1 The states which comprised the land of Guatemala such as Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, were involved in “ political battles and civil war ” which were followed by economical and societal alterations. Some historiographers of Latin America consider that Cardinal American Independence was the effects of Mexican Independence. ( p.1 )
2 During the first two decennaries of the 19-th century the land of Guatemala had “ economical emphasis and societal disruption ” . 1810-1814- Creole confederacies and rebellions in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras but the authoritiess of Jose de Bustamante Guerra stopped theses motions. Cortezs of Cadiz worked out a new Fundamental law in 1812 which guaranteed more democratic freedoms but Bustamante did non like it and made everything to detain it. ( p.3 )
3 San Salvador became the largest metropolis in Central America
and Cadiz reforms gave the Salvadoran creoles an chance to hold a self-ruling liberty. ( p.4 )
4 In February 1821 there was a rebellion in Mexico organized by Iturbide in favour of independent monarchy ( Plan of Iguala ) .
All accepted independency from Spain but each of the states had its ain signifier of authorities. ( p.5 )
5 Great alterations in the economic system of Central America led to the undermentioned facts: Guatemala exported anil, Honduras and Nicaragua supplied agribusiness merchandises and farm animal. ( p.9 )
6 There was a great epidemic of cholera in Guatemala in 1837. ( p.17 )
1 Why was Central America divided into five autonomous provinces? What were the chief grounds?
2 What was the chief merchandise of Guatemalan export in 1871?
Analyzing the wake of Independence, I should state that there was a rise of national release motion in the in Cardinal American states. The conservative nobility with Iturbide at the caput wanted to salvage the former orders in the state. Although he and his followings could declare the formation of independent Mexico Empire on September 28, 1821, it was shortly ruined and the republican system with the Fundamental law was established.
Chapter II The Liberal Era. ( c. 1870-1930 )
1 The period from 1870 to 1930 bases for the integrating of Central America into the capitalist universe market by agencies of enlargement of its export.
2 Broad reforms were introduced by the Liberal revolution in 1871. Coffee export was the chief point of these reforms. ( p.41 ) Elevation of land monetary values in Costa Rica was caused by the development of java exports. One of the Liberal reforms was to sell a great figure of hectares of land to coffee-growers during 1871-1883. ( p.42 )
3 The adversities of broad absolutism influenced the life of working category. The most violent dictator was Cabrera ( 1898-1920 ) in Guatemala. In El Salvador the Liberal procedure led to adoption the Fundamental law 1886. The state of affairs there was instead stable without battles. ( p.61 ) In Costa Rica the Liberals lost the elections. The proprietors of banana plantations were taxed from 1909.
4 Strong differences which existed between the five democracies: Ecuador, Costa Rica and El Salvador were the most developed in economical and political facet than Honduras and Nicaragua.
The population denseness in El Salvador was the highest. The growing of java and banana production led to considerable migrations. ( p.38 )
5 Middle-class intellectuals had a great desire to do Restoration of the brotherhood of Cardinal American provinces but the dominant categories were against it. ( p.63 )
6 There were some programs for constructing an inter-oceanic canal in Panama and in Nicaragua but they failed. The United States were interested in constructing the canals. But the authorities of Panama did desire to give them command over the canal zone. Merely in 1903 the pact was negotiated by the United States and the Canal was opened in 1904.In Nicaragua the United States could tear the diplomatic dealingss between the two states and prehend the helter-skelter province of finance in Nicaragua and obtained the control over the imposts, bank and railroad of Nicaragua. ( p.64-66 )
Some critical inquiries:
1 What was the chief intent of constructing the inter-oceanic canal? What state played a important function in this affair?
The procedure of integrating of the Central America into the universe market was a hard one. It required house determinations and stable political state of affairs which could non be said about the above mentioned states. These states had a good plantations for turning bananas, java, baccy, lumber, cowss and other that is why they attracted the United States as the chief spouse in concern.
Chapter III Crisis and Conflict, 1930 to the Present
1 The constitution of the stable state depended on the economic links with the universe market by agencies of java exports. ( p.69 )
2 The economic growing was slowed by the political battle of oligarchy for control of the authorities. With the visual aspect of the java middle class and the urban in-between category the state of affairs in political life was instead stable but non democratic. ( p.69 )
3 The international economic crisis of 1929 influenced each of the five states otherwise. Furthermore, the effects of the Second World War reduced exports of java and bananas excessively. ( p.71 )
4 Central America was under the influence of the USA in the late 19-th century. ( p.70 ) The agricultural sector included: the banana industry, controlled by Northern American Capital, java industry which worked largely for exports and peasant economic system whose merchandises were sold in local markets. ( p.74-75 )
5 The military absolutisms provoked the crisis in oligarchy. The international clime which was caused by the licking of fascism in Europe made people to value local democratic experiences. As a consequence the internal societal forces which had experienced stagnancy and absolutism for so many old ages, now were ready to set up democratic construction in the state.
Many work stoppages took topographic point with this intent. ( p.82-85 )
6 The political alterations began in 1948. They aimed to broaden the political democracy. ( p.84-86 ) The terminal of the Second World War caused great alterations in the economic life of Central America. ( p.88 ) The modernisation of agribusiness of the provinces began with cotton when first modern agricultural endeavors appeared. ( p.91 ) The production of cane sugar and farm animal enemy export took the 2nd place in the procedure of development. ( p.93 )
7 The Cardinal American agribusiness had grown at a fastest beat what provided increasing in employment chances of the rural population and betterment of the life criterions in general. ( p.94 )
1 What new phase was marked in the economic life of the states of Central America after the Second World War? What other economic alterations in the post-war period took topographic point?
It is clear that such little states as El Salvador or Nicaragua had great troubles in to win national independency and to get the better of under-development. Besides War actions in Nicaragua pulled down the economic development. In August 1987 the presidents of the Central American provinces signed the Procedures for the Establishment of a Firm and enduring Peace in Central America. I think it was the right determination because for the economical development of any state it is really of import to hold stable political state of affairs.