# Conceptual clustering

April 26, 2018 Computer Science

A concept map is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts. It is a graphical tool that designers, engineers, technical writers, and others use to organize and structure knowledge. A concept map typically represents ideas and information as boxes or circles, which it connects with labeled arrows in a downward-branching hierarchical structure. The relationship between concepts can be articulated in linking phrases such as causes,requires, or contributes to. [1] Conceptual clustering is a machine learning paradigm for unsupervised classification developed mainly during the 1980s.

It is distinguished from ordinary data clustering by generating a concept description for each generated class. Most conceptual clustering methods are capable of generating hierarchical category structures; see Categorization for more information on hierarchy. Conceptual clustering is closely related to formal concept analysis, decision tree learning, and mixture model learning. A Venn diagram or set diagram is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of sets. Venn diagrams were conceived around 1880 by John Venn.

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They are used to teach elementary set theory, as well as illustrate simple set relationships in probability, logic, statistics, linguistics and computer science. A T-Chart is used mostly to compare things like pros and cons. It’s called a T-Chart because to make it, you just draw a line across the top of the page and another down the middle. Then you list pros on one side and cons on the other, or whatever other information you want to use the chart for. In telecommunication networks, a tree network is a combination of two or more star networks connected together.

Each star network is a local area network (LAN) in which there is a central computer or server to which all the workstation nodes are directly linked. The central computers of the star networks are connected to a main cable called the bus. Thus, a tree network is a bus network of star networks. The illustration shows a tree network with five star networks connected to a common bus. The workstations are shown as small spheres, the central computers of the star networks are shown as larger spheres, connections within star networks are shown as short lines, and the bus is shown as a long, heavy line.

The connections can consist of wire cables, optical fiber cables, or wireless links. An organizational chart (often called organization chart, org chart, organigram(me), or organogram(me)) is a diagram that shows the structure of an organization and the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and positions/jobs. The term is also used for similar diagrams, for example ones showing the different elements of a field of knowledge or a group of languages. The French Encyclopedie published in France between 1751 and 1772 had one of the first organizational charts of knowledge in general.

[1] The Scottish-American engineer Daniel McCallum (1815–1878) is credited for creating the first organizational charts of American business[2] around 1854. [3] A spider web, spiderweb, spider’s web, or cobweb (from the obsolete wordcoppe, meaning “spider”)[1] is a device created by a spider out of proteinaceousspider silk extruded from its spinnerets. Spider webs have existed for at least 100 million years, as witnessed in a rare find ofEarly Cretaceous amber from Sussex, southern England.

[2] Insects can get trapped in spider webs, providing nutrition to the spider; however, not all spiders build webs to catch prey, and some do not build webs at all. “Spider web” is typically used to refer to a web that is apparently still in use (i. e. clean), whereas “cobweb” refers to abandoned (i. e. dusty) webs. [3] However, “cobweb” is used to describe the tangled three-dimensional web[4] of some spiders of the theridiidae family. Whilst this large family is also known as the tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders and comb-footed spiders, they actually have a huge range of web architectures.

The Semantic Web is a collaborative movement led by the international standards body, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). [1] The standard promotes common data formats on the World Wide Web. By encouraging the inclusion of semantic content in web pages, the Semantic Web aims at converting the current web, dominated by unstructured and semi-structured documents into a “web of data”. The Semantic Web stack builds on the W3C’s Resource Description Framework (RDF). [2] According to the W3C, “The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries.

“[2] The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data that can be processed by machines. [3] A Discussion Web helps students visualize the key elements of an issue and quickly identify opposing points of view on the matter. This organizational tool guides discussions by allowing students to identify ideas of contention, to weigh opposing viewpoints, to critically evaluate the arguments, and to draw conclusions. Discussion Webs are useful tools for readers. This strategy offers a clear “point-counterpoint” visual framework for analyzing texts.

Tumukoy sa nais sabihin at ipaunawa ng sumulat tungkol sa paksa. Karaniwang matagpuan sa hulihan at sa unahan ng talata. May pag kakataong hindi lantad sa talata ang pangunahing kaisipan. Ang pantulong na kaisipan ay nagtataglay ng mahalagang impormasyon o mga detalye. Ang mga detalye ang gagabay sa mga mambabasa upang maunawaan ang nilalaman ng talata. Ang SANHI ang siyang pinagmulan o dahilan ng isang pangyayari. Sa salitang Ingles, ito ay ang “CAUSE”. Ang BUNGA ang siyang kinalabasan o dulot ng naturang pangyayari.

Sa salitang Ingles, ito ay ang “EFFECT”. Ang SANHI ay ang kadahilanan kung bakit naganap ang isang pangyayari. Karaniwan itong pinangungunahan ng salitang SAPAGKAT,DAHIL at iba pang kauri nito.. Ang BUNGA naman ay pahayag na nagsasaad ng kinalabasan ng isang naunang pangyayari.. Problema at Solusyon A target diagram displays progress towards a goal Each layer moves closer towards the centre result. A target dialog is a bit like a flow chart which moves from the outside to the centre. A target dialog flows from the outside in or from the inside out.

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