Classification And Description Of Speech Sounds English Language Essay

August 7, 2017 English Language

Speech sounds are loosely divided into two classs, viz. , Vowels and Consonants. If we say the English word shoe, we realize that this word is made up of two sounds, one represented by the missive sh and the missive oe. When we produce the word represented the missive sh easy, we realize that during the production this sound, the air escapes through the oral cavity freely and we do non hear any clash. The sound that is represented by the missive sh in the word shoe is a consonant and the sound represented by the letters oe in the word shoe is Vowel. ( All sounds during the production of which we hear clash are consonants, but non all consonants are produced with clash ) . This will be discussed under the type of consonants in this chapter.

If we say the words she, shoe, shy, show, ship and cry, we will recognize that when we produce the sounds represented by the letters e, oe, y, ow, one and ou in these words, the air escapes through the oral cavity freely without any clash. All these sounds are hence vowels but each one of them sounds different organize the others. These sounds should hence be sub-classified. Similarly, if we say the words shoe, see, menagerie, and who, we will hear clash during production of the sounds represented by the letters sh, s, omega and wh. All the se sounds are therefore consonants. But one time once more we will see that each of them sounds different from the others. The sounds that are called consonants besides need to be sub-classified. In the chapter we will take up the categorization and description of consonants.

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To depict a harmonic sound, we need certain of import pieces of information. We need to cognize the undermentioned sing its production:

the air watercourse mechanism ;

the province of the glottis ;

the place of the soft-palate ;

the active articulator ;

the inactive articulator ;

the stenosis involved.

Let us discourse these in some item.

The air -stream mechanism: All English sounds ( vowels every bit good as consonants ) are produced with a pneumonic egressive air-stream mechanism, i.e. , lung-air pushed out.

The province of glottis ; Speech sounds can be classified voiceless or voiced, depending upon whether the vocal cords are broad apart and the glottis is broad unfastened ( voiceless ) or the vocal cords are kept slackly together and they vibrate ( voiced ) .

The place of the soft-palate ; Speech sounds can be classified as unwritten or rhinal, depending upon whether the soft-palate is raised so as to close off the rhinal transition of air ( unwritten ) or it is lowered to open the rhinal transition of air at the same time with an unwritten closing ( rhinal ) . Sounds can besides be nasalized.

And ( vitamin E ) The active and inactive articulators: Of the assorted articulations described, at least two are required for the production of any address sound ; some articulators move during the production of address sounds. These are termed active articulators. Certain other articulators remain inactive and the active articulators move in the way of these. These are termed inactive articulator. The lower tip and the lingua are the active articulators. The upper lip and the full roof of the oral cavity are the inactive articulators. It should be remembered, nevertheless, that the upper lip and the soft roof of the mouth are capable of independent motion ; but when either of these is one of the articulators involved in the production of a sound, it is ever the other articulator ( the lower lip in the instance of the upper lip and the dorsum of the lingua in the instance of the soft roof of the mouth ) that moves towards these. So the upper lip and the soft roof of the mouth are considered inactive articulators.

The stenosis involved: The term ‘stricture ‘ refers to the manner in which the transition of air is restricted by the assorted variety meats of address.

Let us analyze the assorted types of stenosiss in item.

Complete closing and sudden release: The stenosis may be one of complete closing, i.e. , the active articulators come into steadfast contact with each other, therefore forestalling the lung-air from get awaying through the oral cavity. Simultaneously there is a velic closing, i.e. , the soft roof of the mouth is raised, thereby closing off the rhinal transition of air. Thus the lung-air blocked in the oral cavity. When the unwritten closing is released, i.e. , when the active articulator is all of a sudden removed from the inactive articulator, the air escapes with a little explosive noise. “ Sounds produced with a stenosis of complete closing and sudden releases are called Plosive ” . The initial sounds in the English word pin, bin, Sn, blare, kin, and gun are stop consonants.

Complete closing and sudden release: If after barricading the unwritten and the rhinal transitions of air, the unwritten closing is removed easy, i.e. , if the active articulator is removed easy from the inactive articulator, alternatively of the explosive noise that is characteristic of plosive consonants, clash will be heard. “ Sounds that are produced with a stenosis of complete closing and decelerate release are called Affricates. ” The initial sounds in the English word mentum and jam are affricate consonants.

Complete unwritten closing: the active and inactive articulators are in steadfast contact with each other, thereby barricading off the unwritten transition of air wholly. But the soft roof of the mouth is lowered so that there is a velic gap, i.e. , the rhinal transition of air is opened. The lung-air will so get away through the anterior nariss freely. “ Sounds that are articulated with a stenosis of complete unwritten closing are called Nasal consonants ” . The concluding sounds in the English words amount, Sun, and Sung are some illustrations of rhinal consonants.

Intermittent closing: The soft roof of the mouth is raised, thereby closing off the rhinal transition of air. The active articulator work stoppages against the inactive articulator several times with the consequence that the air escapes between the active and inactive articulators intermittently. Such a stenosis is termed intermitted closing. Sounds that are articulated with a stenosis of intermittent closing are called shakes or rolled consonants. The missive R in English words like ruddy and ran is pronounced as a shake by most Scots people.

For some consonants the active articulator work stoppages against the inactive articulator merely one time and so rapidly roll frontward. Such consonants are called lights-outs or flaps. The missive R in really is pronounced as a pat by some English people.

Close estimate: The active articulator is brought so near to the inactive articulator that there is a really narrow spread between them. The soft roof of the mouth is raised so as to close off the rhinal transition of air. The lung-air flights through the narrow infinite between the active and inactive articulators, bring forthing hearable clash. “ Sounds that are articulated with a stenosis of close estimate are called Fricative consonants ” . The initial sounds in the English word five, vine, thin, so, sip, nothing, sheep and chapeau are spirants.

Partial closing: the active and inactive articulators are in steadfast contact with each other. The soft roof of the mouth is raised, thereby closing off the rhinal transition of air. If the sides of the lingua are lowered so that there is plentifulness of spread between the sides of the lingua and the upper grinder dentitions, the air will get away along the sides of the lingua without any clash. “ Sounds that are articulated with a stenosis of complete closing in the Centre of the vocal piece of land but with the air get awaying along the sides of the lingua without any clash are called laterals ” . The initial sound in the English word love is a sidelong.

Open estimate: The soft roof of the mouth is raised, thereby closing off the rhinal transition of air. If the active articulator is brought near to the inactive articulator so that the spread between them is broad the air will get away through this spread without any clash. “ Sounds that are articulated with a stenosis of unfastened estimate are called frictionless continuants and semi vowels. In fact Peter Ladefoged uses the term approximants to mention to sounds that are articulated with a stenosis of unfastened estimate.

Having looked in item at the six points referred to at get downing of this chapter ; allow us depict some harmonic sounds with mention to the six points.

The sound represented by the missive P in the English word undercover agent:

The air watercourse mechanism is pneumonic egresssive.

The vocal cords are drawn apart. The glottis is unfastened. The sound is unvoiced.

The soft roof of the mouth is raised and the rhinal transition of air is shut off wholly. The sound is unwritten.

The active articulator is the upper lip.

The inactive articulator is the lower lip.

The stenosis is one of complete closing and sudden release the sound articulated is a plosive.

The sound represented by the missive s in the English word undercover agent:

The air-stream mechanism is pneumonic egressive.

The vocal cords are drawn apart. The glottis is broad unfastened. The sound is unvoiced.

The soft roof of the mouth is raised and the rhinal transition of air is shut off wholly. The sound is unwritten.

The active articulator is the blade of the lingua.

The inactive articulator is the teeth ridge.

The stenosis is one of close estimate. The sound articulated is a continuant.

The sound represented by the missive N in the English word finger:

The air-stream mechanism is pneumonic egressive.

The vocal cords are kept slackly together. They vibrate and the sound is voiced.

The soft roof of the mouth is lowered. The rhinal transition of air is unfastened.

The sound is rhinal.

The active articulator is the dorsum of the lingua.

The inactive articulator is the soft roof of the mouth.

The stenosis is one of complete unwritten closing. The sound articulated is a nasal.

The sound represented by the missive V in the English word vine:

The air-stream mechanism is pneumonic egressive.

The vocal cords are kept slackly together. They vibrate and the sound is voiced.

The soft roof of the mouth is raised and the rhinal transition of air is shut off wholly. The sound is unwritten.

The active articulator is the lower lip.

The inactive articulators are the upper forepart dentitions.

The stenosis is one of close estimate. The sound articulated is a continuant.

Three-term labels: Consonants are described utilizing three-term labels. The three – term refer to ( a ) the province of glottis, ( B ) the topographic point of articulation and ( degree Celsius ) the mode of articulation. The three – footings should be arranged in the order in which they have been listed above. Some consonants are described below with three-term labels.

The missive P in the English word undercover agent represents a unvoiced bilabial stop consonant.

The missive vitamin D in the English word beloved represents a sonant alveolar stop consonant.

The missive K in the English word sky represents a voiceless velar stop consonant.

The missive ch in the English word cheap represents a unvoiced palate-alveolar affricate.

The missive m in the English word mat represents a sonant bilabial nasal.

The missive N in the English word finger represents a sonant velar nasal.

The missive Y in the English word yes represents a sonant palatal approximant. ( Semi-vowel ) .

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