1. Technology Although the Electric Vehicles ( EVs ) have been around since the earliest yearss of automotive industry. they were non able to populate up to consumer demand in footings of monetary value scope and bear downing clip until late. A recent study has revealed what the consumer demands from EVs. Harmonizing to a survey based on a study conducted in 17 states with 13. 000 persons the demanded engineering and the consequence of the survey is that EV engineering is at a period of its lifecycle where the public presentation of the engineering is non at a degree that client expects.
1. 1. Range Although there is a high consumer willingness late to either consider to buy EV or willing to be a first mover when it comes to EV acceptance. many of them does non compromise in Range. Despite the fact that the mean consumer does non transcend 50 stat mis per twenty-four hours. the consumer still demands farther scope capacity from EVs. The bulk of the consumers correlate EVs scope with conventional internal burning engine ( ICE ) vehicles [ 1 ] . Besides Harmonizing to Hidrue. M. ( 2010 ) “range anxiety” is the primary concern of a possible EV consumer.
As the figure illustrates. although the greater bulk ( 78 % ) of consumers in the US drives about 50 stat mis. a large part of them have outlook for EV to be able to drive around 300 stat mis. The current engineering allows EVs to drive between about 100 stat mis between charges. The lone EV that can acquire close to consumer demand in footings of scope is Tesla S ( which drives 265 stat mis ) as of 2013. However. the mean engineering does non populate up to consumer demand in footings of drivable scope between charges presently.
The chief restraint for the low scope is energy denseness. Harmonizing to Deploit ( 2011 ) . the prognosis was uncovering that with the battery engineering in manus the drive scope still would fall short of consumer outlooks. 1. 2 Top Speed and Acceleration There are multiple schools of idea about how consumer behaviour affects EV market. Harmonizing to those consumers would buy new vehicles whose properties are superior to those of presently in the market. they would non seek options which are worse than what they have presently [ 4 ] .
As an illustration Nissan Leaf is rated up to 90 kilowatt of power which is about 120 HP in ICE which is in line with a big figure of compact and intermediate vehicles such as CW Jetta. Toyota Corolla and Ford Focus. There are besides better EVs in the market in footings of public presentation. in illustration Tesla S series can bring forth 416 horsepower and can travel up to 130 miles per hour on a main road [ 5 ] . The ground why EV by and large does non travel more than that is that high velocities drop the fuel efficiency dramatically. Table. 1 The public presentation chart of Tesla S [ 5 ] 2. Vehicle Architecture 3. 1. Vehicle Architecture.
Although there are different frames that can pattern a vehicle’s architecture. the following 1 is a comprehensive manner to understand the maps and interrelatednesss of the constituents. In order to set the high velocity of the electric machine to the low velocity wheels. the torsion of the left and right wheels are provided by a derived function. Basically. the inverter inverts DC electromotive force battery into three-phase AC electromotive force that is required by the electric machine. Furthermore. it is besides of import to account for losingss due to the constituents. which are non a portion of the power concatenation when analysing the energy ingestion.
These subsidiary losingss comprise illuming system. comfort system. safety systems. etc. It is besides really critical that the maximal electromotive force of the battery is non exceeded during the regenerative braking. to forestall that from go oning the architecture is reinforced by braking resistance [ 6 ] . Exhibit 1. Architecture of a typical Electric vehicle [ 6 ] 3. 1. System Architecture Electric Vehicle’s architecture is similar at certain points to ICE.
Driver interface and bid translator receives input from users through maneuvering wheel. brakes. and gas pedal and so by sing vehicle velocity and vehicle way. creates propulsion. The gesture control comprises two primary blocks such as the way accountant and energy direction accountant. Path accountant gives forces and minutes demands to the force distributer. The energy direction accountant determines the province of the charge and estimates the overall grip force to be sent to command accountant unit [ 7 ] . Exhibit 2. System architecture [ 7 ] References [ 1 ]
Deloitte ( 2011 ) . Survey: Electric vehicle worlds versus consumer outlooks [ 2 ] Hidrue. M. . ( 2010 ) Willingness to Pay for Electric Vehicles and their Properties [ 3 ] Wikipedia. ( 2013 ) Plug-in electric autos in the United States: hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Plug-in_electric_vehicles_in_the_United_States [ 4 ] Lee. H. . Lovellette. G. . ( 2011 ) Will Electric Cars transform the U. S. Vehicle Market. [ 5 ] Wikipedia. Tesla S ( 2013 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Tesla_Model_S [ 6 ] Shaltz. E. . ( 2011 ) . Electric Vehicle Design and Modeling. [ 7 ] Sinha. P. . Agrawal. V. . ( 2011 ) . Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Architecture Alternatives.