This reappraisal of literature looks at the construct of trade names and branding in football, the impression of fandom, including different types of fan and the selling of Leicester City Football Club.
Randall ( 2001 ) states that any definition would be excessively confining or really unmanageable and Kapferer ( 2004 ) references that each expert tends to come up with their ain definition. More recent surveies ( Shank, 2009 ; Shimp, 2000 ; Rein et Al, 2006 ) specify a trade name as: a name, a word, a mark, a symbol, a drawing or a combination of these, which aims at placing the goods and services of one company from that of rivals. However Davidson ( 1998 ) refers to a trade name as an iceberg. You can merely see a little portion of an iceberg while the remainder is out of site. This relates to a trade name as you may merely see a seeable logo or name but non recognize other facets such as the values and civilization. Trade names are going progressively of import in modern times. Bridgewater ( 2010 ) states that trade names make fiscal parts to houses. Perrier ( 1997 ) suggests that 70 per centum of a houses net incomes can be attributed to trade names.
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Brand equity is defined as the assets linked to a trade names name and symbol that add to a merchandise or service ( Aaker and Joachimsthaler, 2000 ) . Another position of Brand equity can be seen through Edwards ( 2010 ) who states ‘Brand equity is the bar, the words in the placement statement are the ingredients, trade name activation is like the method. Brand equity can be split into four classs: trade name consciousness, perceived quality, trade name association and trade name trueness. Duffy and Hooper ( 2003 ) suggest that trade name association and trade name trueness are of import at act uponing buying behavior. Brand trueness is when a trade name becomes a meaningful portion of the clients ‘ life ( O’Shaughnessy, J. and O’Shaughnessy, N. 2003 ) . For illustration a trade name that may be comparatively little but has an intensely loyal client base can hold important trade name equity ( Aaker and Joachimsthaler, 2000 ) . In football the clients ‘ to a nine are by and large the fans and hence a strong connexion between them and the nine should be seen. Generally protagonists of a football nine support the same squad for life. Mullin et Al ( 2007 ) province that client keeping maximises the clients ‘ life-time value to the administration. To make farther concern chances it ‘s indispensable to make a relationship with clients based on experiential value ( Ferrand and Torrigiani, 2005 ) . Experiencing the trade name begins with the trade name and coveted values, so turns these into a promise for mark clients, and delivers the promise in a manner which brings the trade name alive ( Smith and Wheeler, 2002 ) .
2.2.2 Football Trade names
The athletics market within the United Kingdom was estimated by Sport England to be deserving & A ; lb ; 21.2 billion in 2008 and turning, even through a clip of recession. It is widely recognised that football is one of the most important athleticss in the universe. Bridgewater ( 2010 ) references this factor and besides states that football entreaties to more fans across the universe than any other athletics. An illustration of the pulling fans on a planetary graduated table can be seen through the fans of squads such as Manchester United, Barcelona and Real Madrid. As ascertained subsequently on in this undertaking, fans may be disgruntled with the reference of trade names and football together. However as Bridgewater ( 2010 ) discusses, trade names are non needfully commercial. Evidence of this is through administrations such as charities that may see themselves as a trade name.
So what is a football trade name? Bridgewater ( 2010 ) suggests that a football trade name could be any of the followers:
A football nine
A football participant
A national football squad
A football organic structure
A football competition or tourney.
There are external and internal facets of a trade name ( Bridgewater, 2010 ) . External factors include logo and name. Whilst internal factors may include nucleus values, placement, civilization and personality. These factors can easy be related to football for illustration the importance of the nine logo. As discussed by Marren ( 2011 ) a logo or symbol may raise up an full existence of different images, sounds, gustatory sensations and experiences. Therefore holding a logo that stands out is of import for football nines. An illustration of a nine accommodating at that place logo to be more recognizable may be Manchester United, who included a ruddy Satan on their nine badge in 1970 after being nicknamed the ‘Red Devils ‘ in the early 1960 ‘s. Besides more late Manchester United dropped the words football nine from their crest in an attempt to turn the nine into a ‘brand ‘ ( Manchester United Fans Website, 2010 ) . Harmonizing to Brand Finance ( 2010 ) Manchester United is the 2nd most valuable nine somewhat behind Real Capital of spains who have a trade name value of & A ; lb ; 386 million. Both these nines are rated as holding an highly strong trade name evaluation. This shows the potency of concern and money that can be generated through a strong and successful trade name.
2.3.1 The selling of Leicester City Football Club
A survey by Pierpoint ( 2000, cited Garland et Al 2000 p.29-38 ) discovers the ways in which Leicester City Football Club ( LCFC ) use marketing enterprises to advance the nine. The survey is a bit dated as it was made in 2000 and LCFC have had many developments since the survey was undertaken. However the survey gives a good penetration to what the current selling enterprises of LCFC may be. Pierpoint ( 2000, cited Garland et Al 2000 p.31 ) states that LCFC has pioneered enterprises in the field of selling, which with the aid of improved public presentation on the pitch, increased the nines turnover from & A ; lb ; 2m in 1991 to an expected & amp ; lb ; 24m in 1999. The nine moved to a new bowl in 2002 and Pierpoint ( 2000, cited Garland et Al 2000 p.34 ) discusses how the selling enterprises that had been made could be improved upon when the move to the new bowl was completed. Even the alteration in bowl allowed for a selling enterprise. Bridgewater ( 2010 ) provinces that when bowl near and clubs relocate, it is non uncommon for fans to purchase subdivisions of sod, turnstiles, the place in which they sat, the barrier in which they leaned on. When LCFC moved bowl they presented a alone chance for protagonists to hold their names inscribed on a brick that will be laid on the outer wall of the new bowl. Bridgewater ( 2010 ) besides discusses how she was even donated a brick from LCFC ‘s old bowl when she was given a circuit whilst set abouting her research. Other advanced ways of selling LCFC are demonstrated by Banks ( 2002 ) who describes how LCFC besides market their bowl for conferences and feasting on non lucifer yearss.
LCFC have late been taken over by a Thai pool. The new proprietors of the nine have been compared to selling masterminds. Panyaarvudh ( 2011 ) states that the coup d’etat could be a good trade for LCFC as the people behind the coup d’etat are both ambitious and affluent. The new proprietors besides own ‘King Power ‘ a Thai responsibility free company with great success and repute. As portion of the coup d’etat the nines shirts are now sponsored by King Power and the bowl is due to be named the ‘King Power Stadium ‘ ( Panyaarvudh, 2011 ) . Recent new add-ons to the current bowl have been made and LCFC.com ( 2011 ) province that the lucifer twenty-four hours experience at Leicester City takes on a new dimension, with the Club set to put in two state-of-the-art elephantine picture screens. This is an illustration of money being spent by the new proprietors in puting in the hereafter and enabling them to market LCFC in more modern techniques. Evidence of LCFC desiring to go more of a trade name can be seen through the assignment of former England director Sven Goran Eriksson. Sven Goran Eriksson is known practically world-wide and it is this repute that Jones and Moxey ( 2010 ) say that helped rock the new LCFC proprietors to name him.
2.4 Fans and Consumers
Fans of athletics can be defined in to different types. Funk ( 2007 ) topographic points fans into four classs ; insouciant fan, fairweather fan, home run fan and traditionalist fan ( See Figure 1 ) .
Figure 1 – Different types of fan.
Type of Fan
Definition of fan type
A insouciant fan is a below norm to mean follower of their squad. They will have on merely plenty squad vesture to demo you who they like. Most of the clip, they merely know of a few star participants on their squad, but non the full roll.
A fairweather fan is one that merely follows or cheers for their squad when they are successful. These type of fans have been known to buy squad ware when the traveling is good, but non when all is bad.
A home run is a fan who lacks objectivity and an unfastened head about their ain squad. These type of fans strongly believe their squad is unbeatable, and will frequently acquire confrontational with anyone who puts their squad down or sock them. The good thing about home runs is that they will back up their squad strongly, but can come across every bit objectionable when speaking about them.
No affair how their squad is making, a traditionalist fan will ever back up them. A diehard fan follows their squad sacredly, and will non lose any games or intelligence at all about them.
It is important that when aiming fans through selling, that the administration is cognizant of these different types of fan. Desarbo and Madrigal ( 2011 ) place another type of fan, called the avid fan. Fan eagerness is defined ( DeSarbo, 2009, 2010 ) as the degree of involvement, engagement, passion, and trueness a fan exhibits to a peculiar athleticss entity ( i.e. a athletics, conference, squad, and/or jock ) . This type of fan is an easy mark and a sellers dream as these fans tend to pass well more money, clip and attempt in following their squad than a non avid fan. Fans about ever stay loyal to their chosen squad, nine or athletics ( Trenberth, 2003 ) . However, being loyal does non needfully interpret into purchase behavior. A loyal fan may follow their squads ‘ consequences and speak about their squad with friends. Yet they may ne’er travel to a game or purchase services and merchandises from their squad ( Trenberth, 2003 ) .
After reexamining the literature and seeing how football nines have turned to making the nine into a trade name. Its clear football nines are utilizing fans emotional fond regard to sell them ware and services they may non normally purchase. With this in head the inquiry is,
How of import is branding to Leicester City Football Club and its protagonists?