Case Study

May 25, 2018 General Studies

1. Fernando has a fracture above his left ear: Which bone or bones could be fractured? The bone that is fracture is the temporal bone. 2. Fernando has stitches in his left eyebrow. Which bone is beneath the eyebrow? The bone beneath the eyebrow is the frontal bone. 3. If the left side of Fernando’s face is scraped from the forehead to the chin, which bones are beneath those scrapes? The Frontal bone is beneath the forehead and the Temporal bone which connects to the lower jawbone is the one beneath the chin.

4. What are the bones that make up the nasal septum? The bones that make up the nasal septum are the Ethmoid and Vomer bones along with septal cartilage. 5. Fernando’s eyes were swollen shut. He could have had an orbital fracture. Which bones comprise the eye socket? The bones that comprise the eye socket are seven. Three of them are cranial bones (Frontal, Sphenoid, and Ethmoid) and the other four are facial bones (Zygomatic, Palatine, Lacrimal, and Maxillary bones). 6. Fernando has kyphosis (or humpback).

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What could be an explanation for this abnormality? Kyphosis or humpback is a condition of over-curvature (greater than 50 degrees) of the thoracic vertebrae right on the upper back, it can be a result of degenerative diseases such as arthritis, developmental problems, and osteoporosis with compression fractures of the vertebrae, and any kind of vertebrae trauma. It can definitively treat, there are three different treatments, such as Orthosis back braces, specialized physical therapy and surgery.

7. What effect does Fernando’s kyphosis have on the thoracic cage? The effects on the thoracic cage are: limitations in rib cage expansion and breathing difficulties can occur in more severe cases leading the rib cage to press against the lungs. 8. What are the components of the thoracic cage? The thoracic cage is a bony enclosure formed by the sternum, ribs and their cartilages, and the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae.

(Suprasternal notch, sternum: manubrium and body, xiphoid process, clavicle, clavicular notch, scapula, sternal angle, costal cartilage and intercostal space). 9. Fernando has a fracture of the left seventh and eighth ribs. To what structures do these ribs attach? The seventh rib attaches to the body of the sternum via costal cartilage, The eight rib attaches to the cartilage of the seventh pair of ribs and from there to the sternum via costal cartilage.

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