairs. Since Allen was certain that seting in attempts would increase his quality of work which is first degree of Vroom ‘s EIV theory, “ Anticipation ” but was besides certain that the acknowledgment in-terms of publicity will non be given which is 2nd degree of Vroom ‘s EIV theory, “ Instrumentality ” . As he was a new joinee to the administration, he was on probation period for following six months in which it was non practical to anticipate any wage hiking or publicity therefore he had to altruistically work towards self actualisation flat i.e. , “ Valence ” as per Vroom ‘s EIV theory.
More authorization should be given to Allen so that he can acquire more liberty in determination devising to better and streamline the procedure which will finally assist in increasing his productiveness.
Allen ‘s immediate supervisor should follow Job Enrichment ( two factor theory of actuating ) theory developed by Fredrick Herzberg ( 1966, 1968 ) , which explains the two sets of factors which are incentive and hygiene factors.
Allen ‘s supervisor should associate actuating factor like growing and promotion to uncluttering the backlog and supply hygiene factors such as good working environment, support from the section and increased wage. The motivation factors will assist Allen with his increased involvement in work, productiveness, efficiency while hygiene factors will guarantee that he is acquiring support from his supervisor every bit good as section such as taking clearance from Human Resource Head for the verification instance which has some disagreement that could non be solved. And this will do Allen experience motivated toward executing his undertaking of uncluttering the backlog and may acquire rewarded after completion.
It can be ascertained from figure 3 that which all factors will give more occupation satisfaction to Allen than others.
Figure: Factors that lead to occupation satisfaction and dissatisfaction Richbell, S. ( 2010 ) Motivation, The Management School, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield
Subject 2: Leadership
Leadership is defined as an influencing procedure aimed at end accomplishment by a research worker, Ralph Stogdill in 1950.
While working on the verifications procedure Allen found some defects in the procedure which led to backlog and was uneffective. He suggested a new and improved procedure which would assist in salvaging clip and human attempt and was more systematic and methodological than the old procedure. He discussed this procedure with his supervisor and thought that his supervisor will admit his individualism and originality and will assist in implementing the new procedure. But his supervisor was discerning and did non O.K. the procedure. This was autocratic or bossy manner of managerial leading because his foreman did non desire any alteration in the system and therefore did non O.K. it right off without any duologue with all the squad members and any higher governments.
For execution of every procedure, sign-off of the caput of sections who are benefited by that procedure is required. For the execution of new verification procedure the blessing from all degree of hierarchy showed in figure 4 was required.
Figure: Hierarchy from which sign-off was required for implementing new procedure
Allen was under a batch of force per unit area by his supervisor to unclutter the backlog at the earliest but he was non assisting him in any manner. Whenever Allen ‘s supervisor faced any job, he merely used to take determinations on his ain but ne’er discussed the issue with his squad. His squad members were besides frustrated because he merely announces the determination to his squad members and expected them to set it into pattern ( Workplace Communication, Business Communication Quarterly, 68 ( 4 ) . Pg.439 ) . This is one of the attacks of four chief leading manner of Continuum of leading behavior theory known as Tells. Other three attacks of this theory are Sells, Consults and Joins but were non a feature of Allen ‘s supervisor.
Allen took enterprise and discussed his new procedure with the human resource caput. At that peculiar state of affairs Allen showed leading and this is explained by Tannenbaum and Schmidt as forces in the subsidiary. As per the theory, Allen wanted independency and duty for determination devising and had apprehension of end of the administration and possesses the accomplishments and experience required to cover with it.
It took clip to convert higher direction as Allen ‘s immediate supervisor was non really supportive for the alteration in procedure and this led to the higher authorization to rethink over Allen ‘ s suggestion to look into its effectivity, smooth functionality and consequence on other bing procedures. And it took clip for Allen excessively to construct his resonance in-front of Head of assorted other sections to acquire his work done. But all these caputs helped by supplying sign-off over the disagreement highlighted in verification of the employee of their section and HR caput besides helped by giving sign-off from his side and supplying blessing of Managing Director for implementing the streamlined procedure.
Finally the backlog was cleared within the continuance of five months and Allen ‘s place was confirmed after finishing his probation period of six months and for his attempt, he received reward in-terms of wage hiking which brought him at para with Joshua and increased acknowledgment with extra duties. This wages was given to him because of the leading quality he had shown for implementing the new procedure and the ego motive he maintained during the times when he lacked support.
Good leading involves effectual procedure of deputation ( Mullins, 2007, pg.363 ) .
Allen ‘s supervisor has acted like a director with no leading skills. He has adopted impersonal or inactive attitude toward uncluttering the backlog but was non at all active towards accomplishing it. He was supposed to organize with the HR caput and other caputs of the section to take the sign-offs but he did non assist. If he was a good leader, he could hold asked for new procedure that would do the undertaking easier and would assist in forestalling creative activity of farther backlogs. He maintained low degree of emotional engagement with his squad due to which squad members started non to anticipate any attending from him.
Leadership grid was developed by Blake and Mouton and was published as Managerial Grid in 1964 and was republished in 1991 as the Leadership Grid as shown in figure 5.
The destitute director ( 1,1 evaluation ) , since director at this evaluation has low concern for production and people, Allen ‘s supervisor does n’t fall in this grid
The state nine director ( 1,9 evaluation ) , director at this evaluation has low concern for production but high concern for people, Allen ‘s supervisor does n’t fall in this grid
The centrist director ( 5,5 evaluation ) , director at this evaluation has moderate concern for production and people, hence, Allen ‘s supervisor does n’t fall in this grid because he was more concerned sing deliverables
The squad director ( 9,9 evaluation ) , directors at this evaluations has high concern for production and high concern for people, hence, Allen ‘s supervisor does n’t fall in this grid because he was non concerned for his squad members
The authority-compliance director ( 9, 1 evaluation ) , Allen ‘s Supervisor falls under this grid because he was more concerned toward production and less concerned for people. He manages staff merely to acquire the work done and ne’er helped staff to do their undertaking easy. He did non assist Allen in streamlining the procedure which will do his undertaking easier but kept coercing him to unclutter the backlog every bit shortly as possible.
Low Concern for People High
Low Concern for consequences High
Figure: The Leadership Grid
Allen ‘s supervisor should besides concentrate on the squad members and how to better their efficiency. He should besides back up the new thoughts and invention introduced by his squad members to better the procedure which are more robust and effectual than the one already in topographic point.
In the work state of affairs it has become progressively clear that directors can no longer rely entirely on the usage of their place in the hierarchal construction as a agency of exerting the maps of leading. In order to acquire the best consequences from subordinates the director must besides hold respect for the demand to promote high morale, a spirit of engagement and co-operation, and a willingness to work. ( Mullins, 2007, pg.371 )
Organizational behavior involves multi degree survey of external environment, and internal construction, operation of and public presentation of administration, and the behavior of groups and persons ( Buchanan et. al. , 2007, pg. 26 ) . It helps in understanding and decoding the position of a individual and the behavior he adopt in assorted state of affairss.
In this instance the administration behavior has helped in minimizing the development of Allen ‘s behavior in a state of affairs where he was extremely de-motivated, had no support from his equal group and had to execute under a supervisor who has bossy & A ; autocratic manner of leading. But still he managed to execute good due to his ego motive and ability to take enterprise.