Definitions of Styles and Learning Styles

July 20, 2017 Communication

2.1.1.1 Definitions of Styles and Learning Styles

  • Manners
  • Before reexamining the literature of larning manners, it is necessary to cognize the definition of “ manners ” . The construct of “ manners ” was foremost put frontward by cognitive psychologists. Brown ( 2002: 104 ) defines manner as “ a term that refers to consistent and instead digesting inclinations or penchants within an person. ” Therefore, manners are those general features of rational operation ( and personality type, as good ) that particularly refer to one as an person, that differentiate one from person else.

  • Learning Manners
  • Sing surveies of larning manners, the most serious job is the confusion of its definitions. In the past two decennaries, the acquisition manners has been used in assorted and sometimes confounding ways in the literature. It is really common to hear different sentiments on its definitions based on different findings in this relatively new research field of larning manners, for each survey defines it from peculiar positions. However, there is non an agree-upon definition of larning manners. Learning manners can be defined in the undermentioned ways.

    Keefe ( 1979, cited in Brown, 2002:10 ) defines larning manners as“ the characteristic cognitive, affectional and physiological behaviours that serve as comparatively stable indexs of how scholars perceive, interact with and react to the acquisition environment. ”

    Dunn et Al. ( 1978:11 ) defines larning manners as“ the manner in which each individual absorbs and retains information and/or accomplishments ; irrespective of how that procedure is described, it is dramatically different for each individual ” .

    Sims & A ; Sims ( 1990, cited in Reid, 2002 ) put frontward that larning manners are typical ways a individual behaves, feels, and processes information in larning state of affairss. Therefore, larning manner is demonstrated in that form of behaviour and public presentation by which an person approaches educational experience.

    Oxford et Al. ( 1991 ) briefly defines the learning manner as the general attacks pupils used to larn a new topic or undertake a new job.

    Tan Dingliang ( 1995: 12 ) defines larning manners as:“ the manner that a scholar frequently adopts in the acquisition procedure, which includes the acquisition schemes that have been stabilized within a scholar, the penchant of some instruction stimulations and larning inclination. ”

    Reid ( 1995 ) summarizes definitions of larning manners as internally basedA features of persons for the consumption or apprehension of new information. Basically learning manners are based upon how a individual perceives and processes information to ease acquisition.

2.1.2 Classs of Learning Styles

Confusion besides exists in the literature on classs of acquisition manners for many same or similar factors researched under the same name. Reid ( 1995 ) divides learning-style research into three major classs: cognitive manners, centripetal acquisition manners, and personality acquisition manners.

2.1.2.1 Cognitive Learning Styles

Cognitive acquisition manners which include field-independent/field-dependent, analytic/global, reflective/impulsive acquisition manners, and Kolb experiential acquisition theoretical account, belong to the facets of psychological science. Among them researches on field -independent/field-dependent ( FI/FD ) attract the most attending of SLA sphere ( Ellis, 1994 ) .

Harmonizing to Reid ( 1995 ) , field-independent scholars learn more efficaciously measure by measure, or consecutive, get downing with analysing facts and continuing to thoughts. They see the trees alternatively of the forest ; whereas field-dependent ( field-sensitive ) scholars learn more efficaciously in contexts, holistically, intuitively, and are particularly sensitive to human relationships and interactions. They see the forest alternatively of the trees.

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Chapelle ( 1995 ) explains that FI/FD refers to how people perceive and memorise information.

Reid ( 1995 ) defines that analytic scholars learn more efficaciously separately ; prefer puting ain ends, and respond to a consecutive, additive, bit-by-bit presentation of stuffs ; whereas planetary ( relational ) scholars learn more efficaciously through concrete experience, and by interactions with others.

Harmonizing to Reid ( 1995 ) , if scholars can larn more efficaciously given clip to see options before reacting, they are brooding scholars ; and they are frequently more accurate linguistic communication scholars ; whereas if scholars can larn more efficaciously being able to react instantly and to take hazards, they are unprompted scholars ; and they are frequently more fluid linguistic communication scholars.

2.1.2.2 Sensory Learning Styles

Harmonizing to Reid ( 1995 ) , centripetal acquisition manners include two dimensions: perceptual acquisition manners and environmental acquisition manners. Perceptual acquisition manners contain four types of acquisition manners which are audile, ocular, haptic and kinaesthetic manners. Auditory scholars learn more efficaciously through the ears ; ocular scholars learn more efficaciously through the eyes ( seeing ) ; haptic scholars learn more efficaciously through touch ( hands-on ) ; kinaesthetic scholars learn more effectual through concrete complete organic structure experiences ( whole-body motion ) .

Physical and sociological manners belong to the environmental acquisition manners. Physical scholars learn more efficaciously when such variables as temperature, sound, visible radiation, nutrient, mobility, clip, and classroom/study agreement are considered. Sociological scholars learn more efficaciously when such variables as group, single, brace and squad work, or degrees of instructor authorization are considered.

2.1.2.3 Affective/Temperament Learning Styles

Learning manners of this type are based on affect, personality, tolerance of ambiguity and encephalon hemisphere.

Myer and Briggs ( 1987, cited in Reid, 1995 ) study that affectional and personality factors influence scholars ‘ acquisition styles a great trade. Mayer-Briggs squad tested four dichotomous manners of working in their Mayer and Briggs Temperament Styles ( MBTI ) which include extraversion-introversion, sensing-perception, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving.

Harmonizing to Reid ( 1995 ) , extroverted and introverted manners belong to extraversion-introversion. Extroverted scholar learns more efficaciously through concrete experience, contract with the outside universe, and relationships with others ; whereas introverted learner learns more efficaciously in single, independent state of affairss that are more involved with thoughts and constructs. Sensing-perception contains feeling and perceptual experience manners. Feeling learner learns more efficaciously from studies of discernible facts and occurrences ; prefers physical, sense-based input. Conversely, perceptual experience scholar learns more efficaciously from meaningful experiences and from relationships with others. In thinking-feeling manners, believing learner learns more efficaciously from impersonal fortunes and logical effect ; whereas feeling scholar learns more efficaciously from personalized fortunes and societal values. And in judging-perceiving manners, judging learner learns more efficaciously by contemplation, and analysis, and processes that involve closing ; conversely, comprehending learner learns more efficaciously through dialogue, feeling, and inductive procedures that postpone closing.

Reid ( 1995 ) suggests that tolerance of ambiguity manners besides belong to the affective/temperament acquisition manners. Ambiguity-tolerant scholar learns more efficaciously when chances for experiment and hazard, every bit good as interaction, are present ; whereas ambiguity-intolerant scholars learns more efficaciously when in less flexible, less hazardous, more structured state of affairss.

Reid ( 1995 ) besides claims that whether the scholar is left-brained or right-brained will act upon scholar ‘s acquisition manners. Left-brained scholars tend toward ocular, analytic, brooding, autonomous acquisition ; conversely, right-brained scholars tend toward auditory, global/relational, unprompted, synergistic acquisition.

2.1.3.1 Sensory Learning Styles

  • Ocular manners
  • Ocular pupils enjoy reading and they prefer stuff in a schoolroom environment to be presented in a ocular format such as books, board work, and press releases.

  • Auditory manners
  • Auditory pupils enjoy talks, conversations and unwritten waies. They prefer stuff in a schoolroom environment that is presented as audile input such as wireless, unwritten direction, unwritten communicating and audiotape.

  • Hands-on manners
  • Hands-on pupils like tonss of motion and bask working with montages, flash cards, and touchable objects. They prefer to be physically involved with undertakings, be givening to prefer activities such as Entire physical Response ( TPR ) and role-play.

2.1.3.3 Personality Learning Styles

  • Extroversion/Introversion

The dimension of manners peculiarly influences schoolroom direction, particularly grouping of pupils. Extrospective pupils perform most fruitfully in a group environment, basking activities that involve other pupils, such as role-play, conversation and other interaction prefering societal ends as opposed to impersonal wagess. Conversely, introspective pupils are stimulated most by their ain interior universe of thoughts and feelings. They like working entirely or else in a brace with person they know good. They dislike tonss of uninterrupted group work in the ESL/EFL schoolroom. This contrast is slightly similar to the classs of group/individual manner made by Reid ( 1987 ) .

In decision, harmonizing to Reid ( 1995 ) , the function of larning manners in foreign linguistic communication acquisition has some basicss of larning manners. She claims that larning manners in the ESL/EFL schoolrooms is based on six hypotheses:

  1. Every individual, pupils and instructors likewise, has a learning manner and larning strengths and failings ;
  2. Learning manners are frequently described as opposite, but really they exist on broad continuum ;
  3. Learning manners are value-neutral ; that is, no 1 manner is better than others ( but it is true that there are pupils with some acquisition manners work better than those with some other learning manners ) ;
  4. Students must be encouraged to “ stretch ” their acquisition manners so that they will be more sceptered in a assortment of larning state of affairss ;
  5. Students ‘ schemes are frequently linked to their acquisition manners ; ( 6 ) Teachers should let their pupils to go cognizant of their learning strengths and failings.
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