Ch. 29 and 30 Progressivism

Ch. 29 and 30 Progressivism:

1) Muckrakers: Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public.

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2) Robert LaFollette: Progressive movement leader; debater; libertarian reforms; Wisconsin.

3) Hiram Johnson: Californian Republican governor of 1910, helped break the dominant grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad.

4) Frances Willard: temperance activist and womens rights leader.

5) Florence Kelley: National Consumers League founder; consumerism

6) The Jungle: Written by Upton Sinclair (a 26 year old socialist) and was published in 1906. The Jungle is a book that was intended to be socialist, but 8-9 pages of it was about the slaughter houses, which were

7) Initiative: The power or ability to begin or to follow through energetically with a plan or task; enterprise and determination. A beginning or introductory step; an opening move: took the initiative in trying to solve the problem.

8) Referendum: both gives voters rights to vote for legislation proposal by government officials.
9) Recall: Manufacturer ordering that previously sold products be returned to repair or replace a defective part or parts. In some cases, the government orders the manufacturer to issue a recall, particularly in the case of automobiles having possible safety hazards.

10) 16th Amendment: Income taxes authorized.

11)17th Amendment: US Senators to be elected by direct popular vote.

12)18th Amendment: Liquor prohibition amendment.

13) Elkins Act: outlawed rebates; railroads couldn??™t transport goods they owned. Elinate rebate.

14) Hepburn Act: stricter railroad control; expanded Interstate Commerce Commission powers

15) Meat Inspection Act: The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 created sanitary standards established for slaughterhouses and meat processing plants. This act made sure that meat was thoroughly inspected before reaching its consumers. The primary goals of the law are to prevent adulterated or misbranded livestock and products from being sold as food, and to ensure that meat and meat products (as well as poultry) are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements also apply to imported meat and poultry products, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards.

16) Pure Food and Drug Act: designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals. No mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs

17) Underwood Tariff: lowers Tariff.

18) Federal Reserve Act: control of bank. Is the act of Congress that created the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, which was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.

19) Clayton Anti Trust Act: Labor Union (not Trust)

20) Ballinger Pinchot Affair: a dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Achilles Ballinger that contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 Presidential Election and helped to define the U.S. conservation movement in the early 20th century.

21) New Nationalism: Roosevelt??™s campaign for social change.

22) New Freedom: Wilson??™s campaign for better economy.

23) 1912 Election (candidates, parties, platforms): Taft (R) No change.
Roosevelt (P) New Nationalism.
Wilson (D) New Freedom.

Ch. 30 and 31 World War 1

1) Pancho Villa: Mexican revolutionary whose assaults on American citizens and territory provoked a U.S. expedition into Mexico

2) John Pershing: Commander of American armies in Europe during World War I.

3) Lusitania: Large British passenger liner whose sinking in 1915 prompted some Americans to call for war against Germany

4) Sussex: Germanys carefully conditional agreement in 1916 not to sink passenger and merchant vessels without warning

5) Zimmermann Note: Secret German message to Mexico (intercepted by the US) which offered to return to Mexico the lands it lost in the Mexican-American War.

6) Kaiser Wilhelm: Autocratic ruler who symbolized ruthlessness and arrogance to many pro-Allied Americans

7) Charles Evans Hughes: Narrowly unsuccessful presidential candidate who tried to straddle both sides of the fence regarding American policy toward Germany
8) Conscription: Compulsory enrollment, especially for the armed forces; draft. A monetary payment exacted by a government in wartime.

9) George Creel: Head of the American propaganda agency that mobilized public opinion for WWI.

10) Committee on Public Information: Established by Woodrow Wilson and headed by George Creel, this was the Federal group that worked on producing and distributing pro-war propaganda to the US people.

11) Bernard Baruch: Head of the War Industries Board, which attempted to impose some order on the U.S. war production

12) War Industries Board: Weak federal agency designed to organize and coordinate U.S. industrial production for the war effort

13) Herbert Hoover: Head of the Food Administraiton who pioneered successful voluntary mobilization methods

14) Alice Paul: Leader of the pacifist National Womens Party who opposed U.S. involvement in WWI

15)19th Amendment: Giving nationwide suffrage to women.

16) Espionage and Sedition Acts: Espionage Act (1917) Law which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty during World War 1.
Sedition Act (1918) Added to Espionage Act, this act deemed “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language” about the American form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or the armed forces as criminal and worthy of prosecution– the reason why Eugene V. Debs was imprisoned.

17) Schneck vs. US: A legal case in which it was ruled that government can limit free speech if the speech provokes a “clear and present danger” of substantive evils.

18) Industrial Workers of the World: A labor union for industrial laborers, this group performed many acts of industrial sabotage in pursuit of its goals. Openly opposed the Great War.

19) Self determination: Southern leaders regarded secession as a golden opportunity to cast aside their generations of ???vassalage??? to the North. An independent Dixieland could develop its own banking and shipping and trade directly with Europe. The principles of self-determination-of the Declaration of Independence- seemed to many southerners to apply perfectly to them.

20) Fourteen Points: Wisons idealistic statement of American war aims in January 1918 that inspired the Allies and demoralized their enemies. A list of foreign policy goals which Woodrow Wilson hoped to achieve in the aftermath of World War I

21) League of Nations: The precursor to the United Nations, this was a proposed union of the world powers after World War I; the brainchild of Wilson, who fought tooth-and-nail for its passage.

22) Big Four: Name given to the four most important leaders in the post-World-War-I world: Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (French premier), David Lloyd George (British prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (Italian prime minister)

23) Treaty of Versailles: (1919) Treaty that ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitlers rise of power in Germany in 1930s.

24) Henry Cabot Lodge: Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations. He led the “reservationists” in Congress.

25) Irreconcilables: Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without amendments.

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