Depression Marital Status Women HIV Health And Social Care Essay

The survey aims at mensurating the degrees of depression among the HIV victims. The sample consists of two groups of the same gender i.e. adult females, viz. married and single ( individual ) adult females, between the age group of 25 to 35. Hence, the sample comprises of 60 adult females, 30 of each belonging to get married and single ( individual ) class severally. The sample besides belongs to the patients fit in to the governmental rehab centre, and they are being administered by the research worker through the standardised questionnaire – depression graduated table designed by Aaron T. Beck. The scale touches assorted facets like temper, , self-dissatisfaction, guilt, self-destructive thoughts, societal backdown, pessimism, sense of failure, deficiency of satisfaction, guilty feeling, sense of penalty, self hate, self accusals, self-punitive wants, shouting enchantments, crossness, indecision, organic structure image, work suppression, sleep perturbation, fatigability, loss of appetency, weight loss, bodily preoccupation, and loss of libido.


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Everyone feels down or at loss at some clip or the other during his or her life. In fact, ephemeral feelings of unhappiness or disheartenment are absolutely normal, peculiarly during hard times. Life is full of emotional ups and downs. But when the “ down ” times are long lasting or interfere with an person ‘s ability to map, that individual may be enduring from a common, but terrible emotional reverse which is universally known as depression. ( NIMH ) .Depression is an unwellness which involves the organic structure, temper and ideas which affect the manner a individual chows and slumbers, the manner one feels about oneself and the manner one assumes about things. Depression is a province of low temper and repulsion to activity. ( NIMH ) A down individual might hold one or any of these inclinations like experiencing sad, dying, empty, detering, helpless, worthless, guilty and frequently loses involvement in activities which were enjoyable to them earlier. They might besides hold symptoms like loss of appetency or over feeding and even self-destructive ideations. depression is an change in temper which affects a individual ‘s ability to work twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours. ( NIMH )

In the most up-to-date study from 2000, the World Health Organization ( WHO ) reported that depression is the 4th most onerous disease in the universe, with more than 120 million people enduring from it worldwide and it is expected that by 2020 it will be the taking planetary disease load ( WHO ) . Depression can look at any age. Anybody can see depression, be it adolescents, teens, grownups and if looked from the gender position, both work forces and adult females. However, Womans are more likely to go more down than work forces. Womans are about twice every bit likely as work forces to see depression. “ Womans are genuinely more down than work forces, chiefly due to their experience of being female in our modern-day civilization ” ( Dr. Ellen McGrath, a psychologist in Brooklyn Heights ) .

As with other serious unwellnesss such as malignant neoplastic disease, bosom disease or shot, nevertheless, HIV frequently can be accompanied by depression. Depression is a really common status for people with HIV ( Depression and HIV, October 12. 2009, AIDS info ) . HIV ( human immunodeficiency virus ) is a lentivirus which is a member of retrovirus household, that infects cells of the immune system, destructing or impairing their map. It causes AIDS ( acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ) , a status in worlds in which the immune system begins to neglect taking to life- baleful timeserving infections. The infection with HIV occurs due to the transportation of blood, seeds, vaginal fluid, pre- semen or chest milk. The four major paths of transmittal are insecure sex, contaminated acerate leafs, chest milk and transmittal from an septic female parent to her babe at birth ( perpendicular transmittal ) . HIV in worlds is considered pandemic by the World Health Organization ( WHO ) .HIV adult females are more likely to be depressed in comparing to work forces ( adult females and depression, November 2009 )

AIDS continues to be a major planetary wellness priority.The figure of people populating with HIV worldwide in 2008, was around 33.4 million, Of which the adult females constituted of 15.7 million.The entire figure of people populating with the virus in 2008 was more than 20 % higher than the figure in 2000. Asia which is place to 60 % of the universe ‘s population, and is following to the sub-Saharan Africa in footings of people populating with HIV ( 4.7 million ) in 2008. India being one of the most populated states of the universe, approximately half of Asia ‘s HIV prevalence. The proportion of adult females HIV rose from 19 % in 2000 to 35 % in 2008. It is estimated that around 2.3 million people are presently populating with HIV. ( UNAIDS ( 2008 ) ‘India: State Situation ‘ )

Theoretical base

HIV being the deathly disease, researches have been go arounding around it. Surveies have been done in relation to depression and HIV ( Rabkin J, Rabkin R, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY. ) where the per centum of HIV-positive agony from depression and the badness of depression was measured. A survey found that depression was under-diagnosed among HIV-positive patients which was associated with emphasis, solitariness, low attachment, and insecure sex ( Depression in Patients With HIV Is Under-Diagnosed: A Cross-sectional Study in Denmark February 17, 2010 ) . Depression is common in people with sexually transmitted infections, a Canadian research workers study in the December edition of Sexually Transmitted Infection ( Michael Carter, Published: 18 December 2008 ) . The survey had 21500 individuals,15-49 old ages of age and it showed 8 % were sick persons of depression and work forces were less likely than adult females ( 6 % and 10 % severally ) . Some other researches aound this subject are Other reseaches are fects of Quality of Life and Coping on Depression among Adults Populating with HIV/AIDS ( C. Gore-Felton, C. Koopman, D. Spiegel, M. Vosvick, M. Brondino, and A. WinninghamEf, J Health Psychol, SeptemberA 1, A 2006 ; 11 ( 5 ) : 711 – 729. ) ; Use of Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors in the Treatment of Depression in Adults with HIV ( J. Caballero and M. C NahataAnn. Pharmacother. , JanuaryA 1, A 2005 ; 39 ( 1 ) : 141 – 145. ) ; Predicting Fatigue and Depression in HIV-Positive Gay Men ( J. Barroso, J. S. Preisser, J. Leserman, B. N. Gaynes, R. N. Golden, and D. N. Evans, Psychosomatics, AugustA 1, A 2002 ; 43 ( 4 ) : 317 – 325. ) ; Depression among Patients with HIV/AIDS: A Treatment Dilemma ( G. P. Overman and S. L. Anderson, Journal of Pharmacy Practice, DecemberA 1, A 2001 ; 14 ( 6 ) : 540 – 550.0 ) . Depression kills HIV/Aids patients faster than the virus within them ( Nirmala M Nagaraj, Bangalore, TNN, Dec 1, 2009 ) . It has besides proven that depression degrees are more in HIV+ adult females than HIV+ work forces ( Women and Depression, November 2009, but the matrimonial position of adult females had n’t been touched yet, hence research is ought to be done.


The Beck ‘s Depression Inventory ( BDI ) , designed by Aaron. T. Beck, is being used to mensurate the degrees of depression among the HIV victims. It consists of 21 inquiries, each designed to measure a specific symptom common among the people with depression. BDI is divided into two chief subdivisions viz. , one comprising with the inquiries pertinent to emotional symptoms and the other incorporating inquiries pertinent to physiological symptoms. However, a 2nd version of the stock list ( BDI-II ) was besides developed but the 1st version of it is being personally administered by the research worker to the samples. The sample comprises of 30 adult females between the age group of 25-35, belonging to two different classs, married and single ( individual ) severally.


The critical rating has encounterd the undermentioned restrictions, and the survey would be executable because entree to the patients would be a officially permitted attack as the research worker would be provided with an hallmark missive from its establishment, which could be presented to the rehabilitation centres.


Depression though is common in both work forces and adult females, depression in the latter affects the household straight at that place by the society adamantly, peculiarly in India, where adult females are ever viewed weak and low-level to work forces. They are the more ignored slot and besides face terrible societal stigma in the society. Hence, this subject could keep good range in groking depression in adult females, and an effort is being made to switch the cogwheels towards the encouraging and soothing of the adult females victims.



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