Consumer behaviour and its changing patterns

Today organisations need a deep penetration into consumer behavior and its changing forms in order to last in the market topographic point. Large organisations have extremely trained persons recruited to roll up information about the consumer ‘s invariably altering demands and tendencies so that they can acquire focused on what is required by consumer ; so that they can provide those demands as accurately and expeditiously as possible.

Charles digby harrods is one of the universe ‘s most well-known section shops situated on Brampton Road in Knightsbridge, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, England ; It was established in 1849 as a little food market shop with merely two assistants. Today, it offers its clients with everything from nutrient to manner, furniture to sportswear plus 20 in-store eating houses functioning every sort of culinary art conceivable from pizza to sushi. Services scope from piano tuning to suiting saddles. Must-see sights include the Food Halls, the Egyptian Hall and the Pet Department. ( Visit London )

Need essay sample on Consumer behaviour and its changing patterns ?We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page

order now

Charles digby harrods after term of office of great success has recently seen a falling tendency in its gross revenues. Charles digby harrods, hence, has farther studied the behavior of its consumers more closely in order to cognize the grounds of this unfortunate diminution in gross revenues. This study contains an analysis of this survey, external influences and how they can be used positively to augment the gross revenues ; It mentions the schemes Harrods can utilize in order to acquire the same honorable and esteemed place back in the market place.

Undertaking 1: Impact of External Influences

An penetration into the behavior of consumers at Charles digby harrods

Charles digby harrods is a high terminal departmental shop which offers a great scope of merchandises and services. Once opened as a little food market store has now matured to go a good illustration for posh and glamourous shopping, complementing itself on its slogan “ Omnia Omnibus Ubique which means that ‘All things, for all people, everyplace ‘ . It is celebrated about Charles digby harrods that you can purchase anything you can call at Harrods, from a hair pin to furniture. ( travel at that place guide )

Consumer behavior is a survey of when, how and where people buy or do non purchase certain merchandises or services. When purchasing a merchandise, consumers normally go through several phases which can be named as demand acknowledgment, information hunt, rating of different purchase options, purchase determination and station purchase behavior e.g. a demand arise when you see your current telecasting set is out dated and pretty old manner or may be its broken. You decide that you want a new telecasting and so get down looking for different options reassigning yourself to the following phase and you start looking for which telecasting to purchase and from which topographic point ; this is the phase when Harrods should come in the head of a consumer. Then a consumer evaluates between different available options which Harrods has advantage of supplying consumer all under one roof and so eventually he buys a merchandise. ( East, 2008 )

Charles digby harrods is considered a glamourous shopping topographic point. Though about everything is available at Harrods but the mark market section that Harrods focal points on is the upper category. This is the market section the direction at Harrods supports in head while transporting out its selling activities. Peoples sing Harrods may belong to any age group but bulk of them belong to the societal category A and anticipate a service that is up to the grade. They expect that the merchandise available at Harrods would belong to the highest of the qualities available.

Sellers define four types of purchasing behaviors and it is based on the type of merchandises that the consumer intends to purchase. All four types of purchasing behaviours can be witnessed in the consumers at Harrods as a huge scope of merchandises are available at Harrods.

Complex purchasing behavior

This where the individual purchases a high value trade name and inquires about a batch of information before the purchase is made. This may be when a consumer is purchasing a really expensive outfit of Paul Smith Black at Harrods

Accustomed purchasing behavior

This is when person purchases a merchandise out of everyday e.g. a day-to-day newspaper, sugar or salt. This is applicable for a consumer purchasing food market from the food market subdivision

Assortment seeking purchasing behavior

It is when the individual likes to shop around and seek out with different merchandises. Some consumers at Harrods do non hold the peculiar trade name in head beforehand when they shop for any merchandise so they experiment different trade names.

Disagreement cut downing purchasing behavior

This is the type of behavior when purchaser is highly concerned with the purchase of the merchandise, because the purchase is expensive or occasional. An illustration could be purchasing expensive furniture at Harrods. ( Micheal.R.Solomon, 2005 )

The direction at Harrods needs to maintain all these consumer behavior theories like what makes consumer purchase a merchandise, what sort of behaviors can they follow while shopping at Harrods in head and factors can do a alteration in consumer purchasing forms in head while they take their direction determinations. They specially need to be cognizant of the outlooks of their consumers and what precisely they want from Harrods in order to better and happen the cringle holes which might be taking to a autumn in gross revenues.

External Factors may act upon Buying Behaviour

Consumer behavior can be affected by assorted factors that may be extremely unmanageable by sellers. These external factors may include the sentiment of your friends, the values and the manner you are brought up, the media, the civilization, certain groups you interact with etc. All of these external factors are mentioned in inside informations with regard to the consumers of Harrods as follows:


Culture does act upon consumer behavior ; civilization is defined as our attitudes and beliefs. The point that we need to cognize here is the manner these attitudes and beliefs are developed. As a individual matures, a kid is influenced by his parents, siblings and other household members who may educate them about rights and wrongs. They learn about their faith and civilization, which helps them develop these sentiments, attitudes and beliefs.. ( Micheal.R.Solomon, 2005 )

Geographic Culture

Charles digby harrods demands to understand the civilization of people populating in London. The manner they are brought up and what their values are. Do people populating in London like to travel to glamourous shopping topographic points like Harrods? Are they comfy shopping at such high terminal topographic points? What are their purchasing tendencies and do they prefer big shopping topographic points over little 1s? Can people populating at that place afford to purchase expensive or do they normally spend this much on norm? All these inquiries need to be answered in order understand the mind of consumers populating in London and provide them harmonizing to their demands.

If we go back into history, UK is a category based society and some remains of such behaviors are still existing. Peoples who belong to a high category do like to demo off and travel to high terminal topographic points but as clip is go throughing this frame of head is altering. This alteration of head may be one of the factors taking to fall in demand for Harrods.


Subcultures can be defined as members that possess beliefs, values and imposts that set them apart from other members of the same society. There can be nationality, cultural, racial, geographical or spiritual bomber civilizations.

Peoples belonging to assorted parts of the universe and belonging to assorted sets of beliefs and norms live in London, which leads a complex set of people who may hold different beliefs and norms mixed up. Understanding and catering to all of them is non really realistic but Harrods demands have knowledge sing major subcultures so that its merchandises are designed harmonizing to it and their do non ache anyone ‘s beliefs and norms. ( Leon G Schiffman, 1997 )

Global Culture

In order to do certain that the merchandises it is offering is in line with the Global civilization, Harrods needs to analyze the planetary tendencies of purchasing behavior every bit good. By and large people around the Earth have started preferring big shopping promenades over little specific purchasing countries. This facilitates a consumer in a manner that all the merchandises are available under one roof. As people are acquiring more and busier with their work lives, this saves clip.

Furthermore the universe is besides traveling towards better quality merchandises and services. Designer apparels and manner dress are acquiring popular. Trade names are acquiring planetary. This tendency of clients goes in favor of Harrods. Multinationals have the brought the consumer base to one platform which in a manner has helped sellers to understand complex behavior. ( my library )

Mention Groups

Reference group is an existent or fanciful person or group concealed of holding important relevancy upon an person ‘s ratings, aspirations and behavior.

Sellers have seen that mention groups can strongly act upon purchasing behavior. Mention groups are peculiar set of people some people may look up towards to that have an impact on consumer behavior. So they can be merely a set like the Savage Garden or your direct household members. Sellers have grouped mention groups into categories to grok the manner the influence more clearly. ( Micheal.R.Solomon, 2005 )

Types of Reference Groups


Some group and persons are more powerful than others and impact a broader scope of ingestion determinations. A really good illustration would be household. Your upbringing truly has a strong influence on your likes and disfavors, definitions of right and incorrect. Family values and patterns normally do non alter and develop basic criterions of behaviour. If a household is used store from section shops instead than persons mercantile establishments or it may be peculiarly Harrods so this pattern may be passed on to farther coevalss as good and this how the rhythm goes on. ( M.Khan, 2007 )


These are the people you compare yourself to and can associate to e.g. friends, neighbours or a nine you are a member of. Some of these may be 1s you aspire and want to copy. A individual may get down shopping from Harrods because a friend of his stores from Harrods and he likes it really much and recommended him every bit good. ( M.Khan, 2007 )

Mention groups can farther be divided into direct and indirect mention groups: direct are the 1s you have contact in individual with and indirect may be the 1s you may non hold direct contact with such as famous persons. ( Balythe, 2008 )

Sellers can non straight pull strings your direct mention groups or utilize them for their benefits but indirect mention groups can easy be used by sellers. Charles digby harrods needs to analyze about its consumers ‘ mention groups and utilize them in its favor. If Harrods serves its bing consumers truly good they will automatically turn out to be a resourceful mention group for some possible consumers. They can besides utilize famous person indorsements referent powers. ( Wagner, 2003 )

Opinion leader

Opinion leaders are the people who have greater cognition about a certain thing than a laic adult male so you respect their positions and that may act upon consumer behavior. Most of the times it would truly impact the behavior if the thing to purchase is a extremely technological merchandise, may be a high-tech computing machine and the sentiment leader in that instance may be a computing machine expert. ( CL Tyagi, 2004 )

Economic Environment

Economic environment has a great influence on purchasing behavior. Peoples normally spend more during good economic times and during an economic roar and similarly less during recessions.

Recently aggregative demand around the Earth felt due to planetary recession. Peoples were out of occupations and concerns were heading towards a ruin which left people with less disposable incomes on manus to pass. This may besides be one of the factors taking to Harrods ‘ reduced gross revenues. ( Angus Deaton, 1980 )


Competition is another factor which influences the consumer behaviour. This provides consumers with more options available so they start comparing between the available options and selects the one which benefits them the most. Harrods has a few possible rivals mentioned below:


There is shop called Selfridges & A ; Co. It is besides one of the largest countries in the universe with 540,000 sq.ft of selling country. It is located on the Oxford Street which is a premier posh location. Like Harrods, it is besides celebrated among consumers for supplying a big scope of merchandises and services. The difference between Harrods and Selfridges could be that Selfridges is more focussed towards amusement as it has 15 bars, coffeehouse and eating houses inside the country. It has two more smaller section shops, one in Manchester and the other in ( concern hebdomad )

Marks and Spencer

Another strong competition would be Marks and Spencer ( M & A ; S ) . It is a British retail concatenation and it has 330 section shops and over 340 nutrient location all over UK. It does non run in UK merely but has over 300 locations in states including Indonesia, South Korea, India and China. The factor that differentiates M & A ; S from Harrods is that it core scope consists of mid-priced family points, manner dress and other merchandises whereas Harrods is designed for the best or may be for everything instead a narrowed specific monetary value scope.

M & A ; S has been in this market for more than 100 old ages and has been ranked as the no. 1 provider of adult females wear. Furthermore, the company makes 90 % of its gross revenues in its place state which surely is UK. It can give Harrods a tough competition if Harrods acquire even a small spot indulgent in its services ( concern hebdomad )

Fortnum & A ; Mason

This is 300 twelvemonth old section shop. It is really celebrated for its nutrient which includes jams, teas, and sauces. It besides supplies Queen with one-year Christmas puddings. It has five eating houses and though it generates most of its gross revenues from nutrient but it besides sells gifts, baggage, family merchandises, cosmetics etc.

Though its merchandise scope and the country of focal point are non precisely same as Charles digby harrods but it can be counted as a competition and was mentioned by a figure of consumers at Harrods. ( concern hebdomad )

Undertaking 2: Recommended Positioning Strategy


A survey of human perceptual experience can besides assist sellers to understand the consumer behavior. Percept is the procedure by which people select, organize and construe their esthesiss ; where esthesis is how are centripetal receptors ( eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, fingers ) to basic stimulations such as visible radiation, coloring material, sound, olfactory property and texture. Like a computing machine system human head besides processes the information in order to perceive things. ( Martin E Evans, 2009 )

This is the age of centripetal selling. Sellers make usage of impact of esthesiss on consumer ‘s merchandise experiences. They use vision, hearing, touch and gustatory sensation in order to make an image of the trade name in the heads of the consumer to make a competitory advantage. Sellers try and create trade name ‘s alone association with the esthesis. ( Hawyer, 2008 )

Charles digby harrods may utilize a certain trade frock which is color combination an organisation uses so often that consumers start tie ining that trade name with that color combination. Whenever they see that color combination around their head recalls the trade name in sub-consciousness. This is how sellers create an image that can last really long in the heads of the consumers through our esthesiss ; as consumers start tie ining those trade names to different things.

Consumer ‘s perceptual experience about the trade name consists of both its functional properties every bit good as the symbolic attitudes. Functional attitudes may include its monetary value ; its characteristics etc. and symbolic may include its image. Sellers have discovered that consumer ‘s rating of a certain merchandise is more dependent on what it means instead than what it does. This significance has more to make with merchandise ‘s market place and it may be more to make with our outlooks of the merchandise as communicated by its coloring material, packaging and titling instead than the merchandise itself. ( Kathy Niel, 2007 )

Therefore, Harrods should utilize these tools of esthesis in order to make an image of Harrods that consumers can non bury ; an image that stays in the heads. It should make a certain esthesis so that consumers can tie in the trade name with that esthesis. This automatically attracts a consumer towards a trade name as it creates a certain impact in the heads of the consumers that lasts for really longer periods of clip.


Attitude is really a erudite behavior. They may be favorable and unfavorable attitude for a merchandise or a service. Sellers say that attitudes have the quality of motive, they can take consumer towards certain behaviors or can even halt him from making so. Charles digby harrods should seek and develop a positive attitude about itself in the heads of the consumers. ( Micheal.R.Solomon, 2005 )

Charles digby harrods have had certain issues which may take to a negative attitude. Charles digby harrods in order to keep its glamourous image threw a lady out from the shop. Eilene Kadden, from California, was ejected from the shop because she did non hold the right image ; she was excessively fat. Such sorts of incidents adversely affect the image of the trade name and such incidents can take to negative attitudes for the trade name in the heads of the consumers. Charles digby harrods should esteem its clients irrespective of race, coloring material, ethnicity and physical properties of a individual.

Tri-Component Attitude Model

Harmonizing to this exemplary attitude consists of three constituents which are cognitive, affectional and conative constituents. ( Micheal.R.Solomon, 2005 )

The cognitive constituent consists of individual ‘s knowledges i.e. his cognition and perceptual experience about the trade name. This may be formed by a combination direct exposure and from other beginnings. Charles digby harrods should make a positive feeling in the heads of the consumers through its image, service and behavior.

The affectional constituent is more about the feeling of the consumer. How related and emotionally attached he is to the trade name. A household might be shopping from Harrods from last three coevalss and may develop an emotional fond regard to the shop. These emotions can farther impact the actions of the consumers. They van be negative as good.

The Conative constituent trades with the existent behavior of the consumer, it is besides called the consumer ‘s purpose to purchase.

This theoretical account can assist Harrods to develop a positive attitude among its current and targeted consumers. Charles digby harrods should seek to factually every bit good emotionally make a positive feeling about the trade name.


Self-concept is the beliefs that client holds about himself. It can be positive every bit good as negative. At times you feel that a portion of you is more positive. Peoples buy merchandises which they can associate to themselves. What is the ground that societal category A is the major consumer at Harrods? It is that all the merchandises are designed maintaining the societal category as a mark market section and so they can associate to it.

Positioning Scheme

This is the manner a trade name portrays itself and topographic points itself in the heads of the consumers. Positioning a trade name is a really important undertaking. This is what can either do a trade name or interrupt a trade name. When a seller targets a certain market sections, it intends to different itself from the other trade names through its competitory advantage.

How to Position

When a trade name is to place itself, the really first measure when a concern decides to come in the market to depict the market in which the trade name is to come in and to fight. The market where Harrods is to vie is London. It is classy country where people spend money to avail highest quality merchandises and services. The following measure would be to roll up information from the relevant consumers about what perceptual experience do they hold sing the viing trade names in the market. Charles digby harrods needs to understand what attributes sing the shopping shops are most favorable in the heads of the consumers. It needs a complete cognition about the likes, disfavors, penchants and frame of head of the relevant consumers it intends to aim. It needs to find the portion of head of all the viing trade names which are mentioned above including Selfridges, Marks and Spencer, Fortnum and Masom. It needs to rank the rivals and the properties which would be difficult to vie. At the terminal it needs to place itself utilizing the combination of the preferred properties and properties of the trade name itself to capture a district in the heads of the consumer.

Era of Marketing

This is the age of Marketing. Marketing a trade name is going more of import than the merchandise itself. The Marketers study the market in item, section the market into different sections based on demographics and psychographics and so choose the most profitable section as the targeted section. All the merchandises and services are so designed maintaining that peculiar section in head. All the determinations are besides taken in conformity to that peculiar targeted section. ( Gerit Antonides, 1998 )

Charles digby harrods alternatively of taking decsions maintaining the merchandises and services in head, needs to take determinations maintaining the penchants of targeted consumers in head. If a certain trade name in preffered and renowned in US but people in UK prefer other trade names over it which may even be of somewhat lower quality, choosing for that trade name of better quality would non be reasonable determination. Harrods has taken some bad decesions in the yesteryear to salvage its glamourous image ; it has kept a scope of trade names which are non even liked by most of the people in London which is a failure for Harrods to understand the mind of its consumers.

Suitable Positiong Strategy for Harrods

The three major positioning constructs known among the sellers and they are functional, symbolic and experiential place. Functional place is when the house shows itself as the solution to jobs. It promotes the benefits that can supply and derive a favorable place.

Symbolic postioning is when a organisation uses its image, belongingness and egocentric image which provides the comsumers with societal meaningfulness. This is the sort of positioning suited for an organisation like Harrods and this is what it has been making in the yesteryear as good but a certain alteration is needed to do this symbolic place better. These changings would be mentioned further in the study.

Experiential place is when an oraganization makes usage of the consumers centripetal and cognitive stimulation and the constructs of perceptual experience to make an image in the heads of the consumers that consumers can associate to.

Harrods Current Positioning

Harrods has positioned itself as a high-end, glamourous, epicurean and high terminal section shop. It has non positioned itself as a section shop but as an unforgettable experience. Harrods has a repute for excellence and a slogan “ Everything for Everybody Everywhere ” . Consumers know it as a topographic point where you can purchase everything. From sugar and murphies to epicurean autos, everything is available at the Harrods. The major constituent or competitory advantage that Harrods has used is its expansive image and assortment.

Shifting Charles digby harrods

Some of the Harrods policies to keep its high terminal image has in bend adversely impacting its repute. The incidents of coercing people out due to their physical visual aspect and rigorous frock codification regulations make clients inconvenient and lead to a negative feeling. Charles digby harrods need to add a constituent of unimportance in its placement statement. The feeling that one gets when he hears about Harrods is of haughtiness and attitude. A touch of unimportance demands to be added to the image in order to make a positive feeling.

Charles digby harrods should seek and make an image of an environment friendly organisation. Peoples one time protested against Harrods ‘ merchandising animate being pelt. Such sort of incidents would non go on if you have you have a complete cognition about you ‘re the civilization and values of targeted consumers and people around.

Charles digby harrods should promote the trade names runing inside the shop to advance green environment and bring forth as many environment friendly merchandises as they can and take stairss for protecting the environment from every sort of pollution. This will take to a responsible image about in Harrods in the heads of the consumers which will decidedly in bend improve the gross revenues.

Online and Offline Positioning Messages

As mentioned under the header of shifting Harrods, Harrods needs to advance a touch of unimportance with its glamourous image. The current slogan used by Harrods is “ Everything for Everybody Everywhere ” and “ All things, for all people, everyplace ” which portrays that literally everything is available at Harrods.

Messages like “ Everything that you need because we care! ” would advance an image of attention and duty on portion of the organisation. This would portray that the organisation is non selfish about its ain benefits merely. The attitude of the employees in the shop will automatically picture the place and put a grade in the heads of the consumers.

Furthermore for offline placement, Harrods can establish runs for environment protection. It can patronize such activities in order to make an impact and show that it really cares and lending towards the society.


Charles digby harrods is a really celebrated and good known trade name. It has successfully achieved its marks and continuously improved and expanded over the old ages. Its direction worked expeditiously to fulfill the demands of its consumers. It was clear and focused on the section it was aiming and hence tailored its merchandises consequently.

Due to some external factors and some of the bad determinations that Harrods took declined its gross revenues. The image that Harrods was basking is somewhat damaged but its non late to do for the errors in the yesteryear.

Furthermore, every house needs to introduce and re-position itself harmonizing to altering environment. Charles digby harrods in order to gain its place back needs to do little alterations in its placement. It should acquire more low towards its clients and advance environmentally friendly merchandises.

Undertaking 3: Individual Critical Reflection on Learning Outcomes

Critical Contemplation on Learning Outcomes

Before the start of the faculty, I was non certain of whether it will further heighten my acquisition or non. The theories I was to expected to use in the faculty were the 1s I had already studied several times so I was non looking frontward to any farther new acquisition and experience.

As I started working on the faculty and started garnering information about Harrods, I realized that my perceptual experience about the faculty was wholly incorrect. Though I didn.t learn anything new in the faculty but it gave me an chance to use what I have learned in a existent life state of affairs. All the constructs and class stuff that I studied in the class was practically applied to work out the given job of decreased gross revenues.

Furthermore, while I was analyzing for the class I had an feeling that most of the constructs mentioned in the class books are merely for theoretical intents and are non used or helpful to the houses in existent life state of affairss. My sentiment was proven incorrect while I working on the faculty as I saw that houses do utilize these constructs and they do assist them in understanding the behavior of consumers which is critical for their success.

This faculty was a great experience. Though roll uping information and analysis was a small tough and boring but it was deserving it. The informations aggregation on the external factors act uponing the consumer behaviour was truly hard ; sorting it and coming up with utile consequences and decisions was even more troublesome. This faculty specifically enhanced my analytical accomplishments and improved my assurance of practically using theoretical cognition.


Angus Deaton, J. M. ( 1980 ) . Economicss and consumer behavior.

Balythe, J. ( 2008 ) . Consumer Behaviour.

concern hebdomad. ( n.d. ) . Retrieved august 27, 2010, from concern hebdomad: hypertext transfer protocol: //

CL Tyagi, A. K. ( 2004 ) . Consumer Behaviour.

East, R. ( 2008 ) . Consumer Behaviour.

Gerit Antonides, W. F. ( 1998 ) . Consumer Behaviour.

travel there guide. ( n.d. ) . Retrieved grand 2010, 28, from travel there guide: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Hawyer, W. D. ( 2008 ) . Consumer Behaviour.

Kathy Niel, S. P. ( 2007 ) . Consumer Behaviour Implications for marketing scheme.

Leon G Schiffman, H. H. ( 1997 ) . consumer behavior.

M.Khan. ( 2007 ) . Consumer Behaviour.

Martin E Evans, G. F. ( 2009 ) . Consumer Behaviour.

Micheal.R.Solomon. ( 2005 ) . Consumer Behaviour: purchasing, holding, being ( 8th ed. ) .

my library. ( n.d. ) . Retrieved August 28, 2010, from my library: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Visit London. ( n.d. ) . Retrieved August 28, 2010, from Visit London: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Wagner, S. ( 2003 ) . Understanding Green Consumer Behaviour.



Get your custom essay sample

Let us write you a custom essay sample

from Essaylead

Hey! So you need an essay done? We have something that you might like - do you want to check it out?

Check it out