Case Study of Wage and Salary Administration Essay

Abnormal psychology

I. Important Concepts

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II. Classs
III. Incidence
IV. Models to Explain

Important Concepts

Abnormal psychology Defined

Medical Student’s Syndrome




Abnormal psychology Defined

Means illness of the head.

There are many equivalent words:

Emotional DisorderCraziness

LunacyMental Illness

Mental DeviationNervous Disease

Mental AbnormalityPsychiatric Illness


Medical Student’s Syndrome

Medical student’s analyzing the bosom became sensitive to the sounds of their ain Black Marias.

We are analyzing the head.

Lashkar-e-taibas non acquire carried off analysing ourselves.

If you feel you have a serious job. there is a reding centre on campus.


There is no in agreement upon definition. but most consider:

Deviation from statistical norms.

Deviation from societal norms.

Maladaptiveness of behaviour.

Adversely effects single or society.

Problems: Who is the justice?

Personal hurt.

Problem: In many instances of abnormalcy there is no hurt.

Social Norms



Cryingfuneralgrocery shop


Nervousnessbefore surgerybefore brushing dentitions

Problem – Social norms differ from society to society & amp ; can alter over clip.


Is even more hard to specify. but most would hold on:

Efficient perceptual experience of world


Voluntary control of behaviour

Self-esteem & A ; credence

Ability to organize fond relationships



Sing the trouble in separating normal from unnatural. categorising & A ; naming the different types of abnormalcies can be hard.

The APA presently uses the DSM-IV ( Diagnostic & A ; Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4-th Ed ) .

Mental Disorder Catagories 1

A Sampling:

Disorders Evident in Infancy or Childhood – Exs. mental deceleration. ADHD. eating upsets.

1. Craze. Dementia. Amnestic. & A ; Other Cognitive Disorders

Functioning of encephalon is impaired.

Exs. encephalon harm. Alzheimer’s disease.

Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

Involve a individuality job.

Exs. memory loss. MPD.

Mental Disorder Catagories 2

Anxiety Disorders


Temper Disorders

Personality Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

Characterized by inordinate contemplation. badgering. edginess. apprehensiveness & A ;
fright about future uncertainnesss either based on existent or imagined events. which may impact both physical & A ; psychological wellness.


Generalized anxiety disorder

Panic upset



Posttraumatic stress disorder

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Characterized by durable anxiousness that is non focused on any one object or state of affairs. Those enduring from generalized anxiousness upset experience non-specific relentless fright and concern. & A ; become excessively concerned with mundane affairs.

Diagnosis of GAD is made when a individual has been overly worried about an mundane job for & gt ; 6 months.

Anxiety here is free drifting.

Most common anxiousness upset to impact older grownups.

Panic Disorder

Person suffers from panic onslaughts ( brief onslaughts of intense panic & A ; apprehensiveness. frequently marked by trembling. agitating. confusion. giddiness. sickness. and/or trouble take a breathing ) .

In add-on to panic onslaughts. a diagnosing of panic upset requires that the onslaughts have chronic effects: either concern over the attacks’ possible deductions. relentless fright of future onslaughts. or important alterations in behaviour related to the onslaughts.

33-50 % develop agoraphobia.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – PTSD

Consequences from a traumatic experience. Post-traumatic emphasis can ensue from an utmost state of affairs. such as combat. natural catastrophe. colza. surety state of affairss. kid maltreatment. intimidation or even a serious accident. It can besides ensue from chronic exposure to a terrible stressor.


Became widely excepted as a diagnostic class because of troubles experienced by Vietnam war veterans.

Obsessional Compulsive Disorder

Obsession – an thought you can non acquire out of your caput.

Compulsion – a behaviour you can non halt acting.

Washing. cleansing. & A ; look intoing are the most common.


Frequently accompany other upsets.

Anxiety here is specific.

Are 3 wide classs:


Fear anyplace where might be trapped or unable to have aid in an exigency.

Often accompanies panic upset.

Are normally really dependent people.

Is the most common & A ; the hardest to handle.

Social Phobias

Are insecure in societal state of affairss

Have a fright of abashing themselves.

Simple Phobias

Is a fright of an animate being. object or state of affairs.

Over 300 have been named. Exs.




Major Symptoms

Major Types


Schizophrenia Facts

Have trouble screening out the existent from unreal. in maintaining path of their ideas. & A ; reacting to the mundane events in life.

Involves personality decomposition & A ; a loss of contact with world.

This group occupies about half the beds in mental infirmaries.

Occurs every bit in work forces & A ; adult females. but tends to happen at an earlier age in work forces than adult females.

Typical age of oncoming is 15 – 35.

Schizophrenia: Major Symptoms

Disordered Thinking

Perturbations of Percept

Perturbations of Emotion

Communication Troubles

Bizarre Motor Behavior

Disordered Thinking

Autistic Thinking – Absorption in phantasy.

Prelogical Thinking – Thought procedures are crude & A ; uncomplete.

Delusions – False beliefs. Several types: Persecution. Grandeur. Reference. Control. & A ; Identity.

Perturbations of Percept

Attention & A ; Filtering – Seem to hold problem concentrating attending & A ; filtrating out irrelevant stimulations.

Louis Wain ( 1860-1939 ) – A celebrated carnal creative person. His drawings of a cat show his progressive impairment & A ; some upseting deformations of perceptual experience.

Hallucinations – False perceptual experiences. Are normally audile ( hear voices ) . but may besides be ocular or olfactory.

Perturbations of Emotion

Flattened emotions ( blunted affect ) .

Inappropriate emotions.

Communication Troubles

Echolalia – Repeating the last word or phrase spoken by another.

Neologisms – Made up words.

Word Salad – Words randomly thrown together.

Verbal Exhibitionism – A grandiose mode of address.

Bizarre Motor Behavior

Unusual Motions – May face or gesture in curious ways.

Catalepsy – Keeping a peculiar position for a long clip.

Waxy Flexibility – Posture can be molded.

Cataplexy – Loss of musculus tone.

Schizophrenia: Major Types

Paranoid ( ? 30-50 % ) – Symptoms: psychotic beliefs of persecution frequently with hallucinations.

Disorganized ( Silly ) – Symptoms: grossly disordered thought. emotions. & A ; communicating.

Catatonic ( rare ) – Symptoms: backdown & A ; catalepsy.

Undifferentiated ( or Simple ) – Symptoms: nil major. are seclusive. withdrawn. “peculiar” people.

Residual – Symptoms: have abated. but hallucinations & A ; level affect may stay.


The more closely related a individual is to a patient with schizophrenic disorder. the more likely that individual is to develop schizophrenic disorder ( Gottesman. 1991 ) .

Adopted kids with schizophrenic disorder are the most likely to hold diagnostic biological relations.

Temper Disorders




Bipolar Disorders

Mania – Is really rare by itself.

Depression Symptoms

Emotional – A temper of unhappiness & A ; anhedonia.

Cognitive – A negative ego image. hapless concentration. hopelessness.

Motivational – Tends to be inactive & A ; has trouble originating activities.

Physical – Fatigue. anorexia. sleep perturbations. Aches & A ; strivings.

Depression Facts

Can be a normal response.

If it’s experienced invariably for 2 hebdomads it’s normally considered unnatural.

More prevalent in females.

Most are of short continuance ( ? ? last & lt ; a month & A ; ? last & lt ; 3 ) .

Tends to repeat ( ? ? of the folks that experience it will see it once more ) .

Bipolar Disorders

Besides called Manic-Depression

Tempers tend to fluctuate on a rhythm with the extremes being passion & A ; depression.

Histories for ? 5-10 % of temper upsets.

Less than 1 % of the population has it ( & A ; every bit common in work forces & A ; adult females ) .

Compared to a depressive upset. it tends to happen at an earlier age & A ; has a stronger familial constituent.

Personality Disorders

Common Features

Antisocial Personality

Personality Disorders: Common Characteristics

Are immature & A ; inappropriate ways of covering with emphasis & A ; work outing jobs.

Defined by longstanding forms of maladaptive behaviour.

Typically get down in adolescence & A ; may go on throughout the lifetime.

Society ( instead than the person ) views the behaviours involved as maladaptive.

Develop easy ( i. e. . chronic oncoming ) .

Are hard to handle.

Antisocial Personality

Besides called Sociopath or Psychopath.

Is the most studied & A ; faithfully diagnosed.

Occurs 3x more frequently in work forces.

Have small sense of duty. morality. or concern for others.

Are good con-artists.

They show less empathy.

Surveies suggest they may hold an under-reactive NS ( e. g. . Lippert & A ; Senta. 1966 ) .

Incidence of Mental Illness

SAMHSA ( 08 ) – upsets by gender. age. & A ; race.

Tressler ( 94 ) – upset classs by gender.

Disorders by Category – 2005

Models to Explain Mental Illness

Medical – Stress biochemical & A ; familial factors.

Psychodynamic – Stress struggle. defence mechanisms.

Social Learning – Stress environmental eventualities. vicarious acquisition.

Humanist – Stress deficiency of unconditioned positive respect.

Sociocultural – Stress the function of the household. SES. cultural background.

Diathesis-Stress ( or Vulnerability-Stress ) – Stress the thought of a familial sensitivity combined with certain environmental stressors.



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