Critically Analyze the Moral Development Theory by Lawrence Kohlberg

August 1, 2017 Management

AVOIDANCE Avoidance is both an unassertive and an uncooperative conflict style. Those who favor the avoidance style tend to be passive and ignore conflict situations rather than confront them directly. They employ strategies such as denying there is a conflict, using jokes as a way to deflect conflict, or trying to change the topic. Avoiders are not assertive about pursuing their own interests, nor are they cooperative in assisting others to pursue theirs. Accommodation is an unassertive but cooperative conflict style. In accommodation, an individual essentially communicates to another, “You are right, I agree; let’s forget about it. An approach that is “other directed,” accommodation requires individuals to attend very closely to the needs of others and ignore their own needs. Using this style, individuals confront problems by deferring to ot Collaboration, the most preferred style of conflict, requires both assertiveness and cooperation. It is when both parties agree to a positive settlement to the conflict and attend fully to the other’s concerns while not sacrificing or suppressing their own. The conflict is Handbook Link 9. 1 Read more about collaboration. 198 I N T RO DUC T I ON TO L E A D E RSHI P

COMPROMISE As Figure 9. 3 indicates, compromise occurs halfway between competition and accommodation and involves both a degree of assertiveness and a degree of cooperativeness. Many see compromise as a “give and take” proposition. Compromisers attend to the concerns of others as well as to their own needs. On the diagonal axis of Figure 9. 3, compromise occurs midway between the styles of avoidance and collaboration. This means that compromisers do not completely ignore confrontations, but neither do they struggle with problems to the fullest degree.

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This conflict style is often chosen because it is expedient in finding middle ground while partially satisfying the concerns of both parties. Conclusion Conflicts are part of human nature and it is extremely important to study it not only for theoretical purposes but also for organizational practice [9]. Pawlak [26] suggests that conflict analysis and its resolutions has an important role in private, public and political organizations, as well as in judicial and work disputes, in military operations and many other institutions.

The results from the study indicate that the major cause of organizational conflicts is lack of resources. This leads to competition for the scarce resources. Therefore, it is pertinent on the organization’s management to ensure that the available limited resources are utilized optimally for the benefit of the organization and other stakeholders. Though conflict is often viewed as negative, it is capable of increasing organizational innovativeness and productivity, thereby improving organizational performance. In addition, conflicts build the spirit of teamwork and cooperation among the employees of an organization [2].

The study also revealed that the most used means of managing conflict among the managers in Nigerian service industry is Bargaining, Collaboration, and Avoidance. When conflicts are properly managed in organization, it will lead to the attainment and achievement of organizational goals and objectives. In the height of the findings of this study, the following are recommended: not resolved until each side is reasonably satisfied and can support the solution. Collaboration is the ideal conflict style because it recognizes the inevitability of human conflict. It confronts conflict, and then uses conflict to produce constructive outcomes.

References [1] Jones GR, Gorge JM, Hill CWL, 2000. Contemporary Management, McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA. Second Edition, ISBN: 0-13-525858-8 [2] Henry O. 2009, Organizational Conflict and its effects on Organizational Performance. Research Journal of Business Management, 2 (1): 16-24. [3] Weihrich H, 1992. Management: A global perspective, 11th edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. ISBN: 978-0071239462 [4] Rusell P, Jerome GP, 1976. Conflicts in organization: good or bad. Air University Review, 13(8): 13-21. [5] Rico L, 1964. Organizational Conflict: A Framework for Reappraisal. Industrial Management Review, 6 (1): p 67.


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