Characteristic of islamic management

Saidina Khalid Bin Al-Walid . His real name is Khalid bin al-Walid banal-Mughirah . He also has known as Mighty warrior . His father name is -Walid bin al-Mughirah bin Abdullah bin Umar bin Makhzum and his mother name is Lababah binti al-Harith. Khalid ibn al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah al-Makhzumi also known as Sayf Allah al-Maslul (Drawn Sword of God), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is noted for his military tactics and prowess, commanding the forces of Medina under Muhammad and the forces of his immediate successors of the Rashidun Caliphate; Abu Bakr and Umar ibn Khattab.

[1] It was under his military leadership that Arabia, for the first time in history, was united under a single political entity, the Caliphate. Commanding the forces of the nascent Islamic State, Khalid was victorious in over a hundred battles, against the forces of the Byzantine-Roman Empire, Sassanid-Persian Empire, and their allies, in addition to other Arab tribes. His strategic achievements include the conquest of Arabia, Persian Mesopotamia and Roman Syria within several years from 632 to 636.

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He is also remembered for his decisive victories at Yamamah, Ullais, and Firaz, and his tactical successes at Walaja and Yarmouk. [2] Khalid ibn al-Walid (Khalid son of al-Walid, lit. Immortal son of the Newborn) was from the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, from a clan that initially opposed Muhammad. He played a vital role in the Meccan victory at the Battle of Uhud against the Muslims. He converted to Islam, and joined Muhammad after the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah and participated in various expeditions for him, such as the Battle of Mu’tah.

It was the first battle between the Romans and the Muslims. Khalid ibn Al-Walid reported that the fighting was so intense, that he used nine swords, which broke in the battle. Khalid took over after Zayd ibn Haritha, then Jafar ibn Abi Talib, then Abdullah ibn Rawahah were killed. After Muhammad’s death, he played a key role in commanding Medinan forces for Abu Bakr in the Ridda wars, conquering central Arabia and subduing Arab tribes. He captured the Sassanid Arab client Kingdom of Al-Hirah, and defeated the Sassanid Persian forces during his conquest of Iraq (Mesopotamia).

He was later transferred to the western front to capture Roman Syria and the Byzantine Arab client state of the Ghassanids. Although Umar later relieved him of high command, he nevertheless remained the effective leader of the forces arrayed against the Byzantines during the early stages of the Byzantine–Arab Wars. Under his command, Damascus was captured in 634 and the key Arab victory against the Byzantine forces was achieved at the Battle of Yarmouk (636),which led to the conquest of the Bilad al-Sham (Levant).

In 638, at the zenith of his career, he was dismissed from military services. In 2013, the Syrian army destroyed Khalid ibn al Walid’s grave during their bombardment and siege of the rebel city of Homs. Khalid was born c. 592 in Mecca. His father was Walid ibn al-Mughira, the chief of the Banu Makhzum, a clan of the Arab tribe of Quraysh. Walid was known in Mecca by the title ofAl-Waheed – “the One”. Khalid’s mother was Lubaba al-Sughra bint Al-Harith, a paternal sister of Maymuna bint al-Harith.

Soon after his birth, in accordance with the traditions of the Quraysh, Khalid was sent to a Bedouin tribe in the desert, where a foster mother nursed him and brought him up in the clear, dry and unpolluted air of the desert. At the age of five or six, he returned to his parents in Mecca. During his childhood Khalid suffered a mild attack of smallpox, which he survived, but it left some pockmarks on his left cheek. The three leading clans of Quraysh at that time were Banu Hashim, Banu Abd-al-dar and Banu Makhzum, the latter clan being responsible for the matters of war.

As a member of the Makhzum clan, who were amongst the best horsemen in Arabia, Khalid learned to ride and use such weapons as the spear, the lance, the bow and the sword. The lance was said to be his favorite among the weapons. In youth he was admired as a renowned warrior and wrestler among the Quraysh. Khalid was a cousin of Umar, the future second Caliph, and they looked very similar. Both were very tall; Khalid had a well-built body with broad shoulders, and his beard appeared full and thick on his face Not much is known about Khalid during the early days of the preaching of Muhammad.

His father was known for his hostility against Muhammad. Following the migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, many battles were fought between the new Muslim community at Medina and the confederacy of the Quraysh. Khalid did not participate in the Battle of Badr the first battle fought between Muslims and Qurayshites but his brother Walid ibn Walid was caught and made a prisoner. Khalid and his elder brother Hasham ibn Walid went to Medina to ransom Walid, but soon after he was ransomed, Walid, amidst the journey back to Mecca, escaped and went back to Muhammad and converted to Islam.

Khalid’s leadership was instrumental in turning the tables and ensuring a Meccan victory during the Battle of Uhud(625). In 627 AD he was a part of Quraysh’s campaign against the Muslims, resulting in the Battle of the Trench, Khalid’s last battle against Muslims. A peace agreement of ten years was concluded between the Muslims and Quraysh of Mecca at the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah in 628. It has been recorded that Muhammad told Khalid’s brother, Walid bin Walid, that: “A man like Khalid, can’t keep himself away from Islam for long”.

Walid wrote letters to Khalid persuading him to convert. Khalid, who was not unduly drawn towards the idols of the Kaaba, decided to convert to Islam and is said to have shared this matter with his childhood friend Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl who opposed him. Khalid was threatened by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb with dire consequences, but was restrained by Ikrimah who is reported to have said: “Steady, O Abu Sufyan! Your anger may well lead me also to join Muhammad. Khalid is free to follow whatever religion he chooses”. In May 629, Khalid set out for Medina.

On the way he met ‘Amr ibn al-‘As and Uthman ibn Talha, who were also going to Medina to convert to Islam. They arrived at Medina on 31 May 629 and went to the house of Muhammad. Khalid was received by his elder brother Walid bin Walid and was first among the three men to enter Islam. THE LEADER CHARACTERISTIC i) Fearless After the death of Muhammad, many powerful Arab tribes broke away in open revolt against the rule of Medina. Caliph Abu Bakar sent his armies to counter the rebels and apostates. Khalid was one of Abu Bakr’s main advisers and an architect of the strategic planning of the Riddah wars.

He was given the command over the strongest Muslim army and was sent towards central Arabia, the most strategically sensitive area where the most powerful rebel tribes resided. The region was closest to the Muslim stronghold of Medina and was the greatest threat to the city. Khalid first set out for the rebel tribes of Tayy and Jalida, where Adi ibn Hatim a prominent companion of Muhammad, and a chieftain of the Tayy tribe arbitrated, and the tribes submitted to the Caliphate. In mid-September 632 AD, Khalid defeated Tulaiha, a main rebel leader who claimed prophethood as a means to draw support for himself.

Tulaiha’s power was crushed after his remaining followers were defeated at the Battle of Ghamra. Khalid next marched to Naqra and defeated the rebel tribe of Banu Saleem at the Battle of Naqra. The region was secured after the Battle of Zafar in October 632 with the defeat of a tribal mistress, Salma. Once the region around Medina, the Islamic capital, was recaptured, Khalid entered Nejd, a stronghold of the Banu Tamim tribes. Many of the clans hastened to visit Khalid and submit to the rule of the Caliphate. But the Banu Yarbu’ tribe, under Sheikh Malik ibn Nuwayrah, hung back.

Malik avoided direct contact with Khalid’s army and ordered his followers to scatter, and he and his family apparently moved away across the desert. He also collected taxes and sent his men to Medina to deliver them. Nevertheless, Malik was accused of rebelling against the state of Medina and charged for entering into an anti-Caliphate alliance with Sajjah, a self-proclaimed prophetess. Malik was arrested along with his clansmen, and asked by Khalid about his crimes. Upon hearing Malik’s response: “your master said this, your master said that” referring to Abu Bakr, Khalid declared Malik a rebel apostate and ordered his execution.

Abu Qatada Ansari, a companion of Muhammad, who accompanied Khalid from Medina was so shocked at Malik’s murder by Khalid that he immediately returned to Medina, and told Abu Bakr that he refused to serve under a commander who had killed a Muslim. The death of Malik and Khalid’s marrying of his wife Layla created controversy. Some officers of his army including Abu Qatadah believed that Khalid killed Malik to take his wife. After the pressure exerted by Umar Khalid’s cousin and one of Caliph Abu Bakr’s main advisors Abu Bakr called Khalid back to Medina to explain himself.

Although Khalid had declared Malik an apostate, in Medina, ‘Umar told Khalid: “You enemy of Allah! You killed a Muslim man and then leap upon his wife. By Allah, I will stone you”. Some have argued that Umar later dismissed him from army service over this. Khalid then crushed the most powerful threat to the nascent Islamic state of Medina: Musaylimah, a claimant to prophethood, who had already defeated two Muslim armies. In the third week of December 632, Khalid won a decisive victory against Musaylimah at the Battle of Yamama. Musaylimah died in the battle, and nearly all resistance from rebelling tribes collapsed.

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